Nephrolithiasis is a disorder in which small stones - usually formed from calcium and ox-alate - precipitate in the kidney. If they pass into the ureter they cause irritation, spasm, and may block the flow of urine. The pain of a kidney stone is intense: it typically starts suddenly in the lower back and radiates down and around toward the groin. In general, the more calcium and oxalate in the urine, the greater the chances of developing kidney stones. Uric acid in the urine can be the "seed" around which calcium oxalate stones develop. The risk of kidney stones can be strongly influenced by dietary factors.5
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