The main evidence linking diet with the diseases of affluence is epidemiological; animal studies are used to test hypotheses derived from epidemiology, and to test the effects of specific nutritional changes. When there is a substantial body of evidence then there can be direct intervention studies, in which the diets of large numbers of people are changed (e.g. by providing supplements of nutrients for which there is epidemiological evidence of a protective effect), and they are followed for 5—10 or more years, to see whether the intervention has any effect on disease incidence or mortality.
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.