What Types of Substances Are Found in the Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids

In our body fluids we would find small dissolved substances such as ions, amino acids, and the carbohydrate glucose, as well as larger proteins. The

Figure 2.1 Basic cell structure and functions.

major ions (or electrolytes) would include potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), phosphate (PO43-), and bicarbonate (HCO3-). As demonstrated in Figure 2.2, all of these and other substances will be found in both the intracellular and extracellular fluids. However, the concentration of substances dissolved in either fluid varies and the plasma membrane is bestowed with the awesome responsibility of functioning as a barrier between the two mediums.

Figure 2.2 The concentration of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) is more abundant in the extracellular fluid while potassium (K+) is more concentrated in the intracellular fluid. These electrolytes move down their concentration gradients through channels and are pumped against their concentration gradient by energy (ATP) requiring pumps.

Figure 2.2 The concentration of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) is more abundant in the extracellular fluid while potassium (K+) is more concentrated in the intracellular fluid. These electrolytes move down their concentration gradients through channels and are pumped against their concentration gradient by energy (ATP) requiring pumps.

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