Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • define the terms used in energy metabolism, and explain how energy expenditure is measured;
  • describe the sources of metabolic fuels in the fed and fasting states;
  • describe and explain the relationship between energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight;
  • describe the pathway of glycolysis and explain how anaerobic glycolysis under conditions of maximum exertion leads to oxygen debt;
  • describe the pentose phosphate pathway and explain how deficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase results in haemolytic crises;
  • describe the metabolic fates of pyruvate arising from glycolysis;
  • describe the citric acid cycle and explain its role as a central energy-yielding pathway and in the interconversion of metabolites;
  • explain the importance of carnitine in fatty acid uptake into mitochondria, and describe the ^-oxidation of fatty acids;
  • describe the formation and utilization of ketone bodies and explain their importance in fasting and starvation;.
  • describe the synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol as a major energy reserve, and explain the importance of plasma lipoproteins;
  • describe the synthesis and utilization of glycogen and the pathways for gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.
Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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