A variety of carotenes, including both those that are precursors of vitamin A and those that are not (section 11.2.2), can act as radical trapping antioxidants under conditions of low oxygen tension.

As discussed in sections 7.2.4 and 7.2.5, there is epidemiological evidence from a variety of studies that high blood levels of carotene are associated with low incidence of a variety of cancers. However, again the results of intervention studies have been disappointing; in two major trials there was an increase in the incidence of lung cancer among people taking supplements of P-carotene (section 7.2.6).

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