Paraplacental routes of nutrition

It is becoming increasingly clear that the late-gestation fetus has access not only to nutrients obtained via the placenta, but also to an additional source of nutri ent reserves in the form of the fetal fluid compartments. Amniotic fluid is constituted largely from fetal urine production,232,233 with contributions from lung fluid,234 nasopharyngeal secretions and intra- and trans-membranous fluid fluxes.235,236 Amniotic fluid contains proteins and carbohydrates, as well as meconium particles,...

Fetal nutrition after placentation is established

Placenta Transfer Nutrients

The main fetal substrates for oxidative metabolism are glucose, lactate and amino acids, with free fatty acids also crossing the placenta in variable amounts Table 1.1 Figure 1.3 .66 The amounts of these substrates taken up by the fetus can be calculated in experimental paradigms, such as the sheep, using the Fick principle. Blood flow is measured using the diffusion of an inert substance such as ethanol, deuterium, tritiated water or antipyrine across the placenta during steady state.67-69 As...

Contributors

Stollery Children's Hospital 8440-114 Street Edmonton Alberta Section of Neonatology Department of Pediatrics Baylor College of Medicine 6621 Fannin Street MC WT 6-104 Houston, TX 77030, USA McMaster University 1200 Main St. West Hamilton, ON Canada L8N 3Z5 University of Colorado Health Sciences Center The Children's Hospital 1056 East 9th Ave Box B070 State University of New York at Stony Brook Department of Pediatrics University of Florida 1600 SW Archer Road Room HD-513 PO Box 100296...

The influence of maternal nutrition on fetal nutrient supply

The associations between maternal prepregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight are well known. Birth weight increases with increasing maternal prepregnancy size,6 and has also been associated with maternal weight gain in pregnancy, particularly with increases in maternal fat mass.7 Similarly, poor maternal weight gain in all trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight,8-10 although there is some disagreement about which period of pregnancy is most crucial....

Abbreviations

1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3-methylhistidine absent end-diastolic flow adenosine triphosphate adenosine-5-diphosphate American Academy of Pediatric Committee on Nutrition angiotensin converting enzyme apical endocytic complex appropriate-for-gestational-age arachidonic acid arcuate arginine vasopressin atrial natriuretic peptide attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder basal membrane basic-fibroblast growth factor bile salt dependent lipase bioelectrical impedance analysis...

Fetal nutrition before placentation is established

Histiotrophic Nutrition

Nutrient transfer to the fetus via the placenta in the second and third trimesters is relatively well understood in comparison to fetal nutrient supply in the first trimester. The human blastocyst implants at a relatively early stage and the developing conceptus is enveloped by the superficial layer of the endometrium by day 10 after fertilization.39 Figure 1.2. Demonstration of the changes information of the extraembryonic membranes and fluid cavities over the first 3 months of gestation....