What to Eat to Live Longer

Anti Aging Made Easy

Anti Aging Made Easy

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The Ancients Longevity And The Secret

The longevity of the biblical patriarchs is legendary. Consider how the Bible Code discovery mirrors the 8 most important bioactive fruits of the ancient Essenes grape (vine), dates, olives, figs, pomegranates, apricots, carob, and small yellow apples. The Essenes are a religious group originally based in the Dead Sea region of Israel. They are historically known for the raw-vegetarian dietary philosophy, well-developed wisdom, and remarkable longevity. The Essenes are still around today - at the moment, the worldwide Essene Church is headed by raw-foodist Reverend David Owen (see Organizations at the end of this book). Again we see such longevity in the Bulgarians, who are the longest-lived people in present-day Europe. They often reach ages exceeding 105 and even up to 125. Their simple diet consists of fruits (sugar, vegetables (chlorophyll), and sour milk or buttermilk (fat). They are a thin people typically weighing between 122 and 130 pounds (56 and 59 kilograms). This again...

Life Extension Worksheet

Exercise minutes per day Years consumed exercising to age 65 Net life extension after exercising, years Net life extension after exercising, days But, if by exercising you manage to live 3 years longer, you're ahead by a total of two and three quarters years by age 65 1000 days. Your increased life span works out to an additional 172 minutes per day from age 40 through 65. Even after spending 15 minutes exercising, the life extension you can expect from getting into shape gives you what amounts to two and half more hours per day to do whatever you enjoy most Even if you live only one additional year through physical fitness, you'll still end up with 270 more days by exercising.

Fats and Longevity

Eat fatty raw plant foods for longevity. Living a long and vibrant life is a matter of minimizing free radical damage to the body through a diet rich in antioxidants. Essential fatty acids have an abundance of electrons. The spare electrons in fats help sweep toxins along to the liver. In a healthy body, there are spare electrons and having spare electrons equates into achieving longevity. Humans should live longer than any other mammal on Earth because humans can consciously control the amount and quality of food material entering the body. If the intake of this food is decreased to a pleasant frugal minimum (but still includes high-quality raw plant fats, which are antioxidants), then the obstructions and free radicals in the system will be decreased to a minimum. In this way, the system becomes abundant in electrons, is more efficient (well-oiled), and operates with less friction, thus maximizing longevity.

Life Expectancy

The term life expectancy is used to describe the average life span of an individual. Life expectancy can vary considerably in different areas of the world. Compared to other advanced countries, for example, people in the United States die earlier and spend more time disabled (WHO, 2000). Factors that affect life expectancy in the United States include (1) the HIV epidemic, (2) cancers relating to tobacco, (3) high rates of coronary heart disease, (4) poor health among minority groups living in rural areas, and (5) high levels of violence. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the Japanese have the longest healthy life expectancy (74.5) among 191 countries the organization examined in 2000. In contrast, the shortest life expectancy (26 years) exists among the people of Sierra Leone. These figures were based on a new method of calculating healthy life expectancy called Disability Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE), which was developed by the WHO. DALE summarizes the expected...

What Causes Free Radicals

It was observed many years ago that underfeeding lengthens the life spans of several species of lower animals. This finding has been reproduced in scientific studies several times since then. At least two highly respected scientists maintain a very low food intake in an effort to increase their longevity. While no one has specifically connected free-radical generation to the phenomenon of aging, it is obvious that one of the effects of underfeeding is a reduction in the production of thyroid hormones and a slowing of metabolism. It is also well known that overfeeding, especially of high-energy foods like sugars and carbohydrates, dramatically increases metabolism and hence free-radical generation. So the whole effect of low-calorie diets may be related to decreasing metabolism and, therefore, a better way to increase longevity is to improve the body's antioxidant defenses rather than dramatically and dangerously lowering nutrient intake. Along this same line, but less well-known, is...

How Are Humans Nourished

Humans are needy from a nutritional perspective. We have an inescapable need for numerous substances, some of which we cannot make internally and others we can, which we call nutrients. Quite simply, a nutrient is a substance that in some way nourishes the body. It will either provide energy or promote the growth, development and maintenance of our body, or promote optimal function, health, and longevity.

Regulating Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives

The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.

Summary And Conclusions

When attempting to conclude whether these trends support a causal protective effect of low meat consumption, two major questions must be addressed. First, does confounding by the high prevalence of healthful behaviors among vegetarians bias the effect of low meat consumption toward greater protection Second, is the apparent protective effect of a low meat intake diet attributable, at least in part, to the benefits obtained from plant foods that replace meats in the diet The findings from this chapter do, to a noteworthy extent, address the first question in their indication that a significant reduction in risk for very low meat intake persists even after controlling for a number of important predictors of longevity (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, education, body mass index) in very health conscious study populations (i.e., Adventist Studies, Oxford Vegetarian Society Study). It is not possible, however, to adequately address the second question using the current data. Thus,...

A lot and a little versus the middle

This is better According to a recent report from the Alberta (Canada) Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission, the J-curve may also describe the relationship between alcohol and stroke, alcohol and diabetes, alcohol and bone loss, and alcohol and longevity. The simple fact is that moderate drinkers appear to live longer, healthier lives than either teetotalers or alcohol abusers. Cheers

Transition in the Nutritional Status on Pregnant Women

Summary In most developing countries, including Chile, an epidemiologic and nutrition transition has taken place, the former characterized by an increase of the population due to a reduced mortality, followed by a decrease in fertility and an increase in longevity. The nutrition transition has been characterized by an increase in the consumption of fats and simple sugars and a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake. This, together with a decrease in physical activity, has contributed to an increase in the prevalence of obesity in fertile women. Data collected from 36 developing countries showed that in 32 of them, overweight was more prevalent than underweight in urban areas, while in 53 (19 36) underweight was more prevalent in rural areas compared to urban settings. In all of those countries, the prevalence of overweight was significantly correlated with gross national income per capita. Different surveys in Chile have shown that 90 of homes have a television set, 60 of all families...

The Very Basics of Humans and the World We Inhabit

Yet, we are special in that we have a relatively large brain and the intellectual capacity to try to understand ourselves and, in accordance, how we are to be nourished. In this chapter we will begin to explore the very basis of our being and the world we live in. This will begin to set the stage for understanding what it will take to nourish our body for optimal health and longevity. We will answer questions about basic concepts such as elements, atoms, molecules, oxidation, chemical reactions, water solubility, and acids and bases. If you have a science background this chapter might seem too rudimentary and you might consider moving on to the next chapter.

Summary of Body Composition Assessment

What has been described has been the status quo for assessing protein-calorie nutrition, but what are our needs of improving current methods or of developing new methods The development of accurate, inexpensive, noninvasive, portable methods of estimating body composition, body hydration, and fat patterning would facilitate greatly future investigations. Areas for particular interest for study are the complex relationships between changes in body composition and nutritional status, physiological and psychological health, resistance to acute and chronic diseases, and longevity in normal and clinical circumstances. Future work should emphasize comparisons between men and women for biological, social, and behavioral factors affecting changes with age in body composition. However, the most pressing need is for the development of reference data for anthropometry and body composition in large representative samples of African, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, and Asian Americans of all ages....

Foreword by Pr Thieu Nghiem

Antioxydants, vitamins and nutrients helped me bypass the bypass. Improved nutrition, as well as the daily practise of yoga, and Taoist physical exercizes reestablished my previous health. The progress and improvements observed as years passed by, and the new information available about human nutrition and longevity made me impatient. 2 We will come back later to this point which is contrary to certain popular beliefs. Three stages can be distinguished in the development of humanity man the hunter-gatherer, man the farmer and man the industrialist. During the farmer stage that preceded industrial man by a few thousand years, our ancestors' health was precarious and their life expectancy much lower than that of modern man. But, if we go even further back into the past, to the time when man was still a hunter-gatherer and did not transform his food before eating it, it can be seen that his health, despite a much more threatening and wild environment, was better than that of today's...

Mechanism Of Vitamin A Action

Despite the expectation of exquisite specificity fostered by the various discrete combinations of RAR and RXR isoforms, these receptors exhibit a great deal of apparent functional redundancy and or ability to compensate for loss of another. In gene knockout experiments, more than one receptor can perform the same function in vivo, although this may represent an artifact of the knockouts and demonstrate what can happen, not necessarily what does occur.11 Nevertheless, receptor ablation has provided enormous insight into receptor function. Deletion of the RARa gene results in postnatal lethality within 24 h RARa-null mice represent only 3 of the population by 1 to 2 months of age. Of these, 60 have webbed digits on both fore and hind limbs. A few mice survive 4 to 5 months, but no males are fertile, and all have severe degeneration of the testis germinal epithelium. RARP-null mice have locomotor defects, reminiscent of Parkinson's disease, but are fertile with normal longevity....

The safety of irradiated food

From the beginning of systematic studies in the late 1940s it was recognised that irradiated food needed careful toxicological study before the technology could be applied to food manufacturing and processing. It is useless to question why the word 'radiation' carries such a negative image and causes considerable suspicion, not only among lay persons, but also among many scientists. In such a situation, governments and food control authorities were well advised to restrict the application of the new technology. However, further results have become available and the final judgement has been stated by the World Health Organization (1981) as 'Irradiation of any commodity presents no toxicological hazard'. This means that governments and authorities are responsible for the consequences and recognise the radiation processing of food as safe and as simply one among several other technologies. There have been thorough chemical studies, leading to the principle of 'chemiclearance' and classes...

Being physically active

When you exercise regularly, you end up with more muscle tissue than the average bear. Because muscle tissue weighs more than fat tissue, athletes (even weekend warrior types) may end up weighing more than they did before they started exercising to lose weight. But a higher muscle-to-fat ratio is healthier and more important in the long run than actual weight in pounds. Exercise that changes your body's ratio of muscle to fat gives you a leg up in the longevity race.

Meat And The Pathology Of Human Disease

At present, much of the data directly relating caloric restriction to greater longevity comes primarily from rodent studies42 indicating that rodents undergoing caloric restriction experienced up to 30 increases in life span relative to those fed ad libitum. Also noteworthy is the data from rodents linking caloric restriction to higher cognitive performance, (i.e., spatial memory and learning tests), a possible marker for aging.43 These findings from animal models are concordant with data from one study of an elderly population (ages > 75 years) in which an inverse relation between total energy intake and cognitive function was docu-mented.44 One possible mechanism of action for these effects is that caloric restriction results in fewer free radicals introduced into the body, resulting in less oxidative stress. This mechanism could specifically explain the associations with cognitive function since brain parenchyma consists of post-mitotic cells that would be more susceptible to...

The Major Degenerative Diseases

Good health late in life depends largely on avoiding the major degenerative diseases associated with getting old. These common disorders greatly accelerate the aging process -preventing these conditions would allow many to live a healthy life well past the age of 100. (A detailed discussion of the nutritional prevention and treatment of each of these important disorders can be found in later sections.

Memory and Concentration Loss

During the aging process the number of functioning brain cells gradually decreases and smaller amounts of neurotransmitters are produced. These changes may impair memory and concentration. However, like most age-associated changes in function, there is great variability in the rate and degree of decline among people. The brain is very sensitive to proper nutrition, and needs a high blood flow and oxygen supply. Poor intake of micronutrients can interfere with mentation and memory and may accelerate functional losses associated with aging.9

Phytonutrients What Role in Health

Phytonutrients are bioactive compounds in food that promote your health by helping to slow the aging process or reducing the risk for many diseases. Since the early 1980s, research has intensified in investigating how phytonutrients protect against some cancers, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, cataracts, osteoporosis, urinary tract infections, and other chronic health conditions.

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Chronic diseases and the aging process. Cysteine and glutathione (by protecting DNA from free-radical damage) may help slow down aging changes6. The amount of glutathione in cells tends to decrease with age. Elderly people may benefit from supplements of cysteine or glutathione to maintain optimum glutathione activity.

Betacarotene And Vitamin A

Since beta-carotene and vitamin A share a close family relationship, their duties sometimes overlap. Beta-carotene is made by the plant within the human body it is converted into three kinds of vitamin A which are used in numerous ways. However, it is betacarotene that has smitten researchers with its potential as an antioxidant and in strengthening immunity. The body's immune system is designed to maintain our health and ward off unwanted invaders. We have white blood cells specially equipped to destroy cancer cells and bacteria before they have a chance to cause damage. The food we put into our mouths equips these cells to effectively and efficiently carry forward their work. They relish beta-carotene-rich foods and a low fat diet. When properly fed, the percentage of these killer cells significantly increases. Betacarotene counteracts the reduction of these killer cells, and the consequent loss of immune strength which naturally accompanies the aging process. *103

Antioxidantsyour Ace Against Oxygen Rebels

Free radicals are destabilized oxidized molecules which come in a variety of chemical forms. They can attack and destroy bystander molecules, setting off a chain reaction of cellular destruction which eventually assaults our DNA, causing normal cells to become cancerous. Without a way to neutralize these free radicals we would self-destruct. *80 They are believed to be important triggers of damage which leads to heart disease, and they are implicated in over one hundred other diseases. *81 They play a role in the aging process as well. Their discovery has changed the landscape of disease etiology. Fifty years ago a Canadian cardiologist reported that eighty percent of his heart disease patients had low blood levels of vitamin C. In 1954 another physician showed that vitamin C could reduce atherosclerotic deposits in his patients' arteries. In May 1992 the University of California, Los Angeles, reported on a study of eleven thousand Americans. They found that increasing the intake of...

Nutrient Drug Interactions

Medications have become an integral part of life for many people. Medicine serves to help people when they are sick, allowing them to live longer and healthier lives. With rapidly growing research and technology, medications are more beneficial, and new ones continue to be discovered. Drugs do need to be taken with caution, however. All medications, whether prescribed by a doctor or bought over-the-counter, are capable of harmful side effects. The foods people eat contain nutrients that are used by the body to produce energy. Sometimes, certain medications may interact with both the food eaten and the nutrients the food gives to the body for proper functioning. When the body is unable to use a nutrient due to a drug that has been taken, a nutrient-drug interaction has occurred.

Looking Into The Future

Projections have been made that within our children's lifetime, 1 in every 45 Americans will be living with Alzheimer's disease (Brookmeyer et al., 1998) since women live longer than men, the majority of these will be women. This will present interesting and serious public health issues, since historically women have been the primary caregivers. Taking into account the current prevalence of AD in the U.S., and everything that is known about the progression of the disease, Brookmeyer et al. (1998) projected that even a modest 1- or 2-year delay in the onset of AD will have a significant impact on the prevalence of the disease in 50 years. These projections underlie the urgent need for continued research to identify the molecular mechanisms that increase one's risk for AD and other dementias, and in turn the mechanisms that underlie potential neuroprotection by factors such as soy isoflavones and other phytochemicals.

Country Performance Trends across Time

Both actual and predicted values are in logarithmic form. For life expectancy and total fertility rate, the actual and predicted values are compared in their natural form, for example, number of years and number of births. A positive measure of life expectancy means the observed life expectancy for a certain country is higher than the predicted, given its income and education levels. Positive performance measures mean better performance for all health indicators but total fertility rate. For total fertility rate, the performance measure is calculated as the number of births observed that is higher than the prediction. A country with a positive fertility measure is a country with a higher total fertility rate than we would expect, considering its levels of income and education.

Greeks and Middle Easterners Diet of

The Mediterranean diet gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of chronic disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model goes far beyond the use of particular ingredients and recipes. It attains its full meaning in the context of climate, geography, customs, and the way of life of Mediterranean peoples.

Levels and Trends in Health Status

The tables provide convincing evidence of the substantial improvements in health outcomes occurring in most countries. Over the past 35 years, life expectancy has increased in virtually all countries, with infant and child mortality also improving substantially. Table D shows changes in life expectancy by region, and figure 11 shows trends in infant mortality rates for the world by region. Even in the Sub-Saharan African and South Asia regions, where health conditions are poorest, there have been large improvements in infant mortality rates and life expectancy. These regional and income aggregates mask an important fact, however while only a handful of countries have higher mortality now than in 1960, some countries have made much more progress than others. Moreover, there have been cases of reversals in the decline in mortality due to AIDS, chronic diseases, and regional conflicts. Figures 12 and 13 show trends in life expectancy in a number of countries, contrasting those Table D....

Comparing Residuals from Different Models

The regression results are summarized in table 4. Comparison with the results reported in table 1 shows some noticeable drops in the R2 values for all health indicators, especially for male adult mortality and male life expectancy. However, the models are still statistically significant these predictors could substantially explain the variance we found in the health outcome variables, based on the resultant P-values associated with the chi-square values. coefficient estimates, including all seven time points, range from 0.81 (for under-five mortality, total fertility rate, and female life expectancy) to 0.94 (for male adult mortality). The correlation matrix is presented in table 5, which also includes the correlation coefficients for each period. The high coefficients are observed throughout each period, and, interestingly, the correlation coefficients become stronger over time. This may be related to our finding that education and income are substitutes for each other,...

Regional Performance Trends across Time

To estimate the average regional performance on health outcomes as compared with the other regions, we developed regional profiles. The predicted health performance is calculated for each country, for each health measure, based on the results reported in table 1. Averaging the predicted health values for each country within the region, we get the predicted values for the region on mortality, fertility, and life expectancy. We then get the difference between these predicted values against the observed regional mean performance on the outcome measures in their logarithmic form. For the under-five mortality and adult mortality rates, we constructed the relative performance figures for life expectancy and total fertility rate, we calculated the absolute difference. Table 3 shows the results of these analyses. These performance measures are also plotted graphically and presented under the regional annexes. Note The relative regional performance on mortality is calculated as the amount the...

The Former Soviet Union Russian Federation

The most significant changes in CVD mortality have been observed in the region of the former Soviet Union (USSR). Between the years 1980 and 1990, male premature mortality was relatively stable in all regions of the USSR, and two to three times higher than in EU nations, or average. After the collapse of the USSR, CVD mortality began to rise dramatically in all the new independent states within the territory of the former USSR. In 1994 the male CVD mortality in Russia and Latvia was more than five times higher than the EU average. Women in these countries have been affected to almost the same degree as men, and the CVD mortality trends were strongest among young adults and middle-aged individuals. Cancer mortality was stable during this period, however. In 1994 the life expectancy of Russian men was almost twenty years less than that of men in Japan and some European countries. After 1994, however, there was a sudden drop in mortality both in males and females, followed by a further...

How Long Do Body Proteins Last

All proteins in our body have a certain life expectancy. For instance, when insulin and glucagon are released into our blood an individual molecule of either will circulate for about 5 to 10 minutes before they are removed and broken down. Meanwhile, some enzymes within cells may exist only for a few minutes or so before they are replaced or not remade. This can allow cells to shift metabolic gears, so to speak, when going from a fasting to a fed state, resting to exercise state, and so on.

Lifestyle and Nutrition

The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. Some authors believe that economic conditions were the principal determinant of the gap in health status between the East and West. The close relationship between the gross national product per capita and life expectancy is well known, but the inhabitants of Central Europe were less healthy than their wealth predicted. The dramatic changes that occurred after the onset of communism created a toxic psychosocial environment. A loss of personal perspectives, chronic stress, tension, anger, hostility, social isolation, frustration,...

Country Performance Level Relative to the Other Countries and Economies

Based on the results reported in supplementary table VI, after controlling for income and education levels, China was the only country that ranks among the top 15 good performers on all six indicators. It ranked 6th, 7th, 6th, 15th, 1st, and 3rd on male life expectancy, male mortality, female life expectancy, Female life expectancy Male life expectancy Note The relative regional performance on mortality is calculated as the amount the predicted mortality is higher than actual. The absolute performance for fertility is the amount by which actual is lower than predicted, and the absolute performance for life expectancy is the amount by which actual is higher than predicted. Note The relative regional performance on mortality is calculated as the amount the predicted mortality is higher than actual. The absolute performance for fertility is the amount by which actual is lower than predicted, and the absolute performance for life expectancy is the amount by which actual is higher than...

Health Benefits Not Related To Nutritional Essentiality

For several decades after the concept of nutritional essentiality was established in the early 1900s, foods were primarily considered to be sources of essential nutrients required for critical physiologic functions that, if impaired by dietary deficiencies, caused specific diseases. Except for the debilitating effects of malnutrition, little consideration was given during this time to the idea that the type of diet consumed might influence development of diseases other than those caused by inadequate intakes of essential nutrients. By the 1950s, dietary deficiency diseases were virtually eliminated in industrialized nations. Improvements in nutrition, sanitation, and control of infectious diseases had resulted in immense improvements in health life expectancy had lengthened, and chronic and degenerative diseases had become the major causes of death. This aroused interest in the possibility that susceptibility to such diseases might be influenced by the type of diet consumed.

Puzzling Epidemiological Situations

Certain emerging populations have puzzlingly high rates, for example, the aborigine in Australia.45 Their mortality rate from CHD is twice the rate of white Australians (6 to 8 times higher in aborigines aged 25 to 64 years) and the life expectancy of an aborigine is 15 to 20 years less than that of a white Australian. The prevalent risk factors in aboriginal populations are obesity, diabetes, smoking, and low rates of physical activity.

Definitions And Risk Factors

Federal guidelines based on studies relating BMI to morbidity and mortality have been released. Patients with a BMI between 20 and 25 kg per m2 have the lowest mortality rate.10 As BMI increases above 25 kg per m2, mean blood pressure and total blood cholesterol increase, and mean high-density lipoprotein levels decrease.11 Women with a BMI greater than 29 kg per m2 have a significantly increased incidence of myocardial infarction.12 Obese patients have an increased risk of coronary-artery disease.1314 Complications related to obstructive sleep apnea are twelvefold to thirtyfold higher in the morbidly obese than in the general population.15 The most significant observation is that morbidly obese patients who are 20 to 40 years of age may experience a twelvefold reduction in life expectancy in comparison with age-matched control subjects. These observations confirm the concept that obesity has become a national health crisis.

Regression Results for the Effects of Income and Education on Health Outcomes

Country levels of income per capita and education significantly predict country health performance. From 1960 through 1990, country health conditions improved with the increase in education and income per capita. Holding everything else constant, the income elasticity (LYPC in the table) for the under-five mortality rate in 1960 was -0.38, and by 1990 it had increased (in absolute terms) to -0.71 (a combination of LYPC and LYPC_T6, which is the interaction term between income and time indicator for 1990), holding female education level constant. The coefficients reported in table 1 indicate that in 1990 income became more influential in predicting better health conditions (for example, under-five mortality rate, adult mortality rate, life expectancy, and total fertility rate) than in earlier years. The education effect, on the other hand, was quite constant over the three decades studied. For example, with everything else held con- Female life expectancy Male life expectancy Female...

Trends in Health Status

Advances in HNP during the past few decades have been impressive. During the second half of the twentieth century, life expectancy at birth for the world's population increased by almost 20 years, with an even greater increase among the populations of developing countries. The proportion of children who now die before reaching age five is less than half the level of 1960. Hundreds of millions of people in low- and middle-income countries are on the threshold of an era in which they will be safe from some of the world's most threatening diseases. Immunization now saves approximately 3 million children annually, and better control of diarrhea saves more than 1 million a year.

Overview and Conclusions

A further role for immune-stimulating probiotics is their use in boosting immune function in individuals with suboptimally functioning immunity. Lactobacillus GG has already been mentioned as an oral immunostimulator to enhance antibody responses in children combating rotavirus infection, and pro-biotics may prove very useful in this context of boosting immunity among malnourished children or infants with poorly developed sensitization. At the other end of the age spectrum, probiotics may prove useful in boosting immunity among elderly subjects. Studies have shown that senescence of the immune system can predispose the elderly to infectious and non-infectious diseases and that a decline in immune function with age can contribute to decreased life expectancy (Roberts-Thomson et al., 1974 Goodwin, 1995). Immuno-senescence is characterized by a suboptimal functioning of the cellular immune system in particular, mainly involving T-cell-mediated responses but also some NK-cell and...

Nuts Seeds And Oils

The increased life expectancy and low rates of chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer among the southern Europeans, may be, in part, due to their physically active, simple lifestyle and unique Mediterranean diet, which is especially rich in a variety of phytochemicals such as those found in olive oil, garlic and other herbs, beans, fresh fruit and vegetables.145,146

Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

The advice you've likely given kids applies to you, too Eat your fruits and vegetables Colorful and nourishing, they're mostly nutrient rich and provide plenty of phy-tonutrients. Along with their many health-promoting benefits, their fiber can help overcome constipation. Their potassium may help counter the effects of sodium on blood pressure, and their antioxidants may provide anti-aging properties that may reduce disease risk.

How good am I at doing it and How much better could I be

Perhaps the factor that will skyrocket you to the big leagues in which you lose weight, feel younger and healthier, etc. EFFORTLESSLY, will be your own ability to PERSIST. What is your own ability to persevere Just try one more time - with enthusiasm - and you could watch your accomplishments go from the very ordinary to the VERY EXTRAORDINARY.

The Biological Functions Of Gaba

Functions Karel

For GABA tea, the biological function of blood pressure moderation was even more predominant due to the mutual enhancement of GABA and catechins com-bined.113,114 Until now, research about the biological functions of GABA tea has concentrated more on its blood pressure moderation However, several foods rich in GABA, such as germinated brown rice and GABA-enriched fermented milk product, have gained considerable attention due to their biological functions Besides reducing blood pressure, many other functions were reported, such as reducing anxiety and stress,115 aiding against onset of Alzheimer's,116 helping with sleep and mood problems,116 increasing growth hormone,59,117,118 helping aging persons feel younger, and relieving postmenopausal depression .88,101,119,120 In addition, new techniques using microbial fermentation to produce a high content of GABA in foods have been developed.90,115,116,121,122

Immortality Is Within Our Grasp

111 Fantastic Voyage, high-tech visionary Ray Kurzweil teams up with life-extension expert Dr Terry Grossman to consider the extraordinary benefits to human health and longevity promised by cutting edge science - and to tell you what you can do today to take advantage of these startling developments. Citing research findings so remarkable they almost sound like science fiction, the authors offer a programme designed to slow ageing and disease processes to the point where you should be in sufficiently good health and good spirits to benefit when the more extreme life-extending and life-enhancing technologies now in development become available. I put a lot of effort to scan the book and to create tins electronic version You can do your small pait by sharing it We all want to be healthy and live longer, so dont keq> that infonnation to yourself I hope some people will volunteer to translate it into other languages. Keq> in mind not eveiyone speaks English If your onginal language is...

Vera Richter The Cook Less Book

If I had to pick one fruit to live on for the rest of my life, it would be the olive. Once you delve into the olive, you will become privy to the great Mediterranean secret of health, happiness, and longevity. The olive is a magical fruit. But the olive remains a mystery to almost everyone I know, include other raw-foodists Few people know how to eat an olive naturally (10) In possession of many antioxidant properties. Antioxidants deactivate free radicals allow us to live longer, overcome illness, and maintain more acute mental and muscular faculties.

Forming Healthy Communities

Adequate nutrition cannot be achieved without the consumption of sufficient foods containing a wide array of nutrients. Poor health status, whether as a result of insufficient food intake, overconsumption, or nutrition imbalance, threatens longevity and increases health care costs. The challenge is to improve the availability of nutritious foods and the eating habits of the varied population. see also Africans, Diets of African Americans, Diet of Dietary Trends, International Fast Foods.

The Process Of Developing The Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide

Epidemiological data on vegetarians in Western countries over the last 4 decades had documented lower risk for most chronic diseases, increased longevity, lower body weight, lower blood pressure, and improved overall health status of vegetarians. The third principle, consumption of dairy products and or eggs is optionalrecognizes that some vegetarians (i.e., vegans) opt to limit dairy products and eggs. The consumption of dairy products and eggs is not necessary to achieve RDAs, but is often practiced for convenience and practicality. Quantitatively, consumption of dairy products and eggs by vegetarians varies from infrequent to daily. Vegetarian diets that include dairy products, eggs, or both (i.e., lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets), easily provide all the nutrients required by healthy adults. In population studies, such diets have been shown to be healthful and promote longevity, with no need for routine nutrient supplementation. Because some dairy products are high in fat and saturated...

Biosynthesis And Health Effects

Cinnamic Acid C3c6

In the body, oxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to a number of diseases and tissue injuries such as those of the lungs, heart, kidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, eye, skin, muscle, and brain, as well as the aging process. In healthy individuals, ROS are neutralized by the action of antioxidant and antioxidant enzymes. However, when the action of the enzyme system is inadequate because of illness and during infancy or due to aging, the oxidation process is not controlled naturally, and augmentation may provide the necessary means to combat degenerative diseases and other ailments caused by ROS. The manner in which antioxidants intervene is by their effect in a multistage process and may involve prevention of lipid oxidation, protein cross-linking, and DNA mutation, among others (Shahidi, 1997).

Health Benefits and Risks Associated with Specific Practices

The restriction of, or abstention from, certain foods may have a direct impact on the health of those engaged in such practices. Some effects have been found to be positive, as in the case of vegetarian diets, which are eaten by many Seventh-day Adventists, Hindus, Buddhists, and Rastafarians. Research results have documented a 50 percent reduction in heart disease and longer life expectancy in people who eat a well-planned vegetarian diet. There are a number of religious rationales for a vegetarian diet. According to the Book of Genesis in the Bible, humans were given a plant-based diet

Nutrigenomics And The Health Care System

The medicine that helps patients achieve genetic potential through nutrition has been called personalized medicine. The clinician matches the patient's history and genetics with interventions tailored specifically for that individual, thus modulating the health of a patient and improving the realization of his or her maximum genetic potential for healthy longevity. Most clinical practices have not yet caught up with this knowledge. For example, less than 1 in 5 of the 6712 patients received appropriate counseling and health education in a report published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2003.15

Perspective On Us Food Guides

The goals of the early food guides were qualitative and targeted to achieve variety, balance, and moderation, not necessarily health and longevity. In 1941, recommended dietary allowances (RDA) were released for nine nutrients protein, iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin C. The concept of achieving a balance between protective foods and high-energy foods moved into a quantitative arena. To meet newly established nutrient recommendations, which were primarily based on nutrient balance studies of omnivores, the U.S. government continued to emphasize protein-rich foods such as animal and dairy foods. The emphasis on animal-based food products attempted to ensure adequate intake of the B vitamins, iron, and calcium.4-6,14,17,18 Today, life expectancy has increased to around 80 years of age and most Americans battle chronic diseases, many that are a result of extended life span, life-style, and dietary factors. Results of ongoing research support...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Animal protein contains considerably more sulfur as methionine and cysteine. These amino acids cause a higher acid load with the omnivore diet, which appears to be partially retained as a major component of the pathogenesis of bone disease and muscle wasting in aging.16 This helps to explain the improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated orally with potassium-bicarbonate.16 Also, lipid peroxidation is enhanced with decreasing extracellular pH. Acidic pH releases iron from safe binding sites where this free iron then enhances free radical activity.17 Thus, the lower sulfur and phosphorus intake on an all-plant diet appears to provide a significant longevity advantage for elderly subjects.

Use of Regression Residuals

Performance measures using regression residuals are similar to the relative performance measures used by Jamison and others (1996). In their report, they calculated relative performance on mortality rate as the amount of predicted higher than actual as a percent of the actual, with both measured in number of deaths per 1,000. The relative performance on life expectancy and total fertility rate was calculated as the amount of actual life expectancy or total fertility rate higher than predicted in years as a percent of the actual. In the study reported here, we took the difference between predicted and observed mortality rates as the relative performance on mortality rate and the difference between predicted and actual, after transforming these values back to years or births, as the relative performance on life expectancy and total fertility rate. By calculating relative performance this way, we make the residual comparison compatible across years and across countries.

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

While there have been some concerns about the trace mineral status of vegetarian athletes, their dietary practices may be of benefit in another area of current interest in sports nutrition. Research has been directed toward the interaction of exercise, generation of reactive oxygen species or free radicals, and antioxidant nutrients (primarily vitamins E, C, and A, and the mineral selenium).60-63 During exercise, oxygen consumption can increase 10- to 20-fold over rest to meet energy demands. Due to various means that are still being researched (e.g., increases in catecholamines, lactic acid, hyperthermia, and transient hypoxia), the rise in oxygen consumption results in an oxidative stress that leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical.60-63 These reactive oxygen species are defined as molecules or ions containing an unpaired electron that cause cell and tissue injury. Reactive oxygen species have...

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Naspghan

Positive energy balance, as reflected by increasing BMI, is not a recent phenomenon. BMI has been increasing for many decades, but until the mid or late 1970s, it was rather associated with improved health and increased longevity. In the past few decades, however, the risk-to-benefit ratio has been shifting in such a way that the continued increase in body fatness is increasingly being recognized as underlying several chronic disease states. This phenomenon is slowing or even reversing gains made in terms of life expectancy in the past. More than 30 of Americans are currently overweight and another 30 are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25.0 and 29.9 kg m-2 and higher than 30.0 kg m-2 respectively. Moreover, if the current trends continue, it is expected that by the year 2020 more than 50 of Americans will be obese, possibly making obesity the norm and leanness the exception. In children, use of the term overweight is usually preferred, to avoid potential...


A number of historical references have been made to populations that have purportedly experienced a greater longevity due to the low meat content of their diet.1-17 Diets with low meat content have been described as being common among certain geographically isolated rural peoples the Hun-zakuts of the Himalayas, the Vilcabambas of Ecuador, mountain dwellers of Turkey, Russian Caucasus who have reported ages that raise the possibility that their life expectancy may far exceed 70 years.1-7 In a popular vegetarian food guide, these experiences were qualitatively contrasted with the estimated 40-year life expectancy of comparable (in level of technology) rural peoples the Masai of Africa, Eskimos, Greenlanders, Lapplanders, Russian Kurgis whose diet consists of meat as the predominant source of energy.8 During the late 19th century, G.M. Humphry, a professor of surgery at Cambridge, identified 900 patients who were at least 90 years of age and noted that the majority of them ate little...


More than 28 percent of Americans are completely sedentary (they engage in no physical activity), with an additional 60 percent being inadequately active (engaging in less than 30 minutes of activity per day). For those who strive to achieve and maintain a high quality of health, it must be recognized that physical activity is vital to optimal health. This is reaffirmed by numerous studies that have found an association between physical activity, health, longevity, and an improved quality of life. In addition, the number of deaths related to sedentary living or obesity is approximately a halfmillion per year. Physical activity may impact quality of life in several ways it can be used to improve self-image and self-esteem, physical wellness, and health.

The Nutritionist

Now in an updated and expanded new edition, The Nutritionist Food, Nutrition, and Optimal Health, Second Edition, provides readers with vital information about how to simply but radically improve their daily lives with the science of nutrition, balance their diets to achieve more energy, and improve health and longevity.


Quitting smoking at any age improves life expectancy. The 2002 Cancer Prevention Study examined the benefits of smoking cessation in 877,243 men and women in the United States. Life expectancy of smokers who quit before age thirty-five was extended by 8.5 years in men and by 7.7 years in women. The study found that smokers who quit at any age are subjected to meaningful life extensions (Taylor, et al.). In addition to a life free from smoking-related diseases, an individual who quits smoking can experience increased longevity. see also Cancer Heart Disease Low Birth Weight Infant Nutritional Deficiency Pregnancy. Taylor, Donald H., Jr., et al. Benefits of Smoking Cessation for Longevity. American Journal of Public Health 92(6).

What Is Nutrition

All too often we do not truly appreciate the relevance of nutrition to our basic being. But again, please keep in mind that nearly everything we are and are able to do is either a direct or indirect reflection of our past and current nutrition intake. No matter how oversimplified nutrition may seem in television commercials and on cereal boxes, it is without a doubt one of the most complex and interesting sciences out there. One of the major tasks of this book is to provide an understandable overview of nutrition as it applies to optimal health and longevity.


Brain tissue has been found to be especially rich in PS and it appears aging causes a decline in the PS content of cells throughout the body. So, it's no wonder that longevity groups and individuals concerned with brain function due to various causes have taken an interest in PS.


Americans spend several billion dollars a year on antioxidants in an effort to improve their health. Science has been looking at antioxidants and their role in everything from preventing cancer and heart disease to boosting the immune system and slowing the aging process. Antioxidants provide a layer of protection for the cells and tissues of the body, just as a thick coat of wax helps protect a car's finish. Specifically, antioxidants protect against free radical damage. What are free radicals

Achieving Healthspan

The emerging genetic priority in understanding the aging process is to define the endogenous and exogenous factors that influence the gene transcription and proteomic expression regulating catabolic and anabolic factors. Agents that up-regulate proinflammatory processes alter the anabolic-catabolic balance and shift physiology into a catabolic state, with increased apoptosis occurring in post-mitotic tissue such as brain, heart, and muscle.30

Editors Note

As pointed out in a landmark article by James Fries of Stanford University School of Medicine in 1980, Aging is not a function. Aging can be defined as an endogenous, progressive deterioration in age-specific components of fitness. It is instead a secondary effect of the decline in the force of natural selection with age.1 Lifestyle and nutrition play significant roles in how the aging process is manifested in the individual. In the 1980 article, Dr. Fries proposed that we could compress illness into the last short period of a person's life, and maximize their survival and healthy function, thereby increasing their health span through intervention with lifestyle, nutrition, and exercise programs.

Muscle Builders

HGH regulates growth during childhood and metabolism during adulthood. The rumor is that HGH helps slow the aging process. The reality is that HGH can cause adverse side effects, such as swelling, painful joints, and, in men, enlarged breasts (Liu et al. 2007).

Liquid Drinks

There's an old Chinese saying that goes Better to go without food for a week than green tea for a day. And those Chinese were onto something. Green tea offers too many benefits to name from cancer prevention to fat loss from improved blood sugar, to better blood circulation. Live longer and better by drinking your green tea.

What me exercise

You don't exercise to lose weight (although it certainly helps). You exercise because you'll live longer and you'll feel better. When I started to control my weight, I had no intention of getting into exercise at all. As the pounds peeled off and I felt better and better, I decided to design an exercise plan built on the same principles that made the diet plan succeed.

Cooked Starches

A diet heavy in cooked starch over many decades can cause arteriosclerosis, hardening of the blood vessels, ossification of the tissues and joints, skin thickening, and premature aging. As professor Arnold Ehret pointed out, the reason a cooked-meat eater might live longer than a starch-eating vegetarian is because the first produces less obstructions than the starchy overeater but the meat-eater's later diseases are always more dangerous because of the accumulated poisons, pus and uric acid found in the meats.

Food Safety

One of the many luxuries Americans enjoy is access to the safest and most abundant food supply in the world. This stems from many advances and improvements in food safety, sanitation, and crop production that reduce the chance of food-safety problems, including food-borne illness, pesticide contamination, or infectious disease. There are many reasons why food safety has become an issue. First, medical advances have made it possible for people to live longer, creating an aging population more susceptible to disease. Second, labor in the food industry is more diverse and less skilled. Learning barriers, personnel turnover, and limited food-preparation skills create challenges in training. Third, the U.S. food supply has expanded globally, and many types of food come from areas where food safety standards are less stringent than those in the United States. Other concerns for food safety stem from terrorist threats, food irradiation, and genetically modified foods.

Common Cold

Typically, cold symptoms make their appearance when the seasons change. When the seasons change, the body becomes more sensitive and detoxifies toxins more rapidly. Paul Bragg, the life-extension specialist, recommended in his books to fast four times a year (for seven days) during each change of seasons. As you purify your diet, take note of the seasonal appearance of colds, it will provide you with some interesting insights.


Practitioners of TCM view the amount of jing as determining one's quality of life and life expectancy. Since jing, as already discussed, cannot be regenerated, it forms a sort of inner energy clock which determines our individual life span. Once this inner energy clock runs out, the person dies. Understandably, TCM puts great emphasis on the preservation and the careful treatment of jing. Chinese nutritional therapy, as well as many other areas of Asian philosophies, address this important aspect, for example in qi gong or tantra. The quality of jing is the foundation for prenatal development of the body. Postpartum, jing influences physical and mental growth and is responsible for the body's reproductive strength.

Future trends

The majority of sources of dietary data clearly suggest that there remains considerable room for improvement in the Europeans' diet. As we enter a new millennium weighted with much information, priorities could be set to clarify the objectives of a prudent diet. Are they to prolong life as much as possible, or to maximise quality-adjusted life expectancy We must also consider externalities that should take into account our cultural heritage, protection of the environment and macroeconomic considerations. The first of these studies was conducted in Greece (Trichopoulou et al, 1995), the second in Denmark (Osler and Schroll, 1997), the third in Australia (Kouris-Blazos et al, 1999) and the fourth in Spain (Lasheras et al, 2000). All have shown that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial, substantial and statistically significant effects on longevity.


The second half of the 20th century has witnessed major shifts in the pattern of disease, in addition to marked improvements in life expectancy, this period is characterized by profound changes in diet and lifestyles which in turn have contributed to an epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. This epidemic is now emerging, and even accelerating, in most developing countries, while infections and nutritional deficiencies are receding as leading contributors to death and disability (1).


The descriptive information on the variables used is provided in supplementary table III. From 1960 to 1990, improvement was remarkable on all the health indicators we compared. For example, the average total fertility rate declined from six births per woman to five. The under-five mortality rate decreased by more than half from 1960 to 1990 globally, it was 185 per 1,000 in 1960 and 84 per 1,000 in 1990. Adult mortality rates declined by 122 deaths per 1,000 for males and by 129 deaths per 1,000 for females. At the same time, both male and female life expectancy at birth increased by more than 11 years.

Longterm outcome

MVID is a congenital constitutive intestinal epithelial cell disorder leading, in its typical early-onset form, to permanent intestinal failure. The largest multicenter survey, of 23 MVID patients,15 revealed an extremely reduced life expectancy with a 1-year survival rate of less than 25 . Most children died of septic complications, liver failure, or metabolic decompensation. Few cases of MVID, especially with the late-onset form, may survive with limited stool output and may require only partial PN.29 Treatment with corticosteroids, colostrum or epidermal growth factor has not been successful, but octreotide has been used with partial success in one patient.15 In contrast to the initial outcomes before the 1980s, PN now allows most infants and children to survive. However, complications related to inadequate PN do limit long-term survival. These include recurrent


During the past few decades trends in health status have shown vast improvements in life expectancy, malnutrition, and fertility decline. However, improvements in health have been unequally distributed, both geographically and among income groups. The trends also show a shift in the burden of disease from infectious to noncommunicable diseases and injuries. New diseases, such as AIDS, and re-emerging ones, such as tuberculosis, will figure prominently among the remaining infectious diseases.

Growing Younger

Our understanding of the principal components of human ageing is growing rapidly. Strategies have been identified to halt and reverse each of the ageing processes. Perhaps the most energetic and insightful advocate of stopping the ageing process is Aubrey de Grey, a scientist with the department of genetics at Cambridge University. De Grey describes his goal as engineered negligible senescence stopping us from becoming more frail and disease-prone as we get older.27 According to de Grey, All the core knowledge needed to develop engineered negligible senescence is already in our possession it mainly just needs to be pieced together.28 He believes we'll demonstrate robustly rejuvenated mice mice that are functionally younger than before being treated, and with the life extension to prove it within 10 years, and points out that this demonstration will have a dramatic effect on public opinion. Showing that we can reverse the ageing process in an animal that shares 99 per cent of our genes...

Proteus as Prototype

Do we have the knowledge and the tools today to live for ever If all scien-tificand technological development suddenly stopped, the answer would have to be no. We do have the means to dramatically slow disease and the ageing process far more than most people realize, but we do not yet have all the techniques we need to extend human life indefinitely. However, it is clear that far from halting, the pace of scientific and technological discovery is accelerating. Longevity expert and gerontologist Aubrey de Grey uses the metaphor of maintaining a house to explain this key concept. How long does a house last The answer obviously depends on how well you take care of it. If you do nothing, the roof will spring a leak before long, water and the elements will invade, and eventually the house will disintegrate. But if you proac-tively take care of the structure, repair all damage, confront all dangers, and rebuild or renovate parts from time to time using new materials and technologies, the...

About Dr Jensen

Iridology Escondido

Bernard Jensen's lifetime dedication to his work has brought him world-wide acclaim as an author, lecturer, teacher, nutritionist, iridologist, longevity philosopher, world traveler and humanities researcher. His honors have been many, including the International Iridology Gold Medal Award in 1973 at a convention of doctors in San Remo, Italy.

Dr Terry Grossman

According to Ray Kurzweil and Dr Terry Grossman, we are in the early stages of multiple profound revolutions spawned by the intersection of biology, information science and nanotechnology. With the decoding of the human genome, many new and powerful technologies are emerging rational drug design, tissue engineering, reversal of ageing processes, gene therapy, nanobots (robots the size of blood cells, built molecule by molecule and placed in our bodies to enhance every aspect of our lives) and many others. As a result, many experts, including the authors, believe that within a decade we will be adding more than a year of human life expectancy every year thereafter. This fantastic voyage will be made possible in three stages. The first involves aggressively applying what we know now to slow down the ageing process. The second relies on advances in biotechnology that will allow us to intervene to stop disease and actually reverse ageing. The third, a couple of decades away, will enable...


Malnutrition may be defined as a state of nutrient deficiency or excess. This fact is often overlooked when providing nutrition, despite the fact that some of the adverse effects of nutrient excess are evident to everyone. Carbohydrate excess, for example, clearly may lead to a state of obesity, with the well-recognized risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and shorter life expectancy. What is less obvious is that carbohydrate excess in the critically ill patient may also result in liver damage and the inability to wean from ventilators.26 In Chapter 2 and Chapter 11, this will be discussed in greater detail. Other nutrients, such as vitamin A, have the potential for toxicity that is even less obvious but equally dangerous.3842 This is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 9. It is apparent that in providing nutrition to stimulate healing, the caregiver cannot assume that more is better.

The Toilet

Did humans thrive on the planet for tens of thousands of years by popping an artificially created vitamin pill. Out of tens of thousands of years of human existence, vitamin pills have only been around for a couple of decades, yet the population is in worse health than ever before. Sure, maybe the human race is not in its worst health from a contagious disease perspective, but we definitely are from a degenerative disease perspective. Now I admit that we do live longer these days compared to historically, but that is only because medical advances keep us alive longer even though we are in horrendous shape physically. People might live longer now, but they're simply living longer while being overweight, crippled with degenerated joints, plagued with heart disease and cancers, and on and on. You get the point.


Once you feel capable, begin experimenting with eating less, until you feel comfortable with less food. Refine your diet with time - be patient. The saying goes Eat a little, that way, you'll be around long enough to eat a lot. Systematic undereating slows the aging process.