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Nutritional assessment is the tool by which the nutritionist evaluates the patient for maintenance of normal growth and health, risk factors contributing to disease, and early detection and treatment of nutritional deficiencies and excesses. Comparison of an individual with an established norm provides a basis for objective recommendations and evaluation of nutrition therapy.12 Although much information has been published on the use on increasingly sophisticated techniques, clinical judgment...

Estimation of Mature Height

Several methods are available for predicting mature height each considers different variables and is an estimate only.10 12 Standards. Tables 2-1 and 2-2 are Fels parent-specific standards for height.10 They are sex- and age-specific and are calculated by adding the biologic mother's height to the biologic father's height in centimeters and dividing by two. This parental midpoint should estimate the height of the child at specific ages. Tanner and colleagues found that height at 3 years, more...

Length

Measured with appropriate equipment and technique, length is a simple and reproducible growth parameter that provides, in conjunction with weight, significant information.'-2 Standards. The NCHS growth charts sec Figures 2-5 to 2-8 are used for standards of length. 5 Interpretation. Length lor age below the 5th percentile indicates a severe deficit, and measurements that range between the 5th and l th percentiles should be eval- 0 3 6 9 li 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 AGE IN MONTHS Figure 2-5....

Z Score

Score Pediatric

An alternative way to express height, weight, and weight for height is Z score, which denotes units of standard deviation from the median. It allows the clinician to locate an observation on the normal curve by the number of standard deviations it is from the center of the curve, and thus STATURE N INCHES 335 364 374 30.4 41J 43J 453 A72 tUS 513 S 1 SS I 57.1 59,1 61X1 STATURE N INCHES 335 364 374 30.4 41J 43J 453 A72 tUS 513 S 1 SS I 57.1 59,1 61X1 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1 125 130 13 140 145...

Body Mass Index

Nchs Percentiles For Children

Body mass index is determined by div iding the person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. The formula for BMI is SO 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 TOO 105 110 LENGTH IN CM Figure 2-10. Top. head circumference by age percentiles for boys birth to 36 months . Bottom, weight by length percentiles for boys birth to 36 months . BM1 correlates well with adiposity in adults and because of its relativ e ease and accuracy of basic measures, is recommended for use in screening for...

Weight for Height

This ratio more accurately assesses body build and distinguishes wasting acute malnutrition from stunting chronic malnutrition . Standards. Figures 2-11 and 2-I2 chart weight from height for measurements taken by the NCHS.-' Interpretation. Measurements that fall near the 50th percentile indicate appropriate weight for height the AGE IN MONTHS 9 12 15 10 21 24 27 30 33 36 AGE IN MONTHS 9 12 15 10 21 24 27 30 33 36 60 56 SO 65 70 75 SO 85 90 95 100 106 110 LENGTH IN CM 60 56 SO 65 70 75 SO 85 90...

Head Circumference

Stature Percentile

Head circumference can be influenced by nutritional status until the age of 36 months, but deficiencies are manifest in weight and height before being seen in brain growth. Routine examination also screens for other possible influences on brain growth. Figure 2-7. Stature by age percentiles for girls 2 to 18 years . Figure 2-7. Stature by age percentiles for girls 2 to 18 years . Standards. Figures 2-9 and 2-10 are NCHS growth Interpretation. Measurements below the 5th percentile may indicate...

Skinfold Thickness

Nearly half of the body fat in humans is in the subcutaneous layer, and measurements of this deposit can lead to accurate estimates of total body fat. Skinfold thickness measurements are accurate, simple, and reproducible and can be used to monitor changes in total body fat. Standards. The measurements in Table 2-3 were compiled by Karlberg and colleagues and are based on longitudinal data of 200 Swedish children in the first 3 vears of life. ' Measurements for childhood through adult life were...

Weight

Height Centile Charts For Boys

Body weight is a reproducible growth parameter and a good index of acute and chronic nutritional status. An accurate age. sex. and reference standard is necessary for evaluation. Weight is evaluated in three ways weight for age. weight for height, and body mass index BMI . Weight for age compares the individual to reference data for weight attained at any given age whereas weight for height looks at the appropriateness of the individual's weight compared to his or her own height. For example,...

Growth Velocity

Growth Velocity Pediatrics

Growth velocity is a simple and reproducible measure that evaluates change in rate of growth over a specified time period it generally is expressed in centimeters per year. It is a more sensitive way of assessing growth failure or slowed growth, and is particularly helpful in the early identification of children with undernutrition. Standards. Figures 2-13 and 2-14 are growth velocity charts, based on growth data of North American children.1' Additional reference data for 1-month increments 97...