Natural Menopause Relief Secrets

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program

Joan Atman with the help and inspiration from Dr Stephanie put down this book. Dr Stephanie is the mastermind behind this helpful guide. He is a nutritionist and a medical practitioner who has been very active in this case. Joan Atman is an international Life coach and Energy medicine specialist. The Natural Female Hormone Balance program is a 28 day Hormone reset Detox program for female. It is a very easy and gentle program that is designed by the author to support the female body detox and eventually regain the normal hormonal balance. All the tips and the dietary changes discussed in the program will kick start the body's natural ability to balance hormones. This eventually helps your body look and feel incredible. The full program contains 6 modules designed to lead you step by step through the Hormone reset Detox program. This program is available in PDF formats. The author has also included some video and audio tutorials. You can download the program and print or just download the PDF file, the Videos and the Audio. More here...

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Summary


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My Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Menopausal Symptoms Nutrition and Lifestyle Strategies

Menopause sets the stage for two conditions osteoporosis and heart disease. Many women deal with uncomfortable menopausal symptoms, too. Instead of hormone therapy, nutrition and lifestyle strategies may help. If you're approaching or experiencing menopause, talk with your healthcare provider about the best approach for you. Nonhormonal medications may be prescribed. Follow a safe, effective strategy for reaching and keeping your healthy weight after pregnancy, menopause, or at any other time of life see chapter 2.

The Menopausal Transition

Menopause signals the end of child-bearing capacity, and is also associated with changes in susceptibility to various chronic diseases, including breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.66 Differences in age at menopause between vegetarian and omnivorous women, should they exist, could be associated with differences in chronic disease patterns between these groups. Furthermore, some women experience unpleasant symptoms during menopause (vasomotor symptoms such as night sweats and hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, weight gain, headaches, and fatigue),67 and these symptoms have been observed to differ among women in different cultures.67,68 Whether dietary variables contribute to these differences in symptom experiences has not been clearly established, but there is speculation that they could.68-70 Some of these dietary differences may also exist between vegetarian and omnivorous women. Accordingly, after defining and describing the menopausal transition, available research on...

Im approaching menopause

Bone that occurs when women reach menopause and their production of the female hormone estrogen declines. They may also need extra vitamin D to enable their bodies to absorb and use the calcium. Gender Bias Alert No similar studies are available for older men. But adding vitamin D supplements to calcium supplements increases bone density in older people. The current RDA for vitamin D is set at 5 micrograms 200 IU for all adults, but the new AI (Adequate Intake) for vitamin D is 10 micrograms 400 IU for people ages 51 to 70 and 15 micrograms 600 IU or more for people 71 and older. Some researchers suggest that even these amounts may be too low to guarantee maximum calcium absorption.

Women Weight and Menopause

Women do not always gain weight during menopause. Yes, women aged 45 to 50 commonly get fatter and thicker around the middle as fat settles in and around the abdominal area. But these changes are due more to lack of exercise and a surplus of calories than to a reduction of hormones (Wing et al. 1991). (Young athletes with amenorrhea and reduced hormones do not get fat.) In a three-year study of more than 3,000 women (initial age 42 to 52 years), the average weight gain was 4.6 pounds (2.1 kg). The weight gain occurred in all women, regardless of their menopause status (Sternfeld et al. 2004). If weight gain is not caused by the hormonal shifts of menopause, what does cause it Let's explore a few of the culprits. Menopause occurs during a time when a woman's lifestyle becomes less active. If her children have grown up and left home, she may find herself sitting more in front of a TV or computer screen than running up and down stairs, carrying endless loads of laundry....

PMS and Menopause

Soy has garnered much attention in recent years as a dietary treatment for menopausal symptoms. Soy is a rich source of isoflavones, an estrogenlike substance found in plants. Some studies suggest that regularly eating moderate amounts of soy-based food products can help decrease menopausal symptoms however, other studies do not support the idea. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the effects of soy on menopausal symptoms. During menopause, a woman's metabolism slows down and weight gain can occur. The accumulation of body fat around the abdomen also increases. Exercise and careful food choices can minimize both of these occurrences.

Soy and Menopause

The popularity of soy-based foods is also due to their potential for reducing the symptoms of menopause. In a study published in Obstetrics and Gynecology, researchers found that women who consumed 60 grams of isolated soy protein daily reported a reduction in moderate to severe hot flashes. Other studies have contradicted this finding, however, Japanese women, who typically have a soy-rich diet, do experience a lower incidence of most post-menopausal symptoms than women in Western countries, including hot flashes, hormone-related cancers, and osteoporosis.


Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual periods that occurs around age 50 in most women. As a woman moves into her late 40s, her body's estrogen production slows down, and she gradually stops ovulating. Symptoms of the menopause include hot flashes, headaches, fatigue, vaginal irritation, mood swings, and depression. These symptoms can range from mild to severe about one in five women seek medical attention for symptoms of the menopause. A major concern at the menopause is the loss of bone mineral (mainly calcium) from the skeleton due to the loss of estrogens.21 Up to 20 of the bone mineral density can be lost at menopause, which can sharply increase risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The loss of estrogen at menopause also causes LDL cholesterol levels in the blood to rise and levels of HDLcho-

Stages of Menopause

Women go through different phases of menopause, including peri-menopausal, menopausal, and postmenopausal periods. During the peri-menopausal period, the regular cyclical occurrence of menstruation is disrupted and menstruation becomes irregular. This phase may last anywhere from six months to a year. During the perimenopausal period, production of estrogen is reduced, and eventually stops. Menopause is defined as the cessation of the menstrual period. Women are described as postmenopausal when they have gone one year without a menstrual period.

Diet Menopause

Women going through menopause should increase intake of rich food sources of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins D and K to maintain integrity of the skeleton.23,24 In addition, high amounts of phosphorus (found in red meat, processed foods, and cola drinks) should also be avoided too much phosphorus in the diet accelerates loss of minerals from bones. Reducing sodium, caffeine, and protein intake can also help maintain body stores of calcium. To keep levels of blood fats in the healthy range, the saturated fat content of the diet should be reduced (by eating less meat, eggs, and whole-fat milk products).

How Does Metabolism Change as We Get Older

Researchers have also realized that levels of certain hormones may also decrease with age. We are all familiar with estrogen and menopause for women. Men too seem to experience reductions in testosterone as they age. In fact, physician-prescription testosterone for aging men has been called the hormone replacement therapy of the twenty-first century. Not every man's testosterone level decreases as they age, so the best thing to do is monitor the levels regularly. Also, adults of an even more advanced age tend to experience reduced digestive capabilities and decreased senses of taste, smell, and thirst all of which can certainly impact their nutritional status.

Summary And Conclusions

Almost no data are available to determine whether age at menopause differs between vegetarians and omnivores. This area requires additional study. 4. Soy phytoestrogens may reduce the frequency of menopausal hot flushes slightly in comparison to placebo, but do not appear to affect the severity of other menopausal symptoms.

Breast Cancer Do Food Choices Make a Difference

All women are vulnerable to breast cancer-eventually. What's your risk Among the probable risk factors family history of breast cancer, early menstruation, late menopause (after age fifty-five), older-age pregnancy of a first child, some forms of benign breast disease, obesity after menopause, ovarian and endometrial cancer, exposure to ionizing radiation, and simply getting older. Are you a pear or an apple The place where extra pounds of body fat settle on your body may make a difference. Early research suggests that women who carry excess body fat around the abdomen (apple shape) may have an increased breast cancer risk. After menopause, more excess weight accumulates there. After menopause, weight gain is linked with increased cancer risk, perhaps related to estrogens formed in the body's fat tissues. Being physically active helps you keep your healthy weight, so move more, too If you are considering hormone therapy, weigh the benefits and the risks. Although it may reduce...

Treatments and Remedies Benefits and Disadvantages of Each

Menopausal women are faced with many choices in terms of treatment or remedies for these problems. Some of the treatment choices are experimentally proven to be effective and relatively harmless, while other options such as herbs, teas, and dietary supplements have not been subjected to scientific experimentation and have not been proven to be without harm. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the often-used medically prescribed treatment for menopausal and postmenopausal women. Although some studies have indicated a decreased risk of CHD and osteoporosis with ERT use, others have indicated it may increase the risk of breast cancer. The Women's Health Initiative, which was designed to study the effects of ERT on the health of elderly women, stopped the ERT part of the research in July 2002. The preliminary result of that study showed the risk of CHD was, in fact, increased in women on ERT. Scientific investigations have shown that physical activity, including aerobic and muscular...

Heart Disease A Womans Issue

As estrogen levels drop with menopause, women no longer have the same protection that estrogen gives from heart disease and high blood pressure. HDL levels drop triglyceride levels increase. That's true whether menopause is natural or surgical. As a result, women's heart-disease risks parallel those of men seven to ten years later in life Their death rate is higher, perhaps due to increased age or more risk factors. In fact, heart disease (not breast cancer) is the top killer and disabler of American women a woman is three times more likely to get cardiovascular disease than breast cancer. About two-thirds of women who die of heart disease had no previous symptoms.

Have You Ever Wondered

. . . if supplements are safe, effective treatments for menopause symptoms Even though they're natural, herbal and botanical supplements may not be safe or effective. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists advises Wild or Mexican yam doesn't appear to reduce menopause symptoms, unless perhaps large amounts are consumed. Before you take supplements to reduce menopause symptoms, talk to your doctor. They may interfere with other medications you're taking. Refer to chapter23 for more about dietary supplements. Hormone therapy may ease menopausal discomforts for some women, bothered by moderate or severe symptoms, and it may help reduce osteoporosis risk. However, although low for many women, there's an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, or breast cancer with its use. Discuss with your doctor whether hormone therapy outweighs your personal risks. If you choose to use it, see your healthcare professional regularly. If you already use hormone therapy, reconsider your...

Physiological Changes

Menstrual cycles the build-up and sloughing off of the lining of the uterus in women commencing at puberty and proceeding until menopause menopause phase in a woman's life during which ovulation and menstruation end menopausal related to menopause, the period during which women cease to ovulate and menstruate Calcium loss from the bones is increased in the first five years after the onset of menopause, resulting in a loss of bone density. This bone loss then tapers off until about the age of seventy-five, when calcium loss accelerates again. This predisposes women to the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The body composition of menopausal women also changes, with the percentage of body fat increasing and muscle mass decreasing. The increase in body-fat percentage is believed to be partly due to decreased physical activity. Some other transient but unpleasant symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, fatigue, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and memory loss.

Iron and Zinc Requirements

Iron is a necessary component of hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the working muscles. If you are iron deficient, you are likely to fatigue easily upon exertion. The recommended iron intake for men is 8 milligrams, for women 18 milligrams until menopause, and for women thereafter 8 milligrams. This target iron intake is set high because only a small percentage is absorbed. See table 7.3 for the iron content of some foods. The best iron sources are animal products and fish the body absorbs far less iron from plant foods. However, you should not take iron supplements unless recommended by your physician, because too much iron can be linked to heart disease. About 1 in 250 people has a genetic condition that makes him or her susceptible to iron overload. Men and postmenopausal women are most

Have You Ever Wondered J

if you can get kidney stones by drinking milk That's a common myth. Research doesn't support this mis-perception. In fact, drinking milk may reduce the risk. A high-calcium diet may decrease the absorption of oxalate, a substance in some plant-based foods that can form calcium oxalate kidney stones. . . . if phytoestrogens in soybeans protect your bones Maybe, since they act much like mild estrogens in the body. After menopause, as natural estrogen declines, phytoestrogens in soy products may help prevent bone some loss. See What's 'Soy' Good in chapter 11. Alcohol and smoking can block calcium absorption. Smoking can speed bone loss for women, a lifelong habit of smoking a pack of cigarettes a day may lower bone density by menopause an extra 5 to 10 percent. If you smoke, consider the bone-healthy benefits of quitting. Among other factors, excessive alcohol intake may inhibit some bone remodeling, increase calcium excretion, and increase the chance of falling. If you drink alcoholic...

Effects of Neurotransmitters

Wurtman has reported that people are more alert when their brains are producing the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, while serotonin production in the brain has been associated with a more calming, anxiety-reducing effect (and even drowsiness in some people). A stable brain serotonin level is associated with a positive mood state. It appears that women have a greater sensitivity than men to changes in this brain chemical. Mood swings during the menstrual cycle and menopause are thought to be caused by hormonal changes that influence the production of serotonin.

How Is Estrogen Involved in the Loss of Bone Mineral

A reduction in blood estrogen levels, as typical after menopause (postmenopausal), is directly associated with a decrease in bone density. Thus, estrogen is a principal factor in the development of osteoporosis. Researchers have reported that osteoblasts (bone makers) have receptors for the hormone estrogen, and estrogen also appears to decrease the activity of osteoclasts (bone destroyers). Despite these findings, the exact mechanisms for how estrogen protects women against excessive bone material losses is not clear. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy has proven effective in slowing the rate of postmenopausal bone mineral loss in women however, there are other medical concerns and each women should understand these.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes

Recommendations for dietary and lifestyle changes for women during menopause are a little different from that for women in general. Menopausal women need to eat less of foods that are high in iron. Because they are not menstruating, their requirement for iron is reduced, and is thus the same as for men, about 10 milligrams per day. This means that they need to cut down on red meat, organ meats such as liver and kidney, and other foods high in iron. If they are taking multivitamin and mineral supplements, ones with a low iron content are recommended. Water intake is emphasized in older women and men, since the thirst sensation becomes dulled as people age. Six to eight glasses of fluid per day are recommended for this age group. Water, fruit juices, other nonalcoholic beverages, and fresh fruits can help provide variety in fluid intake. In addition, an increased consumption of legumes (e.g., dried chick peas, varieties of beans, lentils, soy and soy products) is recommended to provide...

What Nutritional and Behavioral Factors Are Important in Preventing Osteoporosis

Beyond reductions in circulating estrogen in postmenopausal women, other factors can increase the loss of bone mineral. These factors include Smoking seems to exert a negative influence upon bone mineral content and the rate of bone mineral loss, especially in postmenopausal years. Smokers tend to have lower bone densities than nonsmokers. One reason for this occurrence is that smoking reduces blood estrogen levels. Smokers also seem to reach menopause at a younger age.

Female Athlete Triad

With lowered estrogen levels, the female athlete can experience bone loss similar to that seen in menopause. Unfortunately, the lost bone is never replaced. This has both short- and long-term consequences on bone health. The increased risk of bone damage, for example, can lead to stress fractures and osteoporosis. menopause phase in a woman's life during which ovulation and menstruation end

Biological Functions Of Gaba

More chloride channels in the tract of the cell membrane on the neuron axon, and increase the chloride penetration of the neuron membrane . Low GABA in plasma is reasonably specific to Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, depression, and menopause. 14 Therefore, GABA is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and CNS15 for being able to decrease the excitation of nerves . GABA-mediated neurotransmission regulates many physiological and psychological functions .

Estrogenlike Actions Of Soy Isoflavones In Models Of Human Chronic Disease

In terms of overall actions, it could be concluded that the soy isoflavones mimicked the effects of estrogen in protecting against the major chronic diseases that result from postmenopausal estrogen loss. These data added to the rationale for the hypothesis that dietary soy isoflavones might have neuroprotective actions in the primate model of menopause.

Resting Metabolic Rate And Changes In Body Composition

These data are applicable to masters athletes and may provide motivation for continued participation in sports. Women in particular are concerned with weight gain after menopause. Postmenopausal women have higher body fat levels and more central obesity than premenopausal women, but several investigations reveal that lifestyle, especially physical activity, is more responsible for alterations in body composition than hormone status 17 . Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also indicated that women age 25 to 55 who met or exceeded the exercise guidelines to be moderately active 5 days a week or vigorously active for 3 days a week had lower body mass index, percent body fat, and waist-to-hip ratios than less active women 18 .

Developing nutritionallyenhanced cerealbased foods Current status

Opment of products containing pharmacologically active compounds. One group of compounds that has attracted interest is the phyto-oestrogens. These are plant compounds which bear a structural similarity to the female sex hormone oestra-diol and fall into three broad chemical categories isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. They are thought to have beneficial health effects with regard to cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and the menopause (Bingham et al, 1998). A number of baked products, for example breads containing soya, linseed and or flax and with high contents of phyto-oestrogens, have been released (Dalais et al, 1998 Payne, 2000). These have sometimes been referred to as 'Sheila' breads, reflecting their Australian origin.

The Potential Role Of Transforming Growth Factor Beta In The Mechanism Of Action Of Soy Isoflavones

The relevance of TGF-P to the question of identifying neuroprotective actions of soy was specifically suggested by experiments that showed that TGF-P was required for serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation of synaptic connections. These experiments suggested that TGF-P may play an essential role in brain development, as well as in adult learning and memory (Zhang et al., 1997). Though not generally considered in the context of estrogen-mimicking actions of the soy isoflavones, the potentially important role of TGF-P in neuronal functioning provided further rationale for examining whether dietary soy, which had been shown to have efficacy in a human disease involving mutations in TGF-P signaling, might have neuroprotective actions in a model of menopause.

Figure Websites With Reliable Nutrition Information

They cannot establish that a particular factor causes a disease. This type of observational study may compare factors found among people with a disease, such as cancer, with factors among a comparable group without that disease or may try to identify factors associated with diseases that develop over time within a population group. Researchers may find, for example, fewer cases of osteoporosis in women who take estrogen after menopause. A third type of research goes beyond using animals or observational data and uses humans as subjects. Clinical trials are studies that assign similar participants randomly to two groups. One group receives the experimental treatment the other does not. Neither the researchers nor the participants know who is in which group. For example, a clinical trial to test the effects of estrogen after menopause would randomly assign each participant to one of two groups. Both groups would take a pill, but for one group this would be a dummy pill, called a...

Using supplements as insurance

1 Before menopause Women, who lose iron each month through menstrual bleeding, rarely get sufficient amounts of iron from a typical American diet providing fewer than 2,000 calories a day. For them, and for women who are often on a diet to lose weight, iron supplements may be the only practical answer.

New Adventist Health Study

**Adjusted for age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, age at menopause, weight, education, and for several foods. **Adjusted for age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, age at menopause, weight, education, and for several foods. *Adjusted for age at entry, age at first pregnancy, age at menarche, menopausal status, history of benign breast disease, maternal history of breast cancer, education and weight.

Studies in Seventh Day Adventists

Breast cancer was not strongly associated with intake of animal products in the mortality study. After taking into account age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, age at menopause, relative weight, and education, increasing consumption of meat, milk, cheese, and eggs was unrelated to fatal breast cancer risk.23

What Are the Most Conventional Ways to Prevent Osteoporosis

The best defense against osteoporosis is a good offense. Some weight-bearing exercise and a diet (with supplementation) providing adequate protein, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, vitamin C, copper, and iron in the years prior to peak bone mass will optimize bone density. Copper, iron, and vitamin C are important for making proper collagen. An early start and a continuation of these practices throughout adulthood in conjunction with regular medical checkups and a periodic X-ray will provide the most benefit. In fact, it seems that one of the most important times for the positive effects of activity on bone density is during the prepuberty years. Children should be encouraged to be involved in physical activities. Furthermore, women should discuss menopausal postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with a physician. Do not smoke and encourage others to quit as well.

Descriptive Epidemiology

Breast cancer incidence has increased over the past 30 years in the U.S.6 This trend is thought to reflect increased diagnosis due to mammographic screening,7 and perhaps also to secular trends in the prevalence of obesity and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use by postmenopausal women.8 Over the same period, breast cancer mortality rates have declined, reflecting earlier breast cancer detection and treatment, and improvements in breast cancer therapies.9

Weight Gain A New Problem

On the down side, some menopausal women gain weight some having weight problems for the first time in their life Why It's partly age. Metabolic rate, or the speed at which the body uses energy, often slows as hormone levels change. There's often another reason. In midlife, many women shift to more sedentary living, using less food energy. That promotes weight problems if eating habits remain unchanged. As an aside, research doesn't support the perception that hormone therapy causes weight gain. Besides going up in dress size, what are the risks Being overweight increases the chances for many health problems that start to appear after menopause. Changing hormone levels affect body fat distribution as more fat gets stored around the abdomen. Central body fat appears to be riskier for heart disease, higher cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance than lower body fat. You don't need be resigned to weight gain after menopause To maintain your weight or to drop a few...

Mammographic Density and Breast Cancer

Epithelium and stromal tissues that are strongly related to risk of breast cancer appear radiologically dense, whereas fat appears radiologically lucent.93 The proportion of the mammographic image occupied by radiologically dense tissue is a composite measure of breast tissue composition. At present, the role of mammographic density in breast cancer etiology is not clear.94 However, it has been established that mammographic density is an independent predictor of breast cancer risk, with associated relative risks between 4 and 6 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of mammographic density. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of the increase in breast cancer risk is greater than that associated with nearly all other breast cancer risk factors after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, breast cancer family history, parity, menopausal status, and HRT use.93,95

Other nutritional changes Antinutrients

Phytoestrogens in soy and other foods may protect post-menopausal women from osteoporosis and heart disease and protect men against prostate and other testosterone-dependent cancers. Extrusion can transform soy into food products with broad appeal for consumers, but processing effects on soy isoflavones and other phytoestrogens should be evaluated for any products for which health effects are intended. Blends of soy protein concentrate and cornmeal (20 80) were processed under different extrusion conditions (Mahungu et al, 1999). Increasing barrel temperature caused decarboxylation of isoflavones, with increased proportions of acetyl derivatives, but total isoflavones also decreased.

Calcium and Healthy Bones

Calcium intake in the later years is equally important for maintaining healthy bones. (I hope you already did all the right things in your first 30 years.) With age, your bones gradually lose their density (that is, calcium), which is especially true in menopausal women. People who take in adequate amounts of calcium can help slow down this process and defy those brittle bones of old age.

Vitamin K status and health Adults

A number of adult intervention studies have been carried out, particularly on postmenopausal women, which have shown vitamin K to be effective in reducing ucOC in serum. Takahashi et al (2001) used 89 osteoporotic patients with vertebral fractures, 24 patients with hip fractures, 43 pre- and 48 post-menopausal Japanese women. They gave either a daily dose of 45 mg vitamin K2 alone or vitamin K2 plus1 mg 1-a hydroxyvitamin D3 or vitamin D alone. After four weeks of treatment with vitamin K alone or vitamin K plus D, ucOC was significantly decreased, but was not changed in those who received vitamin D alone. There was a disproportion of ucOC intact OC in postmenopausal women and those with hip or vertebral fractures, vitamin K and vitamins K plus D markedly decreased the ratio of ucOC intact OC to approximately 80 , but vitamin D did not decrease the ratio. This work confirmed previous studies (Plantalech et al, 1990 Douglas et al, 1995 Schaafsma et al, 2000). The first intervention...

Have You Ever Wondered 103

. . . if you need nutrient supplements if you're vegetarian That depends on whether you choose your foods carefully. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians (except perhaps premenopausal women) probably don't if they consume enough iron from plant sources of food. Vegans, however, may need extra calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins B 2 and D, depending on their overall food choices. Consult a registered dietitian and doctor to see if you need a nutrient supplement. See Vitamin Mineral Supplements For Whom in chapter 23.

The Gluten Free Diet and Iron

With the proper food choices, a gluten-free diet can provide enough iron. However, a person following a gluten-free diet may find it more difficult to consume enough iron than a person following a typical American diet. This may be especially true for premenopausal women between the ages of nineteen and fifty, who require more than twice the amount of iron as similarly aged men. In the United States, grain-based foods account for a third of an adult's daily intake of iron, largely because of enrichment most wheat-based grain foods are enriched with iron, and most mainstream breakfast cereals are fortified with iron. However, as mentioned, most refined gluten-free grain foods are not enriched, so this source of iron is not readily available to people with celiac disease. While whole grains also are an important source of iron, many gluten-free foods are made using refined flour and starch, so they contain very little iron.

Dietary Intake of Iron

Data from nationally representative surveys in the United States suggest that the median iron intake of nonpregnant nonlactating women is 12 mg day, and that of pregnant women is 15 mg day 81 . Inclusion of iron supplement use did not significantly influence these national estimates and underscores why many women will complete their pregnancy at a net iron deficit. While the samples of lactating women in these national surveys are small, the iron intakes of lactating women are generally higher than that reported for other premenopausal women, including pregnant women. This may reflect a combination of factors including the small sample size, the health consciousness and socioeconomic status of lactating versus nonlactating women, and treatment for early postpartum iron deficiency anemia. Bodnar 92 reported, using NHANES III national data from the United States, that approximately 10 of postpartum women have iron deficiency anemia. Among postpartum women of low household income, 20 were

Diagnosis of Low Bone Mass and Osteoporosis in Athletes

DXA has been used as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of bone health and particularly low BMD. BMD is normally distributed and is often expressed in standard deviation (SD) units relative to its T or Z distribution. The T distribution has a mean of zero, which corresponds to the mean of young healthy women. T-scores are used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia and to predict fracture risk in postmenopausal women 59 . Specifically, the World Health Organization has established cutoff scores for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia for postmenopausal women 59 . In postmenopausal women, fracture risk nearly doubles for every SD below the young adult mean 62 . One more recent debate has been related to the fact that the same diagnostic strategies used for postmenopausal women (the distribution of T-scores and the comparison with the young adult mean) have been applied to premenopausal women, adolescents, and children. This seems problematic for three reasons (1)...

Soy Isoflavones and Breast or Prostate Cancer Risk

Several case-control studies and one cohort study have reported on the relationship between soy intake (or indirect measures of intake) and breast cancer risk. These studies are summarized in Table 4.4. In a study in Singapore involving 200 breast cancer cases, breast cancer risk was reduced approximately 60 among women in the highest quintile of soy consumption, compared with those in the lowest quintile of soy consump-tion.39 However, this relationship was observed only in premenopausal women. In a larger hospital-based study in Japan, those women consuming soy three or more times per week had approximately 20 lower risk of Premenopausal women only Hospital-based study premenopausal only Includes both pre- and postmenopausal Includes both pre- and postmenopausal Soy intake estimated by metabolite excretion. Both pre- and postmenopausal Postmenopausal breast cancer than those women who consumed soy less frequently. Again, the findings of a protective relationship were restricted to...

Assessment and other issues

Plasma homocysteine comes predominantly from dietary methionine, although concentrations are sensitive to dietary vitamin B12, folate and pyridoxine, the vitamin co-factors associated with its metabolism (Fig. 3.3). Normal homo-cysteine concentrations are higher in men than in premenopausal women, but increase with age especially after age 60.

Strength of evidence

The only dietary factors which have been shown to increase the risk for breast cancer are obesity and alcohol. Obesity increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women by around 50 , probably by increasing serum concentrations of free estradiol (43). Obesity does not increase risk among premenopausal women, but obesity in premenopausal women is likely to lead to obesity throughout life and therefore to an eventual increase in breast cancer risk. For alcohol, there is now a large body of data from well-designed studies which consistently shows a small increase in risk with increasing consumption, with about a 10 increase in risk for an average of one alcoholic drink every day (45). The mechanism for this association is not known, but may involve increases in estrogen levels (46). Overweight and obesity (oesophagus, colorectum, breast in postmenopausal women, endometrium, kidney) Alcohol (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx,

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

The protective effect of vegetables has also been observed for hormone-related cancers, such as breast cancer. A recently published case control study found a strong inverse association between total vegetable intake and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.8 A risk reduction of 54 was seen in women with the highest intake of vegetables compared with those with the lowest intake. The protective effect appeared to be due to the synergistic effect of a variety of substances in the vegetables. A Greek study also noted that vegetable and fruit consumption was independently associated with significant reductions in the incidence of breast cancer.9 Women consuming four to five servings of vegetables per day had a 46 lower risk of breast cancer, compared with women consuming less than two servings a day. Furthermore, women consuming six servings of fruit a day had a 35 lower risk of breast cancer than women consuming less than two servings a day.

Micronutrients Cramps

Boron enhances and mimics some effects of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1992 58 237. 23. Villareal DT, et al. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with low vertebral bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 72 628. 28. Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Int. Med. 1991 115 505.

Can Osteoporosis Occur Earlier in Life

Although osteoporosis is most often diagnosed in postmenopausal women, it should be noted that signs of osteoporosis have been observed in younger women as well. Younger female athletes who are excessively lean can reduce or halt their estrogen production and establish the opportunity for bone loss. In addition, the positive effects of weight-bearing exercise are not apparent in excessively lean women. The positive effects of resistance training will not balance out the negative impact of reduced estrogen levels. Anorexia nervosa, which is most common in teenage and younger adult women, is characterized by abnormally low body weight. This state can also reduce estrogen production and invoke bone demineralization.

Preferred Form and Dosage Schedule

Villareal DT, Civitelli R, Chines A, et al. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with low vertebral bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 72 628. 8. Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1991 115 505.

Spectrum of Bone Health

The third component of the triad is related to the athlete's bone health. In the initial Triad Position Stand 2 , this component was termed osteoporosis, which is defined as a degenerative skeletal disease most common to postmenopausal women and characterized by compromised bone strength 53 . Today, it is recognized that bone strength, as a triad component, also occurs along a spectrum that spans from low bone mass and stress fractures to osteoporosis, which is considered the most severe condition. in the clinical setting to evaluate bone health and fracture risk in premeno-pausal and postmenopausal women 2,9,59,61 .

Estrogen Loss Is A Risk Factor For Latelife Cognitive Dysfunction

One of the first compelling pieces of evidence that postmenopausal estrogen-replacement might protect against Alzheimer's disease in elderly women was the epidemiological study by Mayeux and coworkers (Tang et al.,1996) that showed a high correlation between estrogen use and lowered incidence of AD. Their study, which analyzed a large group of postmenopausal women in the New York City area, determined that if estrogen-replacement was undertaken for even as little as 1 year, a woman was 50 less likely to get AD. Moreover, if estrogen-replacement was undertaken for more than 1 year, a woman's risk for AD was reduced severalfold (Figure 8.4). In related studies, animal experiments demonstrated that ovariectomy-induced estrogen-loss without replacement resulted in a measurable loss of cognitive function, that could be essentially prevented by estrogen-replacement (Singh et al., 1994 reviewed in Green and Simpkins, 2000). In considering these data however, it is crucially important to...

Prevalence of Low Bone Mass in Athletes

The prevalence of low bone mass and osteoporosis in athletes is difficult to address because of the differences in diagnostic criteria used among organizations and the fact that BMD data using DXA are not as easily and inexpensively collected. In general, using the World Health Organization classification for postmenopausal women 59 , the prevalence of osteopenia in female athletes has been reported to be 22 to 50 , with a relatively low prevalence of osteoporosis 63 . Considering the new ISCD and IOC criteria, women with low T-scores or Z-scores would now be considered as having low BMD for chronologic age or below the expected range (ISCD Position Statement, 2005). More recently, Torstveit and Sundgot-Borgen 64 have applied these new criteria in a sample of 186 elite athletes and found that 10.7 had a BMD below the expected range for age.

Vitamins and Vascular Disease

For example, one recent study followed 520 smoking and non-smoking men and postmenopausal women for three years and examined them for progression of atherosclerotic disease using an ultrasonogram to make the measurement objective.377 Researchers found that men given a combination of vitamins C and E experienced a 74 percent reduction in atherosclerosis. Other studies have shown that vitamin C improves the function of the endothelial cells within blood vessels, which greatly improves blood flow.378

Raw Evolutionary Diets Dont Work In Practice

there was a letter from Montrame which explained (their version) of the reasons and the course of events of Mrs. Burger's death. The letter explained that both Burgers acquired the habit of eating lots of meat during an experimental phase, after they and their friends discovered the beneficial effects of raw meats, particularly for people who suffered from cancers. After some time Mr. Burger developed one small cancer-like melanoma on his legs, which was removed by surgery. He stopped eating meat for some time, then. After some time, Mrs. Burger, who already was in menopause, did get her period again. The reason was cancer. But Mrs. Burger was addicted and couldn't break the habit of eating meat, she didn't believe in her husband's new theory that meat can also cause cancer. She ate it every day and after Orkos stopped delivering it to her, she ordered through other people.

Coronary Vascular Disease

Postmenopausal women with diabetes have a twofold to fivefold increased risk of death from coronary-artery disease (72). Also, women who undergo simple hysterectomies and those who undergo bilateral oophorectomies have an increased risk of coronary-artery disease (72). In one study, women with diabetes who are prescribed hormonal-replacement therapy have been shown to be 40 percent less likely to suffer acute heart disease than women with diabetes who have never been prescribed hormonal-replacement therapy (72). Other studies, however, have shown no cardiovascular benefit from hormonal-replacement therapy (72). Women with insulin-treated diabetes were found to be more likely to develop coronary-artery disease than women treated with oral hypoglycemic medication or diet alone (72).

Klaus KA Witte and Andrew L Clark

Relationship Between Vit And Copper

Postmenopausal women with low intakes of calcium have higher mortality from IHD.2 Intriguing evidence from an experiment using chick embryos incubated without their shells, i.e., without their usual sources of calcium, suggests that severe calcium deficiency accelerates smooth muscle hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte proliferation

Black J. L. Robards G. E And Thomas R. 1973. Australian Journal Of Agricultural Research 24 399.

Blom, H.J., Boers, G.H.J., Trijbels, J.M.F., van Roessel, J.J.M. and Tangerman, A. (1988) Differences between premenopausal women and young men in the transamination pathway of methionine catabo-lism, and the protection against vascular disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 18, 633-638.

Complexities In The Existing Literature

If estrogen loss predisposed elderly women to AD, it is possible that estrogen treatment may have therapeutic effects for AD patients. But a recently completed clinical trial demonstrated that in already-diagnosed AD patients, estrogen therapy was not effective in either attenuating symptoms, or in slowing progression of the neurodegeneration, demonstrating that estrogen therapy is not a viable option for AD patients (Mulnard et al., 2000). The preponderance of the experimental data, however, predicted that estrogen treatment of already-diagnosed AD patients would not have beneficial effects. It is extremely critical to consider whether qualitatively different effects would have been obtained if a clinical trial had been carried out with women at risk for, but not yet diagnosed with, AD. Given the public health issues involved, such a clinical trial, expensive and long term though it may be, may be the only way to determine whether giving estrogen or estrogen alternatives in the...

Valerian Root Valeriana Officinalis

Use Three decades of extensive research have shown that valerian root is like a minor tranquilizer. It is known as a sleeping aid, and it might be useful for insomnia, mild anxiety and restlessness, lowering blood pressure, and reducing symptoms of menstruation and menopause. To date, it has not been proven to be habit-forming.

Measuring Nutrigenomic Factors

A number of studies looking at BIA of individuals from young to older ages have shown a general trend toward lower fat-free mass after the age of 50 years.23 A recent study used BIA to assess body composition of 995 acutely or chronically ill patients at hospital admission and found that the fat-free mass was significantly lower, and fat mass significantly higher in the patients, as compared to 995 healthy age and height matched controls.24 A study comparing 131 patients on chronic hemodialysis with 272 age and sex matched healthy controls found that a change in phase angle was the strongest predictor of poor prognosis in the hemodialysis patients. It seemed to be a reliable detector of clinically overt depletion of lean body mass and changes in intracellular electrolyte and fluid bal-ances.25 Another study demonstrated that patients with both overt and subclinical thyroid disease had altered phase angle and bioimpedance values. This study suggests that it may be a useful tool in the...

Fluoride Fractures and Fragile Bones

In one review of all articles reporting on the use of fluoride to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, Dr. Louis Avioli, professor at the Washington University School of Medicine, concluded that the use of fluoride was accompanied by so many complications and side effects that it was not worth using in cases of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially since it increased the risk of hip fractures and other stress fractures in the arms and legs. Another interesting study by Dr. Mary Fran Sowers and co-workers examined 827 women aged twenty to eighty years in three rural Iowa communities over a five-year period for bone mineral density and incidence of fractures.131 The study was unusual for several reasons. First, they looked at both young, premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women. Second, they compared water systems not only containing varying amounts of fluoride but also concentrations of calcium. The young women, as well as postmenopausal older women, had a significantly...

The Reproductive Years

The time between menarche and menopause, during which reproduction is possible, spans a period of almost 40 years in women. Although the presence of menstrual bleeding is often equated with the ability to conceive, establishing a pregnancy actually depends on the presence of a normal ovarian cycle (i.e., a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle). If vegetarianism affected women's reproduction, it would necessarily affect the characteristics of the ovarian cycle. To provide background information for an examination of this issue, the normal ovarian cycle will be described, as will subclinical and clinical disturbances of the cycle and their potential impact on reproduction. This will be followed by a discussion of the effects of various dietary and non-dietary factors on cycle characteristics, and finally, by a review of the available literature assessing whether differences exist between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The normal ovulatory cycle described above does not invariably occur...

Hormonelike compounds

To produce the same estrogenic effect as one molecule of estradiol. Every phytoestrogen molecule that hooks onto an estrogen receptor displaces a stronger estrogen molecule. As a result, researchers suggested that consuming isoflavone-rich foods such as soy products may provide post-menopausal women with the benefits of estrogen (stronger bones and relief from hot flashes) without the higher risk of reproductive cancers (of the breast, ovary, or uterus) associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The theory was supported by the fact that the incidence of breast and uterine cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal discomfort is lower in countries where soy a primary source of phytoestrogens is a significant part of the diet. 1 Demonstrate that isoflavone-rich foods have only modest effects on preserving bone and relieving hot flashes at menopause

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Menopause phase in a woman's life during which ovulation and menstruation ends and one in five in the United States, dies from heart disease each year. In the United States, CAD has declined more rapidly in whites than in blacks. CAD affects women ten years later than men, mostly due to the protective production of estrogen. After menopause, a woman is two times more susceptible to heart disease than women who have not reached menopause.

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Animal protein contains considerably more sulfur as methionine and cysteine. These amino acids cause a higher acid load with the omnivore diet, which appears to be partially retained as a major component of the pathogenesis of bone disease and muscle wasting in aging.16 This helps to explain the improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated orally with potassium-bicarbonate.16 Also, lipid peroxidation is enhanced with decreasing extracellular pH. Acidic pH releases iron from safe binding sites where this free iron then enhances free radical activity.17 Thus, the lower sulfur and phosphorus intake on an all-plant diet appears to provide a significant longevity advantage for elderly subjects.

Individual Vitamins And Influence Of Exercise

Vitamin K serves a function in bone mineralization. This was found after the observation that the intake of anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonists) influences bone formation processes. Accordingly, the role of vitamin K on bone formation and the prevention of osteoporosis is currently under study (237). Recently the effect of vitamin K supplementation, 10 mg day, has been studied in eight female endurance athletes, four of whom had been amenorrhoeic for more than one year, while the remaining four had been using oral contraceptives. Such female endurance athletes have depressed oestrogen levels and may develop mineral loss from bone to an extent comparable to postmenopausal women. It was observed that in all subjects increased vitamin K intake was associated with a 15-20 increase in markers of bone formation and a parallel decrease of 20-25 in markers of bone resumption, suggesting an improved balance between bone formation and loss (238). Further research seems to be justified to...

Beef pork lamb and vealTotal fat grams

Research shows that a person's risk of developing heart disease and diabetes is greatly increased when fat is distributed above the waist, such as the abdomen area. Males tend to gain weight in the waist which places them at greater risk than females, who tend to gain weight below the waist. Sometimes this is called the apple or the pear referring to the shape of the body. The apple shape is not exclusively male. The hormonal changes of menopause tend to cause a shift of weight from the hips to the waist. In addition, women after the age of menopause are at increased risk of heart disease, like males. I am going through menopause. Is this preventing me from losing weight Humans tend to gain weight as they age. This is due to a number of factors including a changing set point, a change in muscle mass, a change in fat distribution and often a decrease in physical activity. Menopause generally occurs around the age of 50, which is the time when all of these factors come into play....

Intersection of the nutrition science and clinical axes defining the response phenotype

Two of the 51 studies investigated soy protein efficacy in type II diabetic subjects. The criteria for study subject selection in the rest of the 51 studies were fairly broad and included men and pre- and post-menopausal women of various ages and body mass index. Baseline clinical measurements were made in most, but not all, cases after a defined dietary run-in period. The run-in and intervention diets were not standardized across the studies and varied significantly (26 studies used habitual diets, 13 studies specified diets and nine, two and one study used the NCEP Step I, Step II and Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) diets, respectively). In effect, the AHRQ endeavored to draw general conclusions on the ability of soy protein to lower serum cholesterol as a function of (variable soy protein) x (variable background diet) x (variable subject genetics). Even a potent cholesterol-lowering drug would be challenged in such a scenario and it should...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

High fiber, low fat vegetarian diets have been associated with reduced blood estrogen levels and increased menstrual irregularity.72-75 Large volumes of exercise have also been related to menstrual irregularity.1,76-78 Approximately 5-20 of women who exercise regularly and vigorously, and up to 50-65 of competitive athletes may develop oligo-amenor-rhea.76,77 The causes are hotly debated, but may include the effect of exercise itself on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, low energy intake, and depleted fat stores in the female athlete.1,76-78 Amenorrheic athletes typically display reduced levels of estradiol and progesterone and have hormonal profiles more similar to those of postmenopausal women. The reduced levels of endogenous estrogen associated with athletic amen-orrhea may prevent the formation of adequate bone density.1,76,77 The syndrome of amenorrhea, disordered eating (and often excessive exercise), and osteoporosis is called the female athlete triad. 76

Vegetarian Nutrition References

Haematological studies on premenopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores. Br. J. Nutr, 64, 331, 1990. 64. Sebastian, A., Harris, S.T., Ottaway, J.H., Todd, K.M., and Morris, R.C., Jr. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate see comments . N. Engl. J. Med., 330, 1776, 1994. 67. Ball, D. and Maughan, R.J. Blood and urine acid-base status of premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women. Br. J. Nutr., 78, 683, 1997. 72. Tesar, R., Notelovitz, M., Shim, E., Kauwell, G., and Brown, J. Axial and peripheral bone density and nutrient intakes of postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 56, 699, 1992. 73. Lloyd, T., Schaeffer, J.M., Walker, M.A., and Demers, L.M. Urinary hormonal concentrations and spinal bone densities of premenopausal vegetarian and non-vegetarian women published erratum appears in Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 1992 Nov 56(5) 954...

Dietary data in Europe European surveys

Eligible subjects were generally drawn from the general population, residing in a given geographical area. In some countries different sampling frames were used in order to ensure a good participation rate and complete follow-up this did not seriously violate the sampling scheme of a cohort study. According to the study protocol, men over 40 years and women over 35 years of age were recruited. The lower age limit for women was selected to ensure a sufficient number of subjects for investigating risk factors for premenopausal cancers. The upper age limit of the cohort is less precisely defined and varies between 60 and 74 years, depending on the study centre.

Antioxidantsyour Ace Against Oxygen Rebels

As an antioxidant, beta-carotene is a star performer. Doctors at Harvard Medical School, who have been following twenty-two thousand male physicians as part of a ten-year health study, found that men with a history of cardiac disease who were given beta-carotene supplements every other day suffered half as many heart attacks, strokes, and deaths as those given a placebo. A study is now underway to evaluate forty-five thousand postmenopausal women to determine if the treatment protects women in the same way. Scientists speculate that beta-carotene may help to decrease the impact of toxic radicals on blood lipids like LDL and lipoprotein-a, which are instrumental in the development of heart disease. Special interest has been directed toward the role of beta-carotene in combating cancer. In countries with a diet rich in beta-carotene, incidence of lung, colon, prostate, cervical, and breast cancer is low. That, of course, could be attributed to a number of factors, and there are some...


Aging bones tend to lose minerals and density, gradually becoming thinner and more fragile. In osteoporosis, loss of bone mineral has progressed to the point where fractures can occur with minimal or no trauma. Although both men and women can develop osteoporosis, it is much more common in older women. This is because loss of endogenous estrogens during menopause sharply accelerates bone loss. In severe cases, up to 20 of the mineral content of the skeleton can be lost in the 3-5 years of the menopause. Osteoporosis progresses silently, and often the first indication of its presence is a fracture of the hip or spine. Optimum nutrition can substantially reduce risk of osteoporosis.19

GABA and Depression

Depression is one of the most common conditions in the UK, affecting one in five people at some stage in their life . The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by 2020 depression will be the biggest global health concern after chronic heart disease Depression occurs in children, adolescents, women in menopause, the elderly, or those with mental disorder, especially in menopause 27,28 The symptom of depression in menopause will cause mood obstacles about 10 years later 28,29 Murphy et al . 36 found that during the treatment process for menopause disorder by estrogen replacement (such as estradiol), expression of the GABA receptor, GAD of the hippocampus neuron, and synthesis of GABA decreased in the rat brain Even for alcoholism, the GABA content in plasma decreased and the symptoms of neurosis (anorexia, sense of pain) and mental disorder (depression, mania, anxiety) were significant 37 Therefore, supply of GABA and enhancement of activity of the GABA receptor improve...


The purpose of this chapter is to assess the adequacy of vegetarian diets in maintaining normal reproductive function in women throughout their life-span. At the outset, this topic may appear simplistic vegetarian women, like omnivorous women, pass through puberty, some bear children, then pass through menopause. Yet, nutrition-related variables have the potential to exert either subtle or profound influences on reproductive capacity, and whether these differ between vegetarian and omnivorous women has received relatively little systematic study. For each segment of women's reproductive lives (the pubertal transition, the years between menarche and menopause, and the menopausal transition), the normal physiology and endocrinology will be briefly reviewed. The potential influence of various dietary factors will then be described, and this will be followed by a discussion of the available data comparing vegetarians and omnivores. It should be noted that references to reproductive...

Reproductive Factors

At the time of menopause, age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer slow markedly, and the rate of increase in the postmenopausal period is only about one sixth the rate of increase in the premenopausal period. In their study, Tri-chopolous and colleagues18 found that women who experienced natural menopause (defined as cessation of periods) before age 45 had only one half the breast cancer risk of those whose menopause occurred after age 55.


Generally speaking, men tend to have higher homocysteine levels than women the same age. And in women, homocysteine levels often increase after menopause, which can lead to a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, homocysteine increases with impaired metabolism of homocysteine by the kidney. For this reason, total homocysteine levels are much higher in patients with chronic kidney disease.


Oestrogens reduce the rate of tryptophan metabolism, so where pellagra is common, twice as many women as men are affected. However, before puberty and after menopause there are no sex differences. It is generally believed that 1 NE is equivalent to 60 mg of tryptophan or 1 mg dietary niacin.

Female Bodybuilders

Olympics, have a problem with amenorrhea or a cessation of menstruation. This seems to occur even if the women are not taking steroids. Some of the women I train reported this problem when their percentage of body fat dropped below 10-12 percent of body weight. Ideally, their percentage of body fat should be above 15 percent to prevent amenorrhea, although this level differs with each woman and will change during different times in her life. Many female athletes have said that their menstrual cycle resumes normally after slowing down on training and raising their percentage of body fat however, this is not guaranteed. Because of this, I advise female bodybuilders to cut their training schedule and increase their percentage of body fat when they have missed their menstrual cycle for over two months. However, the problem must not be ignored. Amenorrhea and irregular menstruating cycles can also be caused by other factors, such as pituitary gland tumors, premature menopause, or an...

Osteoporosis Is

In the United States alone, .5 million bone fractures annually are attributed to this bone disease each year. About 0 million Americans over age fifty have osteoporosis about 34 million more have low bone mass, making them at higher risk for osteoporosis. Of those with osteoporosis, about 80 percent are women. In fact, by the time women go through menopause, nearly one in three has developed osteoporosis. Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. More people have osteoporosis than report it four times as many men and nearly three times as many women. Gender. If you're female, you're about four times more likely than males to develop osteoporosis ( ) On average, most women have less bone mass to start with and they lose it faster as they get older. (2) In young women, the hormone estrogen helps deposit calcium in bones. But as estrogen levels drop with menopause, bones are no longer protected. For the first five years after menopause, usually starting at age fifty, they lose...


Alendronate (brand name Fosamax) is a medication that is used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the drug reduces bone loss, increases bone density in both the spine and the hip, and reduces the risk of spine and hip fractures. 2. After age 30, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation. Bone loss is most rapid in the first few years after menopause.

Exogenous Hormones

More recently, Marchbanks et al.78 report null findings from the large Women's CARE study (Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences) that included more than 9000 subjects recruited in five U.S. sites. Although they found case subjects had significantly lower parity, older ages at first birth, higher reports of family history of breast cancer, later age at menopause, and less use of hormone replacement therapies, they found no significant association between current OC use (RR 1.0 95 CI 0.8 to 1.3) or former use (RR 0.9 95 CI 0.8 Postmenopausal hormone replacement regimens include a large number of different estrogen and progestin combinations, unopposed estrogen formulations, doses, and routes of therapy such as oral or transdermal. Since the 1990s numerous observational studies on the impact of HRT on breast cancer risk have been conducted. In the Women's CARE study, a large case-control study of 1847 postmenopausal women with incident breast cancer and 1932 control...

Soy and Your Heart

Among the many benefits of soy are the potential for lowering one's risk of heart disease, menopausal bone loss, breast and prostate cancer, and osteoporosis. The results of a 1995 meta-analysis (combining results from separate but related studies) published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that consuming an average of 47 grams of soy protein a day, rather than animal protein, significantly decreased LDL cholesterol in people with moderately elevated or elevated cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins (LPLs) are the bad type of cholesterol and have been associated with clogged arteries and heart attacks). The study also found that high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol (the beneficial, or good, cholesterol) was not affected by the consumption of soy protein. menopausal related to menopause, the period during which women cease to ovulate and menstruate


A recent area of concern related to tobacco use has been nonsmokers' exposure to second-hand smoke. Parental smoking has been proven to contribute to increased rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in addition to chronic illnesses in children such as asthma, bronchitis, colds, and pneumonia. Pregnant women who chew tobacco, smoke, or are exposed to second-hand smoke have a higher risk of miscarriage and of giving birth to low birth weight babies, who are prone to infection. Women who smoke are more likely to be victims of primary and secondary infertility, to have delays in conceiving, and to have an increased risk of early menopause and low bone density ( Current Issues and Forthcoming Events ). Most women are unaware of these dangers. Not only can the expectant mother place her unborn fetus in danger, but she can also place herself at risk for future smok-ing-related diseases and early mortality.

Black Cohosh

Use Some women take this for PMS and menopausal symptoms, but nothing has been clinically verified in humans. (However, it is big in Europe.) It suppresses the leutinizing hormone and therefore helps control hormone surges that cause discomforting menopausal symptoms. Relieving physical symptoms can lead to improving the emotional symptoms. In other words, some women get entirely depressed because they feel so physically lousy. Improve the hot flushes, bloating, etc., and the depression can sometimes improve.

Dr Hyla Cass

The kind of progesterone I recommend is a natural progesterone, not the progesterone that's in the regular phamaceutical birth control pills or the hormones that are administered by prescription. It's a derivative from wild yams that's available in health food stores. It's also useful for menopausal symptoms. symptoms. I sent her to the lab and it turned out she was very low in progesterone, low in estrogen, but particularly low in progesterone. So I put her on the progesterone creme. It really helped. Her irritability went way down. She started to realize that a lot of the uneasiness she was feeling was really chemical. It wasn't simply a psychological, personal issue. It really had to do with what was going on in her body, that her hormones were changing, and that it had been such a subtle change over time. Although she was still menstruating, she was peri-menopausal. Peri-menopausal women will often think that it's psychological, and not think to look at what's going on...

Soy and Cancer

There has been much debate and disagreement about soy consumption and its role in breast cancer. Similar in chemical structure to estrogen, isoflavones are in fact, weak estrogens, and they may act as such in the body. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to increase breast density, a factor in breast-cancer risk (as breast density increases, so does the risk for breast cancer), while recent soy studies have found that soy use in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women did not affect breast density.

Diet and Bone Health

Osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones with aging, results in hunched backs and brittle bones that break easily. Particularly among older post-menopausal women, osteoporosis is a serious health problem. In a survey of more than 200,000 healthy women 50 years or older, 40 percent had osteopenia (reduced bone mass, the early stage of osteoporosis) and Younger female athletes who have stopped having regular menstrual periods are also at risk for low bone density that can develop into osteoporosis. Both amenorrheic and postmenopausal women lack adequate estrogen, a hormone that contributes to menstruation and helps maintain bone density. The low bone density of a 29-year-old woman, a former amenorrheic runner, has left her living in pain and doubting if her bones will be able to withstand the weight of a pregnancy.

Lifestyle Factors

Paper by Band et al.27 isolates the competing effects of cigarette smoking by stratifying smoking study subjects by menopausal status, and, among those who are parous, comparing the time of smoking initiation relative to first pregnancy. In contrast to postmenopausal women, circulating estrogen levels in premenopausal women do not appear to be strongly affected by smoking.28 Among pre-menopausal women, the beginning of smoking before the first pregnancy occurrence was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio OR 1.47, 95 confidence interval CI 1.02 to 2.10). According to the authors, this finding might reflect a different degree of susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogens, resulting from maturation and differentiation of breast tissue in response to hormonal events occurring during pregnancy. Among postmeno-pausal women, those who began smoking after their first pregnancy were relatively protected against breast cancer (adjusted OR 0.63, 0.41 to...

Previous page

CHD results from chronic exposure to both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors (3). Modifiable risk factors include an elevated plasma total cholesterol level, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDl) cholesterol, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as well as smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, elevated levels of some blood coagulation factors, fibrinogen and factor VII, and elevated plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels also are considered to be modifiable risk factors for CHD. Furthermore, altered production of important bioactive compounds (e.g. prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes) which affect platelet function, and in turn thrombosis tendency, also are thought to affect CHD risk. Non-modifiable risk factors include a strong family history and age (i.e. in men age 45 years and older, and in women due to menopausal status age 55 years and older, is a positive risk factor).

Endogenous Hormones

The hormone-responsive nature of many breast tumors has led many to hypothesize that endogenous hormones play a causal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Indeed, this hypothesis has been supported both by animal models and in vitro research, but challenges in epidemiologic study design and implementation have postponed arrival at a consensus regarding even the most strongly implicated hormones, such as estrogens. The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a pooled analysis of nine prospective cohort studies that employed careful specimen collection, storage, and analytic procedures to investigate the relationship between sex-steroid hormone levels and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.36 They examined risk of postmenopausal breast cancer by quintiles of serum hormone levels and found that estrogens and andro-gens were significantly and independently associated with increases in breast The evidence is mixed with respect to the effects of...


Iron stores tend to be lower in premenopausal women, adolescents, and young children. Such groups are at highest risk of iron deficiency. In such individuals, iron absorption may be enhanced by the body's need for iron. In pregnant women, additional iron above the woman's normal needs is required for fetal growth. In growing children and adolescents, there is a rapidly expanding blood volume and muscle mass that requires iron. Women of childbearing years have higher iron needs due to additional menstrual losses of iron.


And don't forget the phytosterols, steroidlike compounds in plants that sop up cholesterol in your gut and zip it out of your body before it reaches your bloodstream. Phytosterols, the heart-healthy ingredients in Take Control and Benecol margarines, are found in cocoa beans and chocolate, leading canny researchers at the University of California-Berkeley Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Department of Nutrition to investigate whether drinking a cocoa beverage once a day or eating a chocolate chew twice a day can lower cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women.


Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1990 322 802. 13. Pak CYC, et al. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with slow release sodium fluoride Final report of a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1995 123 401. 14. Eastell R. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1998 338 736.

Calcium Intake

Athletes with low daily energy intake or those who follow a weight reduction programme may therefore have a marginal calcium intake. Females, especially long distance runners, have often been found to have calcium intakes that are lower than the RDA, probably as a result of relatively low energy intakes (37, 59, 84,131, 206). It has been reported (87) that a calcium intake of 1500 mg day is required to achieve calcium balance in postmenopausal women not receiving oestrogen replacement therapy. Barr (9) concluded from these data that female athletes who are amenorrhoeic and have low oestrogen levels should ingest 1500 mg

Fat Foods

Flax seeds and flax seed oils should be a daily part of your diet. These products contain the heart-healthy omega 3 fats you keep hearing so much about. As mentioned, these oils have been shown to have benefits in disease reduction, improving intelligence, reducing depression, boosting metabolism and increasing muscle building. Heck, they've even been shown to reduce the symptoms of menopause in women. Flex those muscles with flax.


Intense research over the past decade has shown that soybean has health-promoting properties and may be useful in lowering the risk of heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, menopausal symptoms, and other problems. Soy is now available in many different kinds of foods such as tofu, soy atherosclerotic arteries.82 Isoflavones have also improved arterial compliance in menopausal women.94 D. Help for Menopause and Bone Loss Soy products are being studied for their potential use as hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Japanese women who regularly consume soy products report less frequent and fewer hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms than American and European women who do not eat soy products. A 3-month clinical trial observed a beneficial effect of soy protein on the frequency of hot flushes in postmenopausal women.104 Italian researchers observed a significant decrease in the average number of hot flushes experienced by postmenopausal women taking 60 g of soy protein...


Plements in preventing osteoporosis, the weight of evidence points towards a role for calcium deficiency in its genesis and for calcium therapy in its prevention and management, at least in postmenopausal women (Heaney, 2001). Increases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed following calcium supplementation in young, as well as in elderly subjects. However, although dietary calcium does play a major role in optimisation of bone mineralisation it is by no means the only factor involved (Prentice, 1997).



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