Dietinduced thermogenesis

There is a considerable increase in metabolic rate in response to a meal. A small part of this is the energy cost of secreting digestive enzymes and the energy cost of active transport of the products of digestion (section 3.2.2). The major part is the energy cost of synthesizing body reserves of glycogen (section 5.5.3) and triacylglycerol (section

Table 5.5 Average requirements for energy, based on average weights, for adults assuming PAL = 1.4

Age (years)

Males (MJ/day)

Females (MJ/day)

1-3

5.2

4.9

4-6

7.2

6.5

7-10

8.2

7.3

11-14

9.3

7.9

15-18

11.5

8.8

Adults

10.6

8.0

5.6.1), as well as the increased protein synthesis that occurs in the fed state (section 9.2.3.3).

The cost of synthesizing glycogen from glucose is about 5% of the ingested energy, whereas the cost of synthesizing triacylglycerol from glucose is about 20% of the ingested energy. Depending on the relative amounts of fat and carbohydrate in the diet, and the amounts of triacylglycerol and glycogen being synthesized, this diet-induced thermogenesis may account for 10% or more of the total energy yield of a meal.

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