Ji Zhang

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center 2Center for Human Molecular Genetics, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA Dramatic advances in genome research in recent years will facilitate the precise determination of molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease, and thus offer great potential for promoting health, lowering mortality and morbidity, and preventing disease. Nutritional science can...

Csacting DNA Sequences Involved in Glucose Response

The first glucose response element (GlRE) to be identified was that of the L-PK gene (Thompson and Towle, 1991 Bergot et al, 1992). This element is located within 183 bp upstream of the transcription start site of the L-PK gene, a region that mediates specificity oftissue expression as well as nutrient and hormone response in transgenic animals (Cuif et al., 1992). Subsequent studies localized GlRE to a region between bp -183 and -96 of the transcription start site, as judged by transfection...

Effect of Glucose on Gluconeogenic Enzyme Gene Expression

Concurrent with the well-known inhibitory effect of insulin, glucose inhibits transcription of PEPCK in the liver (Kahn et al, 1987 Meyer et al., 1991). This effect is independent of the presence of insulin. As described above for lipogenic enzymes, the effect of glucose requires phosphorylation of glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate. The inhibitory effect of glucose is observed in hepato-cytes from adult rats, but not in hepatocytes from suckling rats, which do not express glucokinase...

Levels of mRNA encoding biotindependent carboxylases and holocarboxylase synthetase

Probably, cells increase carboxylase activities by increasing the biotinylation of apocarboxylases to produce holocarboxylases. Theoretically, the apo-carboxylases could come from either one of the following two sources (i) pre-formed apocarboxy-lases from the cellular carboxylase pool or (ii) new apocarboxylases that have been synthesized specifically in response to cell proliferation. Most probably, the latter would be associated with an increase of mRNA levels encoding biotin-dependent...

Biotin uptake at specific phases of the cell cycle

The studies described in the previous section were conducted using non-synchronized cultures of PBMCs, i.e. populations of cells from various phases of the cell cycle. Thus, these studies did not allow identification of a specific phase of the cell cycle during which biotin uptake is increased G1, S, G2 or M phase. This gap in knowledge was addressed in another series of studies (J.S. Stanley et al., 2002) proliferating PBMCs were arrested at designated phases of the cell cycle by incubation...

Hannelore Daniel

Molecular Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Nutrition, Technical University of Munich, Germany Every nutritional process relies on the interplay of a large number of proteins encoded by mRNA molecules that are expressed in a given cell. Alterations of mRNA levels and in turn of the corresponding protein levels although the two variables do not necessarily change in parallel are critical parameters in controlling the flux of a nutrient or metabolite through a biochemical pathway. Nutrients...

What is the Cellular Cascade from Glucose to the Transcription Machinery

In order to explain the glucose responsiveness of tissues, the following hypotheses have been considered i the presence of glucose might modify the nuclear amount of transcription factors including modifications of cellular localization and ii transcription factors undergo post-translational modifications in the presence of glucose, leading to a modification of interactions with the basic transcription machinery or with co-activator proteins. Post-translational modifications of a transcription...

European Journal Of Biochemistry Katsurada Fukuda Matsumura Nishimoto Noguchi And Tanaka 1990 427-435

Argaud, D., Kirby, T.L., Newgard, C.B. and Lange, AJ. 1997 Stimulation of glucose 6 phosphatase gene expression by glucose and fructose-2,6-biphosphatase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 12854-12861. Bandsma, R.H., Wiegman, C.H., Herling, A.W., Burger, HJ., ter Harmsel, A., Meijer, AJ., Romijn, J.A., Reijngoud, DJ. and Kuipers, F. 2001 Acute inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate translocator activity leads to increased de novo lipogenesis and development of hepatic steatosis without affecting...

The Mammalian Cell Cycle

Interphase Gap

The cell cycle is an ordered set of processes by which one cell grows and divides into two daughter cells cell proliferation Murray and Hunt, 1993 . Two fundamentally different cell cycles exist in mammals i the mitotic cell cycle, in which two diploid daughter cells are generated and ii the meiotic cell cycle, in which four haploid daughter cells are produced generation of sperm and egg . This chapter will focus exclusively on the mitotic cell cycle. The absence of nutrients or growth factors...

CABI Publishing

CABI Publishing is a division of CAB International CABI Publishing 44 Brattle Street 4th Floor CAB International Wallingford Oxon OX10 8DE UK Tel 44 0 1491 832111 Fax 44 0 1491 833508 E-mail cabi cabi.org Tel 1 617 395 4056 Fax 1 617 354 6875 CAB International 2003. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue...

Nutrient Status Affects Cell Proliferation

This chapter provides evidence that cell proliferation generates an increased demand for biotin due to increased biotinylation of carboxylases and histones in proliferating cells. Proliferating cells meet this increased demand by increasing cellular uptake of biotin. Likewise, cells respond to proliferation with increased uptake of other nutrients such as NAD Williams et al., 1985 , riboflavin Zempleni and Mock, 2000 , pantothenic acid Zempleni et al., 2001 , cobalamin Hall, 1984 and various...

C

Proposed structure of the heterodimeric amino acid-transporting complexes found in mammalian plasma cell membranes. They consist of either the heavy chain 4F2hc or rBAT linked to one of the various light chains via an extracellular disulphide brigde. The different complexes then constitute transport pathways with different characteristics with regard to substrate specificity and membrane location. 2001b . It represents a reabsorption defect for cysteine in the apical membrane of renal...

References

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group 1994 The effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on lung cancer incidence and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 1029-1035. Ashkenazi, A. and Dixit, V.M. 1998 Death receptors signalling and modulation. Science 281, 1305-1308. Bedi, A., Pasricha, PJ., Akhtar, AJ., Barber, J.B., Bedi, G.C., Giardello, F.M., Zehnbauer, B.A., Hamilton, S.R. and Jones, R.J. 1995 Inhibition of apoptosis during development...

Life and Cell Death

The commonest multicellular organism on this planet is a nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which flourishes in compost, lives in the human gut and spreads diseases including river blindness and elephantiasis. Because it is small 1 mm long , easy to grow and has a short life span 2 weeks , the roundworm C. elegans is used widely in studies of developmental biology and of ageing. A total of 1090 cells develop initially, but the mature hermaphrodite animal contains only 959 somatic cells with the...