Organic Farming Manual
Adams, N.R., Liu, S.M., Briegel, J.R. and Greeff, J.C. (2000) Protein metabolism in skin and muscle of sheep selected for or against staple strength. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 51, 541-546. Agricultural Research Council (1984) The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK. Black, J.L., Robards, G.E. and Thomas, R. (1973) Effects of protein and energy intakes on the wool growth of Merino wethers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 399-412. Harris, P.M., Dellow, D.W. and Sinclair, B.R. (1989) Preliminary 'in vivo' measurements of protein and energy metabolism in the skin of sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 879-888. Harris, P.M., Sinclair, B.R., Treloar, B.P. and Lee, J. (1997) Short-term changes in whole body and skin sulphur amino acid metabolism of sheep in response to supplementary cysteine. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48, 137-146. Lee, J., Harris, P.M., Sinclair, B.R....
Organic farming offers choice an alternative to conventional agriculture and an alternative for you at point of purchase. Sold fresh, frozen, and canned, organic products have grown in quality, availability, and popularity And they're often a good option. Pesticide-free Maybe and maybe not. Organic farmers may use insects and crop rotation to control pests that damage crops. Certain insects, for example, are natural predators for other insects that cause crop damage. Or farmers may use chemicals found naturally in the environment, such as sulfur, nicotine, copper, or pyrethrins, as pesticides. When these methods don't work, organic farmers can use other substances (biological, botanical, or synthetic) from a list approved by the National Organic Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. To compare, pesticide levels with conventional farming are set low, so they're not harmful to health see Pesticides Carefully Controlled earlier in this chapter. With organic farming, manure,...
Organic foods are foods that have been grown without most conventional pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, antibiotics, or hormones and without genetic engineering or irradiation. Organic farmers use, for example, animal and plant manures to increase soil fertility and crop rotation to decrease pest problems. The goal of organic farming is to preserve the natural fertility and productivity of the land. This chapter's Hot Topic goes into more depth about organic foods.
More recently, interest has turned to issues related to the impact of this intensified agriculture and fertilizer use on the environment and to greater interest in fertilizer use efficiency to help avoid pollution of land and water resources (96). Research is conducted on dairy manure management to protect water quality from nutrient pollution from the large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus that may be added to heavily manured land (97,98). In its most extreme manifestation, this interest in avoiding excessive fertilization of farmland has given rise to increased practice of organic farming, where synthetic inorganic fertilizers are eschewed in favor of organic sources of nutrients. Regardless of whether nutrients are supplied from organic or synthetic sources, it is still the same inorganic elements that plants are absorbing.
Howard Lyman, director of the Eating with Conscience Campaign, Humane Society of the United States, is a national spokesperson for sustainable organic agriculture, family-run farms, and an all-plant diet. Lyman is available to speak to groups anywhere in the country. For more information call (301) 258-3051.
. . . how sustainable agriculture fits within food production Sustainable agriculture is a way to allocate resources for the needs of the current generation, without compromising the future. Many strategies to achieve this goal are local, for example, encouraging local food production and supporting local farmers' markets. Others may be practiced by farmers anywhere around the globe, such as conserving natural resources, following ecologically sound farming practices, and working as communities to promote agriculture and the environment. To be successful, the ability to feed the world's growing population and to support local economies with minimal environmental impact will require a mul-tifaceted approach to food production, which includes local sustainable agriculture. For ways to support local growers through farmers' markets, see chapter 11. Refer to 'The 'Eco' Kitchen in chapter 12 for ways to conserve resources as you handle food. what are hydroponically grown foods They're...
Sustainable agriculture is a method of farming that minimizes environmental damage and depletion of resources. To be successful, sustainable agriculture requires a commitment from food producers as well as food consumers. JLM Visuals. Reproduced by permission. Farmers markets. Buying fresh food from local farmers markets supports family farms and circulates money within the community. Organic foods should be purchased, if possible, since they are grown with little or no artificial pesticides or fertilizers.
A food system can be characterized as being local, regional, national, or global. The word sustainable is often associated with the sustainable agriculture movement, which had its beginnings in North America in the 1980s. This period was characterized by a wave of bank foreclosures of farm oper-
Spirulina is grown in marginal land unsuitable for conventional agriculture. It can also be grown in sea water, and thus there is a vast potential to grow it in the coastal areas of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world where again the land is not useful for conventional agriculture.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp.
USDA Agricultural Research Service in Raleigh, North Carolina, showed that peanuts have 1.7 to 3.7 micrograms of resveratrol per gram of nuts. Compare that to the 0.7 micrograms of resveratrol in a glass of red grape juice or 0.6 to 8.0 micrograms of resveratrol per gram of red wine.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient 1 Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, 1 http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp.
PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 1989-1991, US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, NHANES III Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, Center for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics.
Today, the Mediterranean region is characterized by a high increase in modernization. The traditional diet of the Mediterranean region has been affected by modernization, particularly in the area of agricultural production for trade. The countries of North Africa and the Middle East struggle the most with modernization problems. This has led to an increase in the dependence on costly food imports from outside the region. While the Greek economy remains rooted in agriculture and the government places a strong emphasis on agricultural reforms, Middle Eastern nations face constraints such as high rates of urbanization, leading to the loss of vital agricultural land.
Urban growth and infrastructure development has reduced the amount of prime agricultural land. The United States, for example, loses two acres of farmland every minute to urban growth between 1992 and 1997. According to the United Nations projections, 4.9 billion people or 60 percent of the world population will be living in urban areas by 2030. It is not clear how this population can be adequately fed and nourished. Increasing population also means increased quantities of food to be distributed, which increases the amount of trucks used to transport the food, thereby contributing to traffic congestion and air pollution.
In the United States, only limited objections have been raised to genetically modified foods, which can be more nutritious, disease-resistant, flavorful, or cheaper than natural foods. In Europe, by contrast, consumers and governments have focused on the potential dangers of genetic modification, which include unforeseen resistance to antibiotics and herbicides, the spread of dangerous allergens, and damage to livestock, public health, and the environment. Health disasters such as the mad cow outbreak have left many European consumers with a distrust of corporations and regulatory bodies and a determination to understand where their food comes from. While some genetically modified crops are allowed in Europe, the European Union has instituted strict regulatory requirements for labeling and traceability and has effectively placed a moratorium on approving new crops. These regulations have caused friction with the U.S. government by limiting the import of U.S. agricultural products,...
As in other agricultural products, lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic are potential contaminants in algal products since they are components of industrial pollution and occur in trace amounts in certain agricultural fertilizers. It is known that certain microalgae are effective accumulators of heavy metals.37 The production of high-quality Spirulina therefore requires the use of high-grade nutrients and a meticulous and routine analysis of heavy metals in the culture medium and the product. This is particularly important in situations where food-grade Spirulina is to be produced from earthen ponds or natural lakes. The soil in certain regions may have a high content of heavy metals that can easily be accumulated by the algae.
In recent years the growth rates of world agricultural production and crop yields have slowed. This has raised fears that the world may not be able to grow enough food and other commodities to ensure that future populations are adequately fed. However, the slowdown has occurred not because of shortages of land or water but rather because demand for agricultural products has also slowed. This is mainly because world population growth rates have been declining since the late 1960s, and fairly high levels of food consumption per person are now being reached in many countries, beyond which further rises will be limited. It also true that a high share of the world's population remains in poverty and hence lacks the necessary income to translate its needs into effective demand. As a result, the growth in world demand for agricultural products is expected to fall from an average 2.2 per year over the past 30 years to an average 1.5 per year for the next 30 years. In developing countries the...
The relationships between whole body amino acid patterns and amino acid requirement patterns discussed above are very similar to the ideal protein concept that has been advocated for use in expressing the amino acid requirements of pigs (Agricultural Research Council, 1981). The ideal protein concept is based on the idea that there should be a direct correlation between the whole body amino acid pattern of the animal and the dietary amino acid requirements of the animal. In addition, since lysine is normally the first-limiting amino acid in most feedstuffs, the requirements for the other indispensable amino acids are expressed relative to the lysine requirement. Thus, if one knows the dietary lysine requirement and the whole body amino acid composition of an animal, then one should be able to estimate the dietary requirement for the remaining indispensable amino acids relative to the lysine requirement. A comparison of the amino acid requirement values as determined by conventional...
Although accurate estimates of the amino acid requirements for growth in the pig are necessary for efficient dietary formulation, considerable variation in the published experimentally determined recommendations is evident. The comprehensive reviews by Re rat and Lougnon (1968) and Rerat (1972) demonstrate the degree of this variation. The Agricultural Research Council (1981), in a technical review, emphasized the inadequacies of information concerning amino acid requirements of the growing pig. Estimates of requirements for amino acids were presented and some values are given in Table 11.1. Table 11.1. Determined requirements of the growing pig for some amino acids. (Agricultural Research Council, 1981.) Table 11.1. Determined requirements of the growing pig for some amino acids. (Agricultural Research Council, 1981.)
The efficiency of utilization of dietary protein for ruminant livestock can be quantified using factorial analysis (Agricultural Research Council, 1984). The net efficiency for wool production is defined as the ratio of wool protein increment to the absorbed amino acids partitioned to wool growth. Absorbed amino acids for wool growth are calculated by subtracting the maintenance and weight gain requirement from the total absorption in non-reproductive animals (Standing Committee on Agriculture, 1990). Alternatively, the gross efficiency, defined as wool protein over the total absorbed amino acids, may be used.
Taking vitamins with other vitamins may also improve body levels of nutrients. For example, in 1993, scientists at the National Cancer Institute and the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service gave one group of volunteers a vitamin E capsule plus a
Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of U.S. agriculture. The number of organic farmers is increasing by about 12 percent per year. The Organic Foods Production Act (2000) offers a national definition for the term organic, as well as the methods, practices, and substances that can be used in producing and handling organic crops and livestock. Common organic foods include fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Meat, poultry, and eggs can also be organic. This Hot Topic uses a question-and-answer format to help you learn about what organic foods are and what they aren't. Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides, petroleum-based fertilizers or sewage...
However, organic farming methods can enhance soil fertility, resulting in an increased concentration of some minerals and phtyochemicals in organic food. Organic food cannot be guaranteed pesticide-free, though organic farmers use only naturally occurring pesticides such as sulfur, copper, nicotine, and Bacillus thuringiensis (a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects). Organic foods may contain pesticide residues that have drifted from farm to farm, or residual pesticides found in soil or water, though the amounts of such residues are certainly greater in conventionally produced foods, where pesticides are directly applied to the crops. Organic agriculture is generally seen to be environmentally friendly. Organic agriculture decreases the amount of nitrogen-containing chemicals that seep into groundwater supplies, decreases soil deterioration via crop rotation, and minimizes exposure of farm workers and livestock to potentially harmful compounds. However, use of animal...
If you've scanned the shopping aisles you know organic foods, once available mostly from health food stores, now sell in mainstream supermarkets. Organic farming is expanding fast not only with fruits, vegetables, and grains, but also eggs, dairy foods, meat, poultry, packaged foods, oils, baby foods, and even wine and beer Just what are organic foods And how do they compare with their conventionally produced counterparts
Overall, the conclusion from available data on the use of natural resources, impacts on wild areas, and pollution is that, on average, the negative environmental impact of meat production by animal husbandry on all dimensions of the environmental problem discussed tends to be much larger than that of its equivalent based on reference-crop (soybean) production. One should, however, keep in mind that, in practice, crop production is, to some extent, dependent on manure production generated by animal husbandry. Moreover, for organic farming, this dependence is overwhelming. Furthermore, as pointed out Section II.A, much agricultural land is unsuitable for cropping, but is fit for sustaining livestock farming. Also, there may be specific cases in which the environmental case against animal meat is not clear-cut at all. This, for instance, is exemplified by a case comparing meat from animals grazing on extensively stocked uncultivated areas with their nutritional equivalent in vegetables...
The presence of overhead shade and a complete cocoa canopy conserves nutrients, protects the soil from erosion, and conserves rainfall by preventing soil run-off, while the breaking down of the leaf litter recycles nutrients to the soil. In addition, the use of shade trees and the fact that so many plots of cocoa (though still often a monoculture) are very small, increases biodiversity in and around many cocoa farms. In the light of these observations, a number of authorities are suggesting that cocoa is an environmentally beneficial crop, potentially having a useful role in systems of sustainable agriculture. Further research is required to quantify these benefits and make comparisons with other annual and perennial tropical crops.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp.
Mata et ai, 1995 Rodehutscord et ai, 1999 White et ai, 2000, 2001). It also improves fibre production in Cashmere and Angora goats (Souri et al., 1998a). In Merino sheep, wool growth responded linearly to the levels of the rumen protected Met supplemented from 1 g day-1 up to 5 g day-1 (Mata and Masters, 1999). A regression analysis of the wool growth (g day-1) to the amount of Met supplement (g day ) gave a wool protein Met ratio of 0.72. In the same experiment a 5 g day-1 live-weight gain was also obtained for each gram of Met supplementation, which was equivalent to about 0.8 g day 1 protein accretion (Agricultural Research Council, 1984). Therefore a total retention of protein in both the body and wool was 1.5 g g-1 of Met supplemented, or 2.6 g N retention g 1 Met N. The amount of Met in this 1.5 g protein can be estimated to be about 0.012 g, so the ratio of retained Met in protein retention to the supplementation is only 0.011. In Angora goats the responses to supplementation...
Johanna Dwyer is the director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center, professor of medicine (nutrition) and community health at the Tufts University Medical School, and professor of nutrition at Tufts University School of Nutrition. She is also senior scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Since mid-2003 until the present, Dr. Dwyer is on loan from Tufts University to the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, where she is responsible for several large projects, including development of an analytically substantiated dietary supplement database and other dietary supplement databases, development of research on the assessment of dietary supplement intake and motivations for their use, and other topics. Dr. Dwyer was the assistant administrator for human nutrition, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture from 2001 to 2002. Earlier in her career, Dwyer...
The resulting data facilitate molecular analysis of bioactive food components and identification of appropriate biomarkers that target individuals who are at risk and predisposed to cancer. Ever-increasing evidence, including that presented in this volume, substantiate the beneficial effects of certain nutrients and interactions between nutrients in the carcinogenesis pathway, paving the way for modification of nutritional requirements as a cancer prevention strategy. In the future, diet, nutrition, and cancer prevention will be included in public health programs that target cancer risk management in the population at large, and on individual programs that focus on particular cancer risk profiles. Concomitantly, agricultural sciences will continue to develop improved plants through both traditional breeding techniques and genetic modification and food industries will
For example, some cotton and corn varieties have been enhanced through biotechnology to contain Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a common soil bacterium that lets corn protect itself from certain insects that eat and destroy plants. That lowers the use of insecticides. Bt itself isn't new, however. Organic farmers have sprayed it on their crops for more than forty years.
Many of my clients wonder if they should spend their food budgets on organic fruits and vegetables. Are organic foods better, safer, and more nutritious The simple answer is they can be better for the small farmers and are possibly better for the environment, but they are not significantly better in terms of nutritional value. It's debatable whether they are significantly safer. Here's a closer look at the story as we know it to date. To start, organic refers to the way farmers grow and process fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Only foods that are grown and processed according to USDA organic standards can be labeled organic. (Note The food-label terms natural, hormone free, and free range do not necessarily mean organic.) Organic farmers do not use chemical fertilizers, insecticides, or weed killers on crops.
If you cannot get wild food, or it is impractical, please eat organic. You deserve it. You are worth it You and your family are worth more than anything on Earth give your family the best fuel possible. The organic farmers also deserve your support for not spraying pesticides
Farmyard manure In history an application of 70-100 m3 ha-1 farmyard manure or green compost every year or every second year was a normal practice to keep the soil structure of greenhouse soils in a good condition. The quantities applied nowadays are more focussed on the possibilities within the regulations. There is a great variation in the composition among the deliveries of soil improvers. Therefore a secure application within the limits set, often requires a chemical analysis of each delivery of a soil improver. This for example is nowadays obligatory within Dutch regulations.
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