Abbreviations

1,25(OH)2D

25-OHD

3-MH

AEDF

AAPCON

ADHD

b-FGF

BSDL

BSAP

BAER

BCAA

BMUS

VCO2

1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3-methylhistidine absent end-diastolic flow adenosine triphosphate adenosine-5-diphosphate American Academy of Pediatric Committee on Nutrition angiotensin converting enzyme apical endocytic complex appropriate-for-gestational-age arachidonic acid arcuate arginine vasopressin atrial natriuretic peptide attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder basal membrane basic-fibroblast growth factor bile salt dependent lipase bioelectrical impedance analysis bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy blood urea nitrogen bone mineral mass bone-specific alkaline phosphatase brainstem auditory evoked response branched-chain amino acids British Medical Ultrasound Society broncho-pulmonary dysplasia brush border membrane calcitonin carbon dioxide production carboxyl ester lipase cerebral blood flow coefficients of variation colipase-dependent lipase

CF complementary foods IGF-I, II

CHD congenital heart disease ICAM-I

CNMD congenital neuromuscular diseases ICW

CPAP continuous positive airway pressure IUGR

CbfaI core binding factor alpha-I IVN

ICTP C-propeptide of type I collagen IVA

CHL crown-heel length KHL

PICP C-terminal propeptide type I LDH

CREB cyclic AMP binding protein LGG

cytC cytochrome C LMP

CLD cytoplasmic lipid droplets LM

DSPC desaturated phosphatidylcholine LA

DIT diet-induced thermogenesis LES

docosahexaenoic acid MSUD

DLW doubly labeled MVM

down-regulates MCFA

DEXA dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry MBDP

DGR duodeno-gastric reflux

DGER duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux MeAIB

EDF end-diastolic flow MFG

EI energy intake mOsm

EGF epidermal growth factor MCTs

EFSUMB European Federation of Societies for MSY-I

Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology MAdCAM-1

ECW extracellular water

FHH familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia MEN1

FIHP familial isolated hyperparathyroidism NAC

FM fat mass NEC

FABP fatty-acid binding protein NBS

FFA free fatty acids NGF

GIP gastric inhibitor peptide NPY

GER gastroesophageal reflux NEFA

GIR gastrointestinal reflux VO2

GDM gestational diabetes mellitus PO2

GFR glomerular filtration rate PP

GNG gluconeogenesis PTH

GLUT glucose transporters PTHrP

G6P glucose-6-phosphatase PDA

GSHPx glutathione peroxidase PVL

GP glycogen phosphorylase PIVH

GS glycogen synthase

GH growth hormone PNDM

GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue PPHN

HPT-JT hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor PP

syndrome PC

HPS hyperprostaglandin E syndrome PG

IIß-HSD2 IIß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 PEPCK

in utero CaBP

IDM infants of diabetic mothers PLGF

IGFBP insulin-like growth factor binding PAF

protein PARP

insulin-like growth factors intracellular adhesion molecule-I intracellular water intrauterine growth restriction intravenous nutrition isovaleric acid knee-heel length lactate dehydrogenase lactobacillus GG last monthly period lean mass linoleic acid lower esophageal sphincter maple syrup urine disease maternal microvillous membrane medium-chain fatty acids metabolic bone disease in premature infants methylaminoisobutyric acid milk fat globules milliosmoles monocarboxylase transporters mouse Y box protein I mucosal addressin adhesion molecule-1

multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 N-acetylcysteine necrotizing enterocolitis neonatal Bartter syndrome nerve growth factor neuropeptide Y nonesterified fatty acids oxygen consumption oxygen partial pressure pancreatic polypeptide parathyroid hormone parathyroid hormone related peptide patent ductus arteriosus periventricular leukomalacia periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage permanent neonatal diabetes persistent pulmonary hypertension Peyer's patches phosphatidylcholine phosphatidylglycerol phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase placental calcium binding protein placental growth factor platelet-activating factor poly (ADP)-ribosylating protein

PMN

polymorphonuclear neutrophils

TCIRG1

T cell immune regulator gene 1

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acids

TOBEC

total body electric conductivity

PS

population spike

TBW

total body weight

PMA

postmenstrual age

TEE

total energy expenditure

PGR

postnatal growth retardation

TIBC

total iron-binding capacity (plasma)

POMC

pro-opiomelanocortin

TPN

total parental nutrition

PGE2

prostaglandin E2

TGF-beta

transforming growth factor-beta

PDHC

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

TLESR

transient lower esophageal sphincter

QUS

quantitative ultrasound

relaxation

RANK

receptor to activated NFKappaB

TCA

tricarboxylic acid

RANKL

receptor to activated NFKappaB ligand

TGs

triglycerides

RDI

recommended dietary intakes

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

rCGU

regional cerebral glucose utilization

IDDM

Type I insulin dependent diabetes

RDR

relative dose response

mellitus

RQ

respiratory quotient

UPD

uniparental disomies

RBP

retinol binding protein

UES

upper esophageal sphincter

slgA

secretory immunoglobulin A

LL/M

urinary lactulose:mannitol

SBS

short bowel syndrome

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

SCFA

short chain fatty acids

VIP

vasoactive intestinal peptide

SGA

small-for-gestational-age

VLDL

very low-density lipoproteins

SER

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

VLBWI

very-low birth weight infant

EDTA

sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic

WFUMB

World Federation of Ultrasound in

acid

Medicine and Biology

SDA

specific dynamic action

ALA

a-linolenic acid

SOD

superoxide dismutase

OHB

f-hydroxybutyrate

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Understanding And Treating ADHD

Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD is a very complicated, and time and again misinterpreted, disorder. Its beginning is physiological, but it can have a multitude of consequences that come alongside with it. That apart, what is the differentiation between ADHD and ADD ADHD is the abbreviated form of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, its major indications being noticeable hyperactivity and impulsivity.

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