There is an alternative pathway for the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate, the pentose phosphate pathway (sometimes known as the hexose monophosphate shunt), shown in Figure 5.14.
Overall, the pentose phosphate pathway produces 2 mol of fructose 6-phosphate, 1 mol of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and 3 mol of carbon dioxide from 3 mol of glucose 6-phosphate, linked to the reduction of 6 mol of NADP+ to NADPH. The sequence of reactions is as follows:
This is the pathway for the synthesis of ribose for nucleotide synthesis (section
9.2.2); more importantly, it is the source of about half the NADPH required for fatty acid synthesis (section 5.6.1); tissues that synthesize large amounts of fatty acids have a high activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. As discussed in section 184.108.40.206, the pentose phosphate pathway is also important in the respiratory burst of macrophages that are activated in response to infection.
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.