Antioxidant Properties Of Wine

A number of in vitro studies have reported that wines possess intrinsic antioxidant activity. Maxwell et al. (1994) reported that red wines themselves had about 30fold greater antioxidant activity than normal human serum, and the contribution of various polyphenols to the total antioxidant activity of red wine has been described (Rice-Evans et al., 1996). It was also observed that the total reactive antioxidant potential of red wines was 6 to 10 times higher than white wine (Campos and Lissi,...

Occurrence And Contents

The occurrence, content, and type of phenolics in oilseeds is dictated by the species involved phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids are often prevalent in many oilseeds. Canola and other cruciferae seeds contain considerable amounts of phenolic compounds compared to other oilseeds. The total content of phenolic acids, including phenylpropanoids, in defatted rapeseed flour has been reported to be approximately 623-1281 mg 100g (Krygier et al., 1982 Kozlowska et al., 1983a,b Naczk and Shahidi,...

Urinary Tract Infections

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2001), urinary tract infections (UTI) resulted in over 8.5 million doctor visits in 1997. These infections are painful and can lead to serious infections of other organs, usually the kidneys. Interstitial cystitis afflicts about 500,000 Americans annually 90 of these sufferers are women. As much as half of the older women in long-term care facilities or hospitals may suffer from UTIs (Monane, et al.1995). UTIs...

Role Of Natural Products

What nutritionists and physicians define as phytochemicals are called secondary metabolites or natural products by plant biologists (Croteau et al., 2000). Classifying certain metabolites as either primary or secondary is sometimes difficult. For example, chlorophyll, while being necessary for primary metabolism, is classified as a tetraterpene, which is normally considered a secondary metabolite. In general, primary metabolites have key roles in the physiological processes central to plants,...

Cell Culture And Animal Studies That Show Lycopene May Prevent Cancer

Recent experiments suggest that lycopene may function as an anticancer agent (Rauscher et al., 1998, Tinkler et al., 1994). In vitro studies showed that lycopene inhibited the growth of human leukemic (Amir et al., 1999), endometrial, lung, and mammary cancer cells (Karas et al., 2000 Lowe et al., 1999). In some cases, lycopene is more effective than either alpha- or beta-carotene (Levy et al., 1995, Tinkler et al., 1994). Animal studies have shown that liver (Astorg et al., 1997...

Polyphenols In Grapes And Wine

Polyphenols or phenolic compounds found in the plant kingdom account for anywhere from 4000-8000 individual compounds Fero-Luzzi and Serafini, 1995 Dresoti, 1996 King and Young, 1999 Croft, 1998 Bravo, 1998 . These compounds are the secondary by-products of plant metabolism and have often evolved to help protect the plant from environmental stressors and predators. Consequently, in addition to grapes and wine, polyphenols are found in many commonly eaten fruits and vegetables, such as apples,...

Introduction

Echinacea-based phytomedicines are among the most popular herbal products sold in North America and Europe Brevoort, 1995 . Diversity of products, species, and phytochemicals is a key feature of this herbal medicine. There are over 800 Echinacea purpurea products in Europe alone Bauer, 1998 which are based on different plant parts and widely different extraction or formulation techniques. There is a large number of other species and varieties in the genus. The phytochemistry of 1-58716-083-8 02...

Improvement Of Echinacea Quality

Recent studies by Livesy et al. 2000 and Bauer 1997 show that Echinacea markers are unstable in juice, during harvesting and drying, and in storage. However, losses can be minimized by rapid drying during harvest, protection from oxidation in storage, and use of cooler storage temperatures. Improvement in phytochemical marker consistency and amount can be achieved in a number of ways. For example, phytochemical constituents are well known to be influenced by soil nutrients, and we have recently...

Biosynthesis And Health Effects

Occurence Gallic Acid Biosynthes

Phenolic compounds are the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants, and constitute several thousands of compounds. Phenolics in plants are primarily responsible for their protection from free radical stress under photosynthetic conditions and ultraviolet light, and act against herbivores and pathogens Shahidi, 2000a . They also contribute to the variety of color and taste of foods containing them Shahidi and Naczk, 1995 . In addition, they serve as wound-healing agents in plants...

Index

Aberrant crypt foci ACF , 88, 89, 92-93 Absorption, See also Pharmacokinetics anthocyanins, 35 interactions, 82 tocopherols and tocotrienols, 65-67 wine polyphenols, 43, 46 Acidity, 31, 32 Adapto-electroretinograms AERG , 28 Adhesins, 31, 32-33 Adverse effects, 3, 82 beta-carotene, 165 crucifer isothiocyanates, 89 lectins, 151 polyphenols, 50-51 wine polyphenols, 50-51 Aflatoxin B1, 29 Aging effects AMD , 28, 184-185 estrogen loss and cognitive dysfunction, 106-107, 110 neuroprotective effect...

Bioengineering

Bioengineering can be defined as the alteration of the gene expression of any biological organism by molecular methodologies. Bioengineering in any metabolic pathway requires that all steps within the pathway be defined, the regulatory points identified, and the stability of the intermediates determined Scott et al., 2000 . Phytochemicals are often differentially expressed both spatially and temporally. For example, the concentration of alkamides differs among plant organs in Echinacea purpurea...

Complexities In The Existing Literature

The data discussed in this chapter suggest that dietary intake of soy protein including the isoflavones, has health benefits in the primate brain that may protect against AD-relevant protein modifications involving the microtubule protein tau. Thus, these data suggest that incorporating soy containing isoflavones into human diets may be neuroprotective. Yet scientific data are never perfect, and in this relatively new area of research on the effects of soy in the nervous system, the data are...

References

Does fibre-rich food containing animal lignan precursors protect against both colon and breast cancer An extention of the fibre hypothesis, Gastroenterology, 86 761-764. Adlercreutz, H. and Mazur, W. 1997. Phytoestrogens and Western diseases, Ann. Med. 29 95-120. Amarowicz, R., Wanasundara, P.K.J.P.D., and Shahidi, F. 1994. Chromatographic separation of flaxseed phenolics, Nahrung, 4 520-526. Bakke, J.E. and Klusterman, H.J. 1956. A new diglucoside from flaxseed, Proc. N....

Conclusion

HMPs can be powerful medications which may cause both benefit and harm. In order to embark on reliable risk-benefit analyses, we need to know more about their clinical efficacy and about their adverse effects. An evidence-based approach to medical herbalism seems to be the most rational way ahead. This notion is in agreement with the opinion of 88 to 90 of users of HMPs who state that research into the safety and efficacy determines their product choice Blumenthal, 2000 . Increased effect of...

Contributors

Department of Biology University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario Eastern Cereals and Oilseeds Research Centre Agriculture and Agrifood Canada Ottawa, Ontario Department of Biology University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario Department of Physics Florida International University Miami, Florida Western Human Nutrition Research Center U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Davis, California Human Nutrition University of Maine Orono, Maine Division of Carcinogenesis and Molecular...

Contents

Mercapturic Pathway

ITCs as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Tumorigenesis and Structure-Activity ITCs as Chemopreventive Agents for Tumorigenesis at Other Organ Sites 89 Mechanisms of Tumor Inhibition by Chemopreventive Effect of SFN and PEITC Against AOM-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci with F344 Inhibition of Growth of Human Prostate Tumors by SFN and PEITC 93 Metabolism, Tissue, Distribution, and Pharmacokinetics of ITCs 94 Rodent Human The Role of Dietary ITCs in the Protection Against Human Cancers 98...