Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • define the terms used in energy metabolism, and explain how energy expenditure is measured;
  • describe the sources of metabolic fuels in the fed and fasting states;
  • describe and explain the relationship between energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight;
  • describe the pathway of glycolysis and explain how anaerobic glycolysis under conditions of maximum exertion leads to oxygen debt;
  • describe the pentose phosphate pathway and explain how deficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase results in haemolytic crises;
  • describe the metabolic fates of pyruvate arising from glycolysis;
  • describe the citric acid cycle and explain its role as a central energy-yielding pathway and in the interconversion of metabolites;
  • explain the importance of carnitine in fatty acid uptake into mitochondria, and describe the ^-oxidation of fatty acids;
  • describe the formation and utilization of ketone bodies and explain their importance in fasting and starvation;.
  • describe the synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol as a major energy reserve, and explain the importance of plasma lipoproteins;
  • describe the synthesis and utilization of glycogen and the pathways for gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.
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