Other dietary and behavioral factors that can impact the proper growth and development of an unborn infant include caffeine, alcohol, and smoking. It should be understood that throughout pregnancy, the unborn infant is vulnerable to the effects of nutritional deficiency and toxicity as well as to the impact of harmful substances. However, this is especially true during the embryonic period. Proper nutritional, behavioral, and environmental care should be taken throughout pregnancy to increase the likelihood of a healthy offspring.
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