In Vivo Studies

In another study, rats were fed C3G (2 g/kg diet) for 14 d (Tsuda et al., 1998). There was no difference between the control animals and the experimental group for weight gain, food intake, liver weight, and serum triglycerides, phospholipids, and antioxidants (a-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and uric acid). Free and total cholesterol was lower in the C3G-fed rats. Serum was subjected to ex vivo oxidation by two methods: 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and CuSO4. Initially, the serum TBARS from the C3G rats were slightly but significantly lower than that of the control group, but the differences became more pronounced with time in both reaction systems. C3G did not appear to have an antioxi-dant effect in rat liver.

A small study of healthy Danish women (N = 9) found no difference in antioxidant status after drinking 500 mL of blueberry juice, but increased antioxidant activity was maximal 1-2 h after drinking an equal amount of cranberry juice (Pedersen et al., 2000). In a Finnish study, 60-year old men consumed 100 g of frozen berries (bilberries, lingonberries, and black currants), 600 mg antioxidant vitamins, or a calcium placebo for eight weeks (Marniemi et al., 2000). Although decreases in LDL oxidation and increases in antioxidant activity were not significant at the 5% level, a short-term (5-hr) study found a significant increase (p = 0.039) in antioxidant activity following berry consumption.

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Berry Boosters

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