Toxicity

Supplemental phenylalanine and tyrosine may cause headache, anxiety, or high blood pressure in rare individuals. They should not be used by pregnant or lactating women, in severe liver disease or PKU. PA and tyrosine supplements should be avoided by patients receiving MAO inhibitor-type antidepressants. PA and tyrosine supplements should also be avoided by schizophrenics, particularly those with high dopamine levels, as supplements may further increase brain dopamine and worsen the condition.

Fig. 3.22: Tyrosine supplements and depression. In a crossover trial of tyrosine in depression, a woman unable to tolerate standard antidepressanttherapy was given 100mg/kg of tyrosine in 3 daily doses for 2 weeks, a placebo for 18 days, then tyrosine again for a further 5 weeks. During treatment with tyrosine (both periods) depression was significantly alleviated (as measured by both the Hamilton and Zung Scales), compared with both baseline and the placebo period.

(Adapted from Gelenberg AJ, et al. Am J Psy-chiat. 1980;137:622)

Fig. 3.22: Tyrosine supplements and depression. In a crossover trial of tyrosine in depression, a woman unable to tolerate standard antidepressanttherapy was given 100mg/kg of tyrosine in 3 daily doses for 2 weeks, a placebo for 18 days, then tyrosine again for a further 5 weeks. During treatment with tyrosine (both periods) depression was significantly alleviated (as measured by both the Hamilton and Zung Scales), compared with both baseline and the placebo period.

(Adapted from Gelenberg AJ, et al. Am J Psy-chiat. 1980;137:622)

ment (14 d) (18 d) (74 d)

References

  1. Walsh NE, et al. Analgesic effectiveness of D-pheny-lalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1986;67:436.
  2. World Health Organization. Energy and protein requirements. Tech Rep Series. 1985;724.
  3. Lindner MC. Nutrition and metabolism of proteins. In: MC Lindner, ed. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York: Elsevier; 1991.
  4. Gelenberg AJ, et al. Tyrosine for depression: A double blind trial. J Affect Disord. 1990;19:125.
  5. Mouret J, et al. L-Tyrosine cures immediate and long term, dopamine dependent depressions. Clinical and polygraphic studies. Coll R Acad Sci III. 1988;306:93.
  6. Beckman V, Ludoph E. DL-phenylalanine as antidepressant. Arzneimit Forschung. 1978;28:1283.
  7. Kravitz HM, et al. Dietary supplements of phenyla-lanine and other amino acid precursors of brain neuroamines in the treatment of depressive disorders. J Am Osteo Assoc. 1984;84:119.
  8. Crowdon JM. Neuro-transmitter precursors in the diet: their use in the treatment of brain diseases. In. Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ, eds. Nutrition and the Brain. Vol 3. New York: Raven Press; 1979.
  9. Young SN. The use of diet and dietary components in the study of factors controlling affect in humans: A review. J Psychiatr Neurosci. 1993;18:235-44.
  10. Reimherr RW, et al. An open trial of L-tyrosine in the treatment of attention deficit disorders, residual type. Am J Psychiatry. 1987:144;1071.
  11. Morgan MY, et al. Plasma ratio of valine, leucine and isoleucine to phenylalanine and tyrosine in liver disease. Gut. 1978;19:1068.
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