Natural Kidney Problems Treatment Book

Kidney Function Restoration Program

The All Natural Kidney Health & Kidney Function Restoration Program is a compilation of the best and most effective natural treatments for kidney disease from around the world. The system is meant to complement your usual medication and not to replace it. This easy to understand kidney disease program can help you make better-informed decisions about what is the right thing to do to support your kidney and return it to its former healthy state. The techniques shared in this program will help cure and retain your kidney back to its natural wellness. You may even be able to postpone or entirely avoid dialysis or a kidney transplant forever. The All Natural Kidney Health and Kidney Function Restoration Program contain zero filler and is fully backed by modern-day scientific research. Everything contained in this program is safe, natural, and with good safety profiles, proven case studies and doctor recommended. Many of the products including the diet, herbs, and supplements have been used safely in other countries for many years and in several hospitals in the United States. Read more here...

Kidney Function Restoration Program Summary


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Acute Kidney Injury Acute Renal Failure

Based on the increase in serum creatinine and urine output, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative group recently proposed the RIFLE system, which classifies AKI into three severity categories (R risk I injury F failure) and two clinical categories L loss E end stage renal disease (ESRD) . However, this classification requires further validation (5).

Diabetic Nephropathy

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found an incidence of endstage renal disease of 0.23 100 person years, with rates of 0.29 for patients with type 1 diabetes and 0.27 for patients with type 2 diabetes (90). Factors such as African American race, gout, and hypertension more than doubled the risk of endstage renal disease (90). In a study by Klein et al., analyzing 891 patients with type 1 diabetes, the 10-year cumulative incidence of renal failure or serum creatinine 2.0 mg dl was 14.9 percent (90). The risk of renal failure almost doubled for every 1 percent increase in HbA1c (36). Hypertension almost tripled the risk (90).

Physical Assessment Mandates in Chronic Kidney Disease

Medicare conditions for coverage in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) facilities (157) asked RDs to assess the nutrient and dietetic needs of each patient. The language separating nutrient assessment and dietetic needs suggested a two-step process to identify vitamin mineral imbalance, then translate nutritional requirements into foods, menus, and appropriate supplementation. Given the potential for both deficiency and toxicity inherent in CKD, physical assessment findings were clearly valued in evaluating micronutrient status in patients undergoing dialysis therapy.

Historical dietary treatment of kidney disease

In the mid-1800s, Richard Bright recommended a milk diet for patients with edema and proteinuria (1). Fishberg in 1930 and Addis in 1948 recommended protein restriction for uremic patients, but neither identified the biological value of the protein (2,3). Many at this time believed that dietary protein restriction would decrease the workload and stress on the kidneys. In 1948, Kempner proposed a diet consisting of rice, fruit and sugar for the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure, and it became known as the Kempner Rice diet (4). This diet contained about 20 g protein, 150 mg sodium and 2000 calories. The Kempner Rice Diet was also used in patients with heart disease who did not respond to salt restriction alone, but it was not recommended for people with diabetes because of the high fat and sugar content. In 1948, Borst (5) reported that a protein-free, normal calorie, low salt diet improved uremia and edema in patients with advanced renal failure. As this diet did not...

Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Renal Failure

CKD is defined as a gradual decrease in renal function over a period of several months to years. Diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney diseases, and tubulointerstitial diseases (TIDs) are the major causes of CKD. Approximately 6.2 million people are estimated to have a serum creatinine level of 1.5 mg dl. Unlike in AKI, serum creatinine level does not represent the extent of renal disease in subjects with CKD. Therefore, either actual determination of GFR by radioisotope methods or eGFR is used to assess the severity of kidney disease in a CKD patient. Based on these methods of GFR, a staging system and action plan for CKD was developed (Table 1). There are several risk factors for the progression of CKD, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, excessive protein intake, smoking, anemia, and genetic predisposition to kidney disease. CKD is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conservative management of CKD includes (i) control of blood...

Clinical evaluation of kidney function

Currently, determination of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, and estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remain the most important tests to assess the kidney function in clinical practice. GFR can be measured directly by radioisotope methods or indirectly from serum creatinine concentration as estimated GFR (eGFR), using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Although serum creatinine concentration of 0.8-1.2 mg dl and a BUN concentration of 10 mg dl are considered normal, their values vary with muscle mass and protein intake as well as the functional status of the liver. Therefore, an eGFR is recommended for evaluation of kidney function. Most clinical laboratories provide both serum creatinine and eGFR to the physician for assessment of kidney function. An eGFR of 60 ml min 1.73 m2 or less is considered chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to eGFR, urinalysis provides an assessment of glomerular, tubular, and interstitial...

Effects of Dialysis

To body composition assessment methodology. Adults with CKD and those undergoing dialysis can find standing difficult and some are chair- or bed-ridden due to amputations. Recumbent anthropometric techniques can be used with those unable to stand upright (139), and if stature cannot be measured, it is estimated from knee height (147). For those with bilateral, below-the-knee amputations, there is presently no suitable method of estimating stature. Anthropometric data for those receiving dialysis should include postdialysis measures of weight, stature, calf circumference, arm circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds (88). Adults with CKD and diabetes and especially those receiving dialysis can have large weights, BMI, arm circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses compared with those without diabetes. Adults on dialysis for 5 years or more tend to have smaller weights and skinfolds than those on dialysis less than 5 years. Adults receiving dialysis tend to be shorter, lighter...

Learning objectives

Identify the progression of dietary modifications in kidney disease in the last eight decades. 3. Review notable research and medical technology advances that have influenced medical nutrition therapy for individuals with kidney disease. With the development of long-term dialysis therapies, kidney transplantation, many new medications and the advent of laboratory assay methods, the treatment for chronic kidney disease has marched forward in the past eight decades. Dietary regimes for patients with kidney disease have also changed as new technologies became available. Most of all, renal dietetics practice centered on the multiple aspects of patient care, and wellness has developed during this time. Key Words Kidney disease dietetics practice history of renal nutrition therapy renal dietitian. From Nutrition and Health Nutrition in Kidney Disease Edited by L. D. Byham-Gray, J. D. Burrowes, and G. M. Chertow Humana Press, Totowa, NJ

Regional solutions to the problem

Stages in progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and therapeutic strategies. GFR, glomerular filtration rate. Fig. 2. Stages in progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and therapeutic strategies. GFR, glomerular filtration rate. Fig. 3. The use of guideline recommendations and targets for the co-management of chronic kidney disease patients at its various stages by primary care providers (P.C.P.) and kidney doctors. Fig. 3. The use of guideline recommendations and targets for the co-management of chronic kidney disease patients at its various stages by primary care providers (P.C.P.) and kidney doctors.

Organization and content

Nutrition in Kidney Disease is organized into five sections with a variable number of chapters based on breadth and depth of information. Part I addresses kidney function in health and disease. It provides a historical perspective of the emerging science in nutrition in kidney disease over the past several decades, and it defines and forecasts health care trends and outcomes in kidney disease. A comprehensive review of the components of the nutrition assessment is also provided. In Parts II and III, in-depth information on the prevention of common disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, current treatment options based on the latest scientific evidence, and management of comorbidities such as protein-energy malnutrition, anemia, and bone disease are covered. Part IV presents the nutrition concerns of special needs populations such as through the life cycle-pregnancy, infancy, childhood, adolescence and the elderly, and nutrition management of disorders such as acute kidney...

Measures of Body Composition

(97-100), but their use is affected by the incompatibility of the assumptions of these methods and the dynamic effects of kidney disease and dialysis on the body's composition, due in part to the unknown effects of high levels of extra-cellular fluid and solute on the quantification abilities of these methods in the predialysis state. For adults undergoing dialysis, assessments are best obtained afterwards when body fluid compartments are in a relatively normal inter-relationship. DXA is convenient for measuring body composition in healthy adults and is of potential value in dialysis patients (104). DXA measures are generally independent of age-, race- and gender-sensitive assumptions, but the inherent problems and assumptions of DXA regarding levels of hydration, potassium content, or tissue density to the estimation of soft tissue values should be considered carefully for adults with CKD (105-107). out of date. These proportions are higher in women than men, higher in the obese, and...

The American Dietetic Association ADA

In treating edema due to nephritis at the Mayo Clinic (32). Another dietitian, Fairfax T. Proudfit reviewed a patient case with diabetes complications resulting from kidney disease (54). By this time, there were approximately 1000 members of the ADA, and because this Journal was a membership benefit, these articles served to educate practitioners who probably did not have access to other educational materials about kidney disease. All aspects of kidney disease and its treatment have continued to be covered on a regular basis in JADA. In the 1980s, the ADA Commission on Dietetic Registration began to examine areas of specialization in dietetic practice by reviewing published education materials and consistency in practice patterns (55). Role Delineation Studies were conducted that showed that the care of patients with kidney disease required advanced knowledge and the performance of specific tasks unique to this patient population. These studies became the basis for Board Certification...

Major Challenges in Dietary Intake Assessment in CKD

Table 4 presents the nutrients of greatest concern in dietary assessment at each stage note that in some cases, comorbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus, GI disease, and other disorders common in CKD patients may present additional problems. The choice of dietary assessment methods depends largely on the stage of kidney disease and the nutrients in need of increased attention, because it is these nutrients that are likely to be lower or higher than optimal (33-44).

Advances in medical therapy and its role in dietary therapy

By the end of the 1960s, the number of patients referred for dialysis increased because of advances in dialysis access devices, biomedical technology and transplantation however, the availability of dialysis machines and the health care staff trained to manage dialysis care could not keep pace with the demand. Committees composed of hospital administrators, physicians, clergy and community representatives often reviewed individual patient records and made recommendations about who was eligible to receive dialysis. While dietitians did not participate to a great extent in the decision-making process, it was the dietitian who was often the last health care provider to see those patients who were not eligible to receive dialysis. Severely restricted diet instructions were provided to these patients upon discharge from the hospital to minimize the gastrointestinal side effects of uremia to the extent possible. The goal of these diets was to provide time for the patients to finalize their...

A global approach to the problem

Over the past decade, a number of national organizations have developed guidelines for the care of CKD patients. These have been instrumental in improving and facilitating the care of these patients. An important next step in the approach to CKD occurred when it became apparent to those developing nephrology guidelines that there was a need for improving international cooperation in the development, dissemination and implementation of CPGs to achieve these goals. The rationale for a global approach to the CKD epidemic is self-evident. CKD and the risks it engenders are not exclusive to countries with guidelines. The complications and problems encountered by those afflicted with kidney disease are universal. The science and evidence-based care of these complications and problems are also universal and thus independent of geographic location or national borders. With the increasing prevalence of kidney disease worldwide, strategies to improve outcomes will require a global effort...

Levels of Body Composition

The body's composition can be described as amounts of elements like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, potassium, and calcium, or molecules such as water, or properties of tissues, such as density or resistance or tissue thickness, or the weight of a compartment or tissue as a percentage of body weight. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measures of protein stores, and total body calcium is a measure of total body bone mineral. Changes in amounts of nitrogen, potassium, and calcium affect persons with kidney disease and can contribute to comorbidity. Measures of isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen can be used to determine energy expenditure and the amount of TBW. At the tissue level, body composition consists of adipose, muscle, and skeletal tissues. Descriptions of these levels are based upon findings from healthy adults, but these levels and interactions among them change with age and especially with the presence of CKD and associated comorbidity. In addition, there are sex and race factors...

Nutrition Quality of Life

The assessment of QOL is a novel approach to assessing dietary intake and quality. Nutrition-related QOL is the physical enjoyment of food along with its social and nurturing aspects and is a separate and distinct concept from other more general aspects of health-related QOL. It is focused on problems associated with food, eating, and nutrition and how these factors affect the patient's overall QOL. Dietary intake, nutritional status, and health-related QOL are related in CKD patients, especially in maintenance dialysis patients. The progression of kidney disease and the dialysis treatments alter patients' physical and functional status. These changes also affect patients' food preferences and intakes, presumably eventually changing their overall QOL and possibly their nutritional status (28,29,31,75-77). A new tool to measure nutrition-related QOL, the FED tool, has been developed (45). The FED is a subjective and self-administered questionnaire addressing changes of appetite, taste,...

Council on Renal Nutrition

In 1974, the National Kidney Foundation requested that a group of dietetic leaders to convene, and the Council on Renal Nutrition (CRN) was formed. The vision of this group was to develop and disseminate nutrition education materials for patients and to assist practitioners in obtaining the knowledge they needed to care for patients with kidney disease. St. Jeor reported on the first clinical meeting in 1975 (56). These 3- to 5-day meetings continue to educate renal dietitians and others about the ever-changing field of renal nutrition and practice standards for CKD. In most parts of the United States, local CRN affiliates hold regular meetings for the purpose of sharing ideas and providing continuing education for its members. Many patient education tools, including renal diet books and renal cookbooks reflecting regional tastes, have been published over the years. The hallmark of each of these groups seems to be their willingness to share information, first-hand knowledge of patient...

Needs for Further Research on Dietary Assessment and CKD

It is also important to develop better ways to report intake of dietary supplements commonly used in CKD. The field needs more validated and better nutrition-related QOL instruments, better automated recording methods, and better dietary analysis software for both medical foods and dietary supplements commonly consumed by those with kidney disease.

Collecting Dietary Intake Data with Different Tools

This method provides qualitative and quantitative data on food intake. Food records are usually collected for an average of 3 days including 2 week days and 1 weekend day (46,47,52,53). For dialysis patients, the record should contain dialysis and non-dialysis days and 1 weekend day because the eating pattern changes based on the dialysis treatment itself and also on appetite changes related to it. A 2-day diet diary can be used for HD patients to monitor variation in food intakes between dialysis days and non-dialysis days (Table 5) (30). Instruction on time of eating, foods, beverages, portion size, snacks, methods of preparation, food ingested, and special recipes should be included to collect accurate intake data. Food models and household measuring cups and spoons are useful to estimate portion size (46,54-56). If a patient participates in a research study, provision of measuring instruments or even a household scale for measuring food will help the patient...

Tubulointerstitial Diseases

25 of all cases of CKD are attributable to TIDs (7). Based upon the morphologic changes and the rate of deterioration of renal function, TIDs can be classified into acute TID or acute interstitial nephritis or chronic TID or chronic interstitial nephritis. Acute interstitial nephritis manifests as sudden onset of renal failure within days to weeks (1 day to 2 months), hematuria, mild proteinuria, white blood cell casts and at times eosinophiluria or eosinophilia. The accurate diagnosis is made by renal biopsy. Acute interstitial nephritis is caused by drugs, infections, or immune disorders. Treatment includes removing the causative agent or in some cases steroids. Hemodialysis may be necessary in some patients. Chronic interstitial nephritis is caused by a variety of drugs, infections, vascular, metabolic, immune, and hematologic diseases, urinary tract obstruction, and heavy metals. In some cases, the cause is unknown. Clinical manifestations include hypertension, renal...

Markers of Inflammation

Thirty to fifty percent of patients receiving maintenance dialysis have evidence of an active inflammatory response (15,16). A growing body of evidence suggests that to accurately interpret serum protein status, an understanding of a patient's inflammatory state is critical. Nutritional and inflammatory stresses frequently coexist in people with CKD, and the predictive power of nutritional parameters for clinical outcome is partially or fully attenuated when nutritional parameters are adjusted for the presence of inflammation. Approximately 75 of patients with CKD have evidence of CVD. Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress elicit an inflammatory response, and the presence of inflammation is closely associated with accelerated development of CVD and cardiovascular mortality. In contrast to levels of serum albumin and prealbumin, which generally rise during the first year following initiation of dialysis, circulating levels of inflammatory mediators e.g., CRP, interleukin-6...

Electrolytes and Fluids

The dietary sodium prescription has been influenced by many factors in the past 50 years, but it continues to depend on the presence or absence of edema and hypertension and the kidney's ability to conserve and excrete sodium. In the 1950s and 1960s, medications to control hypertension were limited, and 250- to 1000-mg sodium diets were used to control severe edema and elevated blood pressure (28). Distilled water was specified in these diets, as many sources of well water and municipal water contained excessive amounts of sodium. Vegetables like celery, beets and carrots were limited because of their natural sodium content. Aggressive diuretic therapy and frequent episodes of vomiting and diarrhea because of uremia caused the amount of dietary sodium prescribed to be adjusted frequently. Because newer antihypertensive agents have become available and biomedical technology has improved dialysis techniques, dietary sodium prescriptions have increased to 2000-3000 mg day. In addition,...

Phosphorus and Calcium

Towards the end of the 1960s, the use of antacids such as aluminum hydroxide and aluminum carbonate became common, taking advantage of one of its side effects which was the absorption of phosphorus in the gut (37). Dietitians welcomed this new therapy as the renal diet could be liberalized, while severe bone pain and intense itching were relieved. Binders containing a mixture of aluminum and magnesium were used in some areas. These products reduced constipation and it was thought that higher magnesium levels decreased the muscle cramps that frequently occurred during dialysis. Antacids containing calcium carbonate were regarded as ineffective during this time period (38). Reports of aluminum toxicity were published as early as 1972, and many practitioners observed isolated incidences of dialysis-related encephalopathy and dementia (39). Laboratory testing of serum aluminum began to be performed on symptomatic patients and was also used as a screening tool for the dialysis population....

Assessment of body composition

Body composition can be assessed at levels ranging from the simple such as subcutaneous fat thickness to the complex such as amounts of total body potassium. The body compartments of most common interest are adipose and muscle tissues, which are available for energy needs, but among persons with CKD, these compartments can also affect chemical and water balances, the dose of dialysis and nutritional recommendations. Adults with CKD can be elderly with low body weights, low body mass index (BMI), and low levels of body fat and muscle mass (86,87) or African-American, overweight or obese with high BMI's and levels of body fatness (88). Members of these and similar groups are likely to have CVD, diabetes, and other comorbidities associated with CKD (89). Selecting an assessment method depends upon the body compartment of interest and the availability of comparative reference data. Assessing body composition in adults with CKD can facilitate the prescription and monitoring of appropriate...

Approach to the Nutrition Physical Assessment

Brief tutorials on physical examination techniques useful in discovering altered surface anatomy are presented. Because RDs are more familiar with a nutrient-focused approach, comprehensive nutrient assessments for vulnerable nutrients summarize nutrient disposition, dietary sources, drug nutrient interactions, laboratory evaluation, and medical comorbidity data. Niacin, vitamin B6 (V-B6), and zinc have been selected for in-depth review, given their altered nutrient disposition with kidney failure (see Figs 5, 7, 9). Historical findings in deficiency toxicity, functional deficits, and biochemical validation of lesions documented in patients with stage 5 CKD are described for each vulnerable nutrient. Early literature is frequently cited, as deficiency in humans has long been documented and human research committees today are loathe to approve depletion studies on nutrients already known to be essential. When understood, mechanisms of deficiency and toxicity are described. Newer, more...

Placing Physical Findings Within the Clinical Context of the Patient

Advanced practice RDs must estimate the patient's nutrient store and availability from food and supplements against the nutritional cost (254) of dialysis therapy, hospitalization, and medical diagnoses with their prerequisite drug nutrient profiles. Assiduous physical assessment aimed at early identification of physical findings, functional deficits consistent with nutrient imbalance, with a prompt nutrient replacement response, is crucial in end-organ failure. It is the author's belief that nutrient-focused physical examinations will ultimately direct the nutritional management required by Medicare guidelines (162) to achieve effective nutritional status.

Physical Examination Techniques

Scarlet Tongue Niacin Deficiency

Vitamin mineral imbalance in dialysis patients affects tissue integrity of the mouth, skin, scalp, eyes, hair, hair follicles, and nails. Inspection and light palpation are techniques used most frequently. While presentation of vitamin and mineral lesions can be discrete, they are generally bilateral in the absence of injury. Dialysis Fig. 5. Comprehensive niacin assessment in renal failure. If not annotated otherwise, data cited from ref. (188). A comprehensive niacin assessment is shown in Fig. 5. Pellagrous lesions observed in dialysis patients at San Francisco General Hospital (Fig. 6) include sore, scarlet, atrophied tongue, angular stomatitis, bullous skin vesicles, necrotic blebs, and exfoliated elbows, palms, and knuckles. Pellagra sine Pellagra was also observed with severe glossitis and mild, tissue-like peeling of the skin.

Dietary Assessment Tools

Table 5 presents some of the common methods to assess dietary intake and the advantages and disadvantages of each. There are three major types of dietary assessment tools that are useful in CKD. First, there are tools that help the clinician assess intakes of specific nutrients and energy. Examples include 24-h recalls and food records. Next are tools that help one to assess dietary patterns that may vary greatly from day to day (e.g. between sick and well days, or between dialysis and non-dialysis days). Examples include 2-day assisted food records and diet history. Finally, tools that assess eating-related QOL in kidney Major Challenges and Nutritional Status at Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (26,27,33 36) Major Challenges and Nutritional Status at Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (26,27,33 36) dialysis) Adapted from ref. (25). CKD, chronic kidney disease GFR, glomerular filtration rate f increase decrease not certain. Adapted from ref. (25). CKD, chronic kidney...

Biochemical assessment of nutritional status

Biochemical assessment offers the advantages of being readily available in most clinical settings, it is objective, and it requires only minimal patient cooperation. CKD and dialysis procedures each can influence nutritional status, limiting nutrient intake due to anorexia, dietary restrictions, socioeconomic constraints, or impaired gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In addition, CKD also exerts an indirect effect on nutritional status by increasing requirements and impairing the body's ability to down-regulate resting energy expenditure (REE) and protein turnover. Biochemical testing provides important insights into adequacy of protein and energy intake, the presence of inflammatory or oxidative stress, and nutritional adequacy over time. The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) nutrition practice guidelines recommended the use of a panel of nutritional parameters because no single index comprehensively summarizes all aspects of nutritional status (3). The KDOQI nutrition...

Summary of Biochemical Assessment

Secondary effects of other comorbidities results in hypermetabolism and inefficient utilization of nutrients. With this form of malnutrition, simple nutritional repletion without measures to correct the underlying comorbidities and inflammation is ineffective. Because there are interactions between inflammation, anorexia, and poor nutrient intake, a multifaceted intervention strategy that optimizes dialysis delivery, energy and protein intake, corrects concomitant conditions (e.g., acidosis, anemia, uremia, medication side effects, economic concerns, dental health, etc.), and addresses inflammation and elevated proinflammatory cytokines is needed. Biochemical assessment is an instrumental part in differentially diagnosing the etiology of protein deficits in people with CKD.

Nutritional Adequacy and Management Protein Intake

The adequacy of protein intake can be estimated in several ways in people with CKD. Diet records or recalls can provide clinicians detailed information about food choices and can be very useful as educational tools but require a substantial effort from the patient, and thus, can be incomplete records of protein intake (see Subheading 3). Protein intake can also be estimated in clinically stable patients by determining the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA), also called protein catabolic rate (PCR). PNA (PCR) reflects the sum of urea generation from endogenous protein turnover and the metabolism of dietary protein minus urea removed from the body by dialysis or residual renal function and change in body urea pool size over the interdialytic interval. The urea pool accounts for changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and changes in total body water (TBW) volume over the measurement period. Fecal and dermal nitrogen losses are disregarded because they are...

Protein Energy Nutritional Status

Interpretation of albumin levels is challenging in people with CKD. Both modifiable and nonmodifiable predictors of serum albumin have been identified in people with CKD. Older age, female sex, white race, presence of several chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer), and being the first year of dialysis are nonmodifiable factors correlated with hypoalbuminemia. Modifiable factors associated with improved albumin include smoking cessation, use of arteriovenous fistulas, or biocompatible dialysis membranes (4). Longitudinal analyses of serum albumin show a decline in serum albumin in the months immediately preceding death and an improvement during the first year of dialysis (4). Subnormal serum albumin levels (

The problem a historical perspective

After the widespread availability of dialysis, it became apparent in the late 1980s that the quality of life of dialyzed patients was far from adequate and their annual mortality rate (about 20 in the United States) was too high (9,10). As it turned out, a principal reason for these poor outcomes was the heavy burden of comorbid conditions with which patients were being initiated on dialysis rather than the adequacy of dialysis (11,12). In fact, it has been shown that the state of health in which individuals with kidney failure present to a nephrologist is a major determinant of their outcome on RRT, be it dialysis or kidney transplantation. (13). Well after maintenance dialysis became widely available and into the closing years of the past century, nephrology had categorized kidney disease by cause (glomerulonephritis, obstructive nephropathy, lupus nephritis, etc.). This approach is clearly useful when the diagnosis facilitates the specific treatment of a given disease....

Changing food supply for patients with ckd

Just as cellophane was used to make an artificial kidney in the early days, it also changed the way food items were packaged and distributed in the United States. After World War II, the boom in packaged foods stemmed largely from the widespread introduction of new transparent wrappers that kept food fresh and allowed customers to see exactly what they were purchasing. In the 1950s and 1960s, patients with kidney disease tried these new foods, but continued to prepare most meals in their home kitchens. Canned foods were utilized and many of them were preserved by the homemaker home-baking remained popular. When patients ate in restaurants or were a guest in another's home, food was prepared fresh, using mainly fresh ingredients. Patients with kidney disease were encouraged to ask for special preparation methods when eating away from home. As the new millennium dawned, renal dietitians were faced with new challenges. Food manufacturers increased their reliance on phosphorus-containing...

Nephrotic Syndrome

Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Proposed Actions (6) Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Proposed Actions (6) Kidney damage with normal orf GFR Kidney damage with mild GFR Kidney failure 15 (or dialysis) Renal failure, uremia, ESRD CKD, chronic kidney disease ESRD, end stage renal disease GFR, glomerular filtration rate. CKD, chronic kidney disease ESRD, end stage renal disease GFR, glomerular filtration rate. diseases that cause nephrotic syndrome are minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

Defining the problem

In 2002, the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines proposed a new definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD). For the first time, these guidelines provided a uniform definition of CKD (Table 2) and a classification system based on the level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (Table 3), rather than just that of the traditional serum creatinine level from which the estimated GFR is calculated (17). Using representative databases and evidence-based analysis of the literature, these guidelines documented the increased number of complications associated with declining GFR, and the increased rates of morbidity and mortality at each of the proposed five Definition of Chromic Kidney Disease Kidney damage, with or without decreased GFR, as defined by Pathologic abnormalities Markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in imaging test, the composition of the blood or urine GFR

Vascular Diseases

Renal artery stenosis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, vasculitis affecting the medium and small renal arteries, renal vein thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome, and several microangiopathic diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombo-cytopenic purpura are some of the vascular diseases that cause altered kidney function. Appropriate management is required to prevent the progression of kidney disease.


The chapters have been written by a collaborative group of distinguished dietitians and physicians in the specialized field of kidney disease and clinical nutrition who have devoted their careers to the care of patients with kidney disease. This collaborative effort is a testament to the interdisciplinary approach that is used to provide care to this unique patient population. It is our belief that this book will be used to guide and enhance the care of the patients we serve.


The use of EAA supplements were investigated in late 1970s as part of the daily protein requirement for acute and chronic dialysis patients (18). Bergstrom and Alvestrand et al. (19) followed a group of patients in Sweden who were prescribed 18 g of dietary protein and an amino acid supplement that included histidine to postpone the need to start dialysis. The patients achieved positive nitrogen balance only on days when the amino acid supplement was administered, possibly identifying the role of conditionally EAAs in CKD. Hecking and Port (20) found that supplementation with amino acids or keto acids was indicated in only a small minority of catabolic patients, while most patients receiving maintenance dialysis did well on a mixed food diet with approximately 1 g protein kg of body weight. Amin-Aid (Kendall McGaw, Irvine, CA) is a commercial elemental diet containing EAA plus histidine in amounts consistent with amino acid profile established by Rose and Wixon (7) it became available...


While multiple earlier studies addressed the specific protein needs of the patient with CKD, many just described the energy and fat content as adequate or high. Sister M. Victor (25) analyzed diets from 20 outstanding hospitals in 1932. While the protein levels of the diets varied from 20 to 70 g and good quality protein is specified, the energy content of the diet was simply described as high. In the 1987 edition of the Clinical Guide to Nutrition Care in End-Stage Renal Disease, the section on carbohydrates and fats states adequate intake is encouraged to prevent wasting syndrome (26). The section then goes on to discuss fiber and cholesterol but does not specify energy needs. In 1989, a metabolic balance study addressed specific energy levels of 25, 35, and 45 kcal kg day for 21 days each (27). These studies determined that about 35 kcal kg day is needed to maintain neutral nitrogen balance and maintain body composition in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. This study and...


The kidneys are paired organs located retroperitoneally in the lumbar region and maintain fluid and acid-base balance and remove nitrogenous waste products as well as synthesize hormones such as renin, erythropoietin, and active vitamin D3 . The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, which is responsible for the formation of ultrafiltrate, reabsorption, and secretion of electrolytes and water as well as urinary acidification and concentration. When the structure of the kidney is disturbed by a pathologic process, markers of kidney function such as serum creatinine levels are elevated as in AKI, CKD, or TID, and also an abnormal amount of protein or RBCs is observed in the urine, as in nephrotic syndrome, or glomerulonephritis, respectively. Also renal vasculature is affected, causing hypertension and thrombotic microangiopathies.

Proximal Tubule

The Bowman's capsule continues as the proximal tubule, which is lined by cuboidal or columnar cells with a brush border on their luminal surface. The brush border consists of millions of microvilli, which markedly increase the surface area available for the absorption of solutes and water through cells (transcellular transport) or between cells (paracellular transport) or both. The proximal tubule reabsorbs about 60 of the ultrafiltrate. Several electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO-), minerals (Ca2+, HPO3-) amino acids, glucose, and water are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Also, secretion of organic acids and bases occur in the proximal tubule. The proximal tubule is susceptible to insults such as renal ischemia and nephrotoxins, resulting in altered kidney function.

Zinc Nasolabial

Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Beaus Lines

Subjects without kidney disease enrolled in well-controlled, induced zinc depletion studies show classic dermatitis around the mouth, nose, inflammation of the mucosal membranes (221), and structural changes in hair bulb formation (222) signs that appear as plasma zinc falls. Sprue, Crohn's, Short bowel syndrome (Supplement 12.2 mg L small intestine fluid 17.1 mg Kg stool or ileostomy output (278). Long-term Alcohol Consumption Reduced absorption, increased urinary excretion (279). Sickle Cell Disease (280) Chronic Renal Disease Increased fecal losses (272, 226, 227). Fig. 9. Comprehensive zinc assessment in renal failure. If not annotated otherwise, data cited from ref. (230). Zinc studies in kidney failure consistently reveal reduced serum concentrations (223-225). Metabolic research in patients receiving A comprehensive zinc assessment is shown in Fig. 9 lesions observed in hypozincemic dialysis patients are shown in Fig. 10. Seborrheic-like dermatitis in the scalp, between the...

Vitamin B

Isonicotinyl Hydrazone Pyridoxal

Drug therapies can contribute to V-B6 deficit. Loop diuretics deplete V-B6 in early kidney failure as they decrease tubular resorption of water. V-B6, vitamin C, and oxalate losses have been shown to Medical Diagnoses Comorbidities Alcohol Misuse Dialysis Patients Congestive Heart Failure Fig. 7. Comprehensive vitamin B6 (V-B6) assessment in renal failure. If not annotated otherwise, data cited from refs (198,150-195). Vitamin B6 Toxicity. High doses of V-B6 present in foods do not cause toxicity, but V-B6 accumulates with supplementation due to its non-saturable passive absorption process. Toxicity is generally relegated to the dorsal root ganglia with its increased blood vessel permeability, unlike the blood-brain barrier that insulates the brain (214). Clinical symptoms of V-B6 toxicity include numbness, paresthesias, ataxia, Lhermitte's sign, and pain. Symptoms documented are sensory deficit, sensory ataxia, (+) Romberg's sign, and loss of Achilles reflexes (215)....

Nephritic Syndrome

The nephritic syndrome, also called glomerulonephritis, is characterized by hematuria, RBC casts, hypertension, renal insufficiency, and varying degrees of proteinuria. Based upon the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms, this syndrome can present as (i) asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria (ii) acute nephritis to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and finally (iii) chronic sclerosing glomerulonephritis. There are several primary (e.g., RPGN) and secondary (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) causes of nephritic syndrome. Treating the underlying cause by conservative (acute nephritis) or aggressive (RPGN) management and control of blood pressure remain the main stay of therapy in patients with nephritic syndrome. A substantial number of patients presents with renal insufficiency, requiring renal replacement therapy.

The Metabolic Syndrome

The term metabolic syndrome (occasionally called insulin resistance syndrome) refers to a constellation of clinical findings including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance, with increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has also been linked with chronic kidney disease, liver disease with steatosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, and cognitive decline and dementia. Despite recent controversy regarding the concept of a metabolic syndrome, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) developed a new unifying worldwide definition building upon the World Health Organization (WHO) and ATP III definitions, as will be discussed in later chapters (82).

High Blood Pressure Are You at Risk

High blood pressure is a complex problem, and in most cases its causes are still unknown. Only about 5 to 10 percent of cases can be attributed to known health problems, such as kidney disease. Yet health experts can identify people with increased risk. Race African Americans have higher average blood pressure levels and tend to be more sodium-sensitive than European Americans. Typically African Americans develop hypertension earlier. As a result, they're at greater risk for kidney disease as hypertension progresses and for death from strokes and heart disease. Some Asians also are at greater risk.

Health Alert Foodborne Illness

Keep food safe Mature adults are at greater risk for foodborne illness. The reason The immune system can't always fight back as easily with age, especially for those battling other health problems, such as diabetes or kidney disease, or for those dealing with some cancer treatments. With age, stomach acids, which help reduce intestinal bacteria, decrease. Even mild foodborne illness can have a serious health effect.

Monitoring During Therapy

The need for evaluation of kidney function before instituting DMSA therapy is not absolute. Elderly persons, especially those with obvious health problems, should have a renal-function evaluation done. This can be done by ordering a BUN and creatinine study (blood test) before beginning chelation. Persons with known kidney disease should have DMSA administered only by a medical practitioner knowledgeable in the use of DMSA or other chelating drugs.

Diabetes Complications

People with diabetes are at increased risk for serious long-term complications. Hyperglycemia, as measured by fasting plasma glucose concentration or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), causes structural and functional changes in the retina, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. This damage can lead to blindness, numbness, reduced circulation, amputations, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Type 1 diabetes is more likely to lead to kidney failure. About 40 percent of people with type 1 diabetes develop severe kidney disease and kidney failure by the age of fifty. Nevertheless, between 1993 and 1997, more than 100,000 people in the United States were treated for kidney failure caused by type 2 diabetes. African Americans experience higher rates of diabetes-related complications such as eye disease, kidney failure, and amputations. They also experience greater disability from these complications. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy (disease of the small blood vessels in the retina...

Role of Exercise in Disease Prevention

Even more important, several of these factors are interrelated. For example, when an individual lowers his or her high blood pressure, the risk for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease is also reduced. Another example is that exercise favorably alters blood lipid profiles. These profiles include

Side Bar Are high protein diets bad for you By Will Brink

Regarding the potential for protein to stress the kidneys, though research suggests that people with pre-existing kidney disease avoid high protein diets, no data has ever shown kidney function to be compromised in healthy adults and the above review study confirms this finding. A recent study that examined the renal (kidney) function of athletes who follow a high protein diet- that is protein intake well above the US RDA - found no negative effects of a higher protein intake on the kidney function of these athletes (Jacques, R., 2000).

Effects of Socioeconomic Status Poverty and Health

Obesity and hypertension are major causes of heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and certain cancers. African Americans experience disproportionately high rates of obesity and hypertension, compared to whites. High blood pressure and obesity have known links to poor diet and a lack of physical activity. In the United States, the prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. The alarming rates of increase of obesity and high blood pressure, along with the deaths from diabetes-related complications, heart disease, and kidney failure, have spurred government agencies to take a harder look at these problems. As a result, many U.S. agencies have created national initiatives to improve the diet quality and the overall health of African Americans.

What Causes Free Radicals

Along this same line, but less well-known, is the observation that low-protein diets also increase longevity and high-protein diets are linked to shortened life spans. If confirmed, this finding could diminish the popularity of the high-protein diets being advocated by some popular authors. We already know that high-protein diets increase the incidence of osteoporosis, heart disease, and kidney disease, and high-protein diets in certain diseases, such as Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS), have been shown to significantly elevate blood levels of several destructive amino acids, including glutamate and aspartate.

Toast to Heart Health

High blood pressure causes the heart to work harder the higher the pressure, the greater the work and the greater the risk ofheart attack and stroke. High blood pressure can cause other problems heart failure, kidney disease, and blindness. These problems result from damage that high blood pressure causes in the blood vessels of the heart, kidneys, and eyes.

Assessment and other issues

Normal variations in dietary intake of MMA do not affect plasma levels. MMA is excreted in the urine and is closely correlated with plasma concentrations. Plasma MMA levels rise in renal failure and in cobalamin deficiency but not in folate deficiency. Plasma concentrations rise from normal values of 0.10.4 mmol L to 50-100 mmol L in vitamin B12 deficiency. MMA in urine or plasma is a sensitive measure of absolute and or functional vitamin B12 deficiency, and is especially useful in the diagnosis of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly.

Design Of Treatment For Type Diabetes Based On Nutrient Interactions

But life-threatening problem when used to treat patients with renal failure (37). A few cases of hypoglycemia have been reported in a combination therapy of met-formin and nateglinide (38). 37. Mallick, S, Metformin induced acute pancreatitis precipitated by renal failure, Postgrad. Med. J. 80 239-240, 2004.

Strategies for Modulating Tissue GSH Content and Improving Immune Function

Because cysteine is unstable in its reduced form, toxic in high doses and mostly degraded in the extracellular compartment, several compounds have been used to deliver cysteine directly to cells. These include L-2-oxothiazalidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ) and NAC. OTZ is an analogue of 5-oxoproline, in which the 4-methylene moiety has been replaced with sulphur. It provides an excellent substrate for 5-oxoprolinase (an intracellular enzyme). The enzyme converts OTZ to S-carboxy-L-cysteine, which is rapidly hydrolysed to L-cysteine. NAC rapidly enters the cell and is speedily deacylated to yield L-cysteine. Recent animal and clinical trials with NAC and OTZ have demonstrated the ability of the compounds to enhance GSH status (Bernard et al., 1997 Deneke, 2000 De Rosa et al., 2000). In studies on patients with sepsis, NAC infusion was shown to increase blood GSH, decrease plasma concentrations of IL-8 and soluble TNF receptors (an index of TNF production), improve respiratory function and...

Vitamin K status and health Adults

The first intervention study to look at the influence of vitamin K on bone strength was published by Akjba et al (1991) who recruited 17 dialysis patients losing bone mass due to renal insufficiency. They supplemented the patients with 45 mg vitamin K2 for 1 year and measured bone mass at different points on the skeleton. They found loss of bone was reduced in the vitamin K group. The findings were confirmed in subsequent studies by Orimo et al (1992) who carried out a placebo-controlled trial studying 546 patients with osteoporosis to whom they gave either 45mg vitamin K2 or 1 mg 1-a-hydroxy vitamin D3 for 48 weeks. Arm BMD increased by 2.1 in the vitamin K group but decreased by 2.4 in the vitamin D group (P 0.001) no difference in vertebral BMD was found. A more recent study reported that 45mg vitamin K2 or placebo given for 2 years to 241 osteoporotic women increased BMD and significantly reduced occurrence of new fractures (14 in the vitamin K vs. 35 in the placebo group)...

Aluminum and the Brain

During the early 1970s, doctors working in the dialysis units of several hospitals noticed that a growing number of their patients were developing rather unusual symptoms, such as jerking muscles, hallucinations, and rapid-onset dementia. Several of these patients died before the culprit was discovered high concentrations of aluminum in the water being used for dialysis. Ironically, this was ordinary tap water. Once aluminum was removed from the water, the dialysis dementia syndrome disappeared and patients improved significantly when chelated with a substance called deferoxamine, a medication that removes aluminum from body tissues. This was the first human demonstration that aluminum could cause dementia, somewhat similar to Alzheimer's dementia.

Current research and future trends

That of copper, it can safely be assumed that all label recovered after complete holmium clearance, is re-excreted copper. While other rare earth metals have been used to check for completeness of faecal collection, their excretion pattern differs from that of copper, precluding their use for estimating true absorption. Owing to the limitations of faecal collection, a plasma indicator of absorption may be preferable. This approach requires that newly-absorbed, albumin- and transcuprein-bound copper be distinguishable from the caeruloplasmin-copper pool. Whereas the movement of injected isotopes between the two compartments is readily traceable, orally-administered isotopes are more slowly transported into plasma, resulting in a problematic temporal overlap of the two copper pools. This issue has recently been addressed in a novel method of separating tracer-bound albumin by dialysis.113

What Causes Hypertension

Risk factors that can predispose people to hypertension include obesity, smoking, high stress, poor kidney function, and poor diet. Most regular exercisers are not obese, do not smoke, and eat a healthier-than-average diet, thus eliminating several risk factors. Many active people, in fact, have low blood pressure. But you cannot change additional predisposing factors such as your genetics, age, and race that can sometimes cause high blood pressure in spite of all your good health habits. You also cannot overlook the fact that blood pressure increases as we age as many as 70 percent of people over age 65 have high blood pressure. In a study of people 30 to 54 years of age with borderline high blood pressure, those who reduced their sodium intake for 10 to 15 years experienced 25 percent fewer heart attacks and other cardiovascular events compared with those who consumed their standard sodium-rich meals (Cook et al. 2007).

Chronic Toxicity Tests

For this study Spirulina was included in the feed at the same concentrations as in the subchronic study. Animals were fed for 84 weeks, during which time the effect on the weight gain was observed and analysis of hematology and serum chemistry were made. Kidney function testing over the different administration stages were examined to determine the ability of this organ to produce concentrated urine.59 After killing the animals, different organs were weighed and a histopathology study was performed. The survival of animals treated with the alga was equal or slightly higher than that of soy fed controls. This excludes, therefore, the possibility that Spirulina contains any toxic agents that would interfere with the normal physiological or biochemical processes in the long run. There were no obvious intergroup differences in macroscopic or histopathological findings, as would be expected in older animals65 (Table 2.2).

Why You Shouldnt Squeeze That Lemon in Your

Normally, absorption of aluminum from the gastrointestinal tract is rather low (0.1 percent) and excretion from the body is rather rapid following absorption. But, certain tissues, such as the brain, tend to gather the aluminum and hold onto it tightly. Also, people with poor kidney function are at special risk for aluminum toxicity, because their bodies cannot excrete ingested aluminum as efficiently as a person with normal kidneys. Because kidney function tends to decline as we age, the elderly are at special risk.

Keep the immune system working properly

Very high doses of magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea. Especially in the elderly, they can also cause problems with the kidneys because the kidneys are trying to remove excess magnesium. The elderly are at risk of magnesium tox-icity because kidney function declines with age and they are more likely to take magnesium-containing laxatives and antacids.

Dr Christopher Calpai

Treating the condition is done via looking at a blood test for vitamins and minerals, looking to see what the person's diet consists of, what they do for work, where they work, what they're exposed to at work, their home environment, doing a 24-hour urine test with an intravenous chelation procedure, and testing for creatinine clearance (kidney function), as well as testing for heavy metals.

Links to Blood Pressure

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and other conditions. It affects about 65 million Americans ages six years and over and about one-third of adults. Many don't know it. Are you at risk These are some factors linked to high blood pressure family history of high blood pressure, overweight, excessive alcohol intake, advancing age, and smoking.

Get Your Head Straight

All three young men were engaged in dehydrating practices - trying to lose weight in order to qualify for their first college wrestling matches. Reese was trying to lose 17 pounds so he could wrestle in the 150-pound weight class. His two-hour workout in a rubber suit in a 92-degree room cost him his life. He died of rhabdomyolysis -- a cellular breakdown of skeletal muscle under conditions of excessive exercise, which, combined with dehydration, resulted in kidney failure and heart malfunction. LaRosa was also riding a stationary bike and wearing a rubber suit when he collapsed and died. Saylor was riding a stationary bike in a predawn workout when he suffered a heart attack.

Complex Metabolic Disease

We have known for a long time that diabetics have a much higher incidence of heart attacks and strokes than the rest of the population.3'5 This appears to be linked to an increased risk of LDL cholesterol oxidizing in their vessels, which means a greatly increased risk of atherosclerosis affecting virtually every blood vessel in the body, especially microscopic vessels.396 Alteration of these microvessels leads to diabetic retinopathy (blindness) and kidney damage.

Effects of Alcohol and Cigarettes

Upper-body fat distribution (a marker of insulin resistance), and raised plasma-glucose concentration (53). It has also been associated with blunting the rise of HbA1c (53). Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a significant risk factor for death by coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes in several studies, including the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, The Finnish Prospective Study, and the Paris Prospective Study (53). Former smokers are 1.54 times (95 percent CI, 1.49-1.58) more likely to be diagnosed with coronary artery disease (53). Cigarette smoking has also been shown to be an independent predictor for stroke (53). It also appears to heighten the development of macrovascular and microvascular complications, including nephropathy and neuropathy (53). Its association with the development of retinopathy is not well-defined (53).

Are High Protein Diets Dangerous

At one time there was a belief that higher intakes of protein can be problematic to health. Today we know that for most people this isn't the case. In fact, diets with a higher level of protein then the RDA are encouraged for athletes as well as people during weight loss. Two areas of health have been the target for concern regarding higher protein intakes. The first is kidney health. It was long believed that since higher intakes of protein leads to the formation of more nitrogen-based compounds such as urea, this work become detrimental to the kidneys. However we now know that this isn't the case unless a person has a special situation related to the kidneys and receiving guidance from his or her physician.

Sodium Keeping the Balance

Your kidneys regulate the sodium level in your body. If you're healthy, your body doesn't retain excess sodium even when you consume more than you need. And excess amounts don't get stored. Is extra sodium always removed No. When kidneys don't work properly, perhaps due to kidney disease, extra sodium isn't excreted. This causes swelling, often in the face, legs, and feet. In medical terms, this swelling is called edema.

Taking in Extra Water and Electrolytes As Needed

After this, things begin spiraling downhill. When your water loss reaches 10 percent of your body weight, your tongue swells, your kidneys start to fail, and you're so dizzy that you can't stand on one foot with your eyes closed. In fact, you probably can't even try Your muscles are in spasm.

Toxicity of protein excess

Therefore, along the course of providing nutritional support to patients, a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical parameters to assess tolerance, weaning and ventilator parameters, organ function, visceral proteins, volume status, glucose tolerance, and other biochemical markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), ammonia and urinary urea nitrogen, or even indirect calorimetry measurements are necessary to adjust feeding regimens to adequate levels. For patients with a tendency toward or early signs of impaired renal function, the responses to protein intake should be more closely monitored.

Strength of evidence

The relationship of folate to CVD has been mostly explored through its effect on homocysteine, which may itself be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and probably also for stroke. Folic acid is required for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Reduced plasma folate has been strongly associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels and folate supplementation has been demonstrated to decrease those levels (27). However, the role of homocysteine as an independent risk factor for CVD has been subject to much debate, since several prospective studies have not found this association to be independent of other risk factors (28, 29). It has also been suggested that elevation of plasma homocysteine is a consequence and not a cause of atherosclerosis, wherein impaired renal function resulting from atherosclerosis raises

Biochemistry of Selenium Metabolism

Although there appears to be good evidence that inorganic selenium is incorporated into plant proteins, there are conflicting data relative to its utilization for the synthesis of selenoproteins in animal tissues. If the general analogy between sulfur and selenium metabolism applies, synthesis of seleno amino acids by animals would be contraindicated. However, evidence that inorganic 75Se is incorporated into liver proteins of the dog has been obtained by hydrolysis of the protein and paper chromatographic separation of the resulting amino acids (McConnell and Wabnitz, 1957). The radioactivity was mainly associated with cystine and methionine, and was attributed to the seleno analogs of these compounds. Similar experiments on rats yielded analogous results (Schoental, 1967). On the other hand, after labeled selenite was administered to rabbits, it was found that all the radioactivity could be removed from the liver protein by rigorously purifying the enzyme hydrolysate by dialysis and...

Future challenges and opportunities in food allergy

Uncoupling of immune complex formation and kidney damage in autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Science 1998 279 1052-1054. 110. Legendre C, Caillat-Zucman S, Samuel D et al. Transfer of symptomatic peanut allergy to the recipient of a combined liver-and-kidney transplant. N Engl J Med 1997 337 822-824.

Boring Statistics and Exciting Cases

Boring Routine Statistics America

It has been my opinion for some years that it may take as long as six months of nutritional therapy for the defense mechanisms of the body to begin to respond. Thus, I excluded from my study all patients with primary cancer who died within the first six months of treatment. These were patients whose defense mechanisms had been badly damaged or completely destroyed by their disease, the treatment they had received or a combination of both. Almost all of those in this group who were excluded were patients who had rapidly growing tumors in spite of (or perhaps because of) all of the radiation and or chemotherapy they had received. They had been told by their radiologist and or oncologist that their treatments had failed and there was nothing more that could be done. Usually the white blood cells and the body's ability to manufacture white blood cells had been destroyed. The white blood cells are the body's first line of defense against infection and, as mentioned in Chapter Two, are...

Protecting the Pump Heart Failure

As a result of pump failure, many organs are forced to work with reduced oxygen and nutrient supplies, leading to such problems as shortness of breath with mild exertion, impaired kidney function, and overall fatigue. Gradually the heart begins to enlarge, a condition called congestive heart failure. Because the rest of the body and organs are denied adequate blood supply, free-radical generation increases within these tissues as well. This leads to accelerated aging of the entire body, not just the heart. In time, these organs begin to break down as well, as is seen with kidney failure associated with heart muscle decompensation.

Other viral pathogens

A nucleoside analog available for both oral and intravenous administration. It is well tolerated occasionally, rash, reversible renal failure or gastrointestinal symptoms occur. Dose adjustment should be made with renal impairment. Risk of renal insufficiency is reduced with adequate prehydration

Relative Sources of Mercury Exposure

Mercury Natural Sources

Another problem is our inability to measure the subtle effects of chronic low-level toxicity of virulent compounds. Acute poisoning with massive doses of mercury is clinically obvious, with such symptoms as abdominal cramping, kidney failure, tremor, hallucinations, muscular weakness, and numbness in the hands and feet. Lower mercury levels frequently cause unusual irritability, timidity, and suicidal tendencies. Even lower levels may produce symptoms that most physicians would not even connect to mercury toxicity. Symptoms such as frequent colds, joint pains, autoimmune disorders, and subtle neurological dysfunction, such as an inability to think clearly, poor memory, headaches, and emotional disorders, may never be linked to real but undiagnosed metal toxicity. We do know, as I will show, that even very low levels of mercury can interrupt numerous cellular functions, especially in brain

F Prelay nutrition and management

Urolithiasis Broiler Breeders

Because diet electrolytes can influence water balance and renal function, it is often assumed that electrolyte excess or deficiency may be predisposing factors in urolithiasis or gout. Because salts of uric acid are very insoluble, then the excretion of precipitated urate salts could serve as a water conservation mechanism, especially when cations are excreted during salt loading or when water is in short supply. When roosters are given saline water (1 NaCl) and fed high protein diets, uric acid excretion rates are doubled compared to birds offered the high protein diet along with non-saline drinking water. Because uric acid colloids are negatively charged, they attract cations such as Na, and so when these are in excess, there is an increased excretion via urates, presumably at the expense of conventional NH4 compounds. There is some evidence of an imbalance of Na+K Cl levels influencing kidney function. When excess Na+K relative to Cl is fed, a small percentage of the birds develop...

Thinning the Blood to Prevent a Stroke

Types Dialysis Table

Many doctors place their high-risk patients on anticoagulants. Various anti-clotting drugs are used, such as Plavix or Persantine. Unfortunately, these drugs also have some major complications including aplastic anemia, extreme fatigue, and even leukemia. Aspirin is safer than these prescription drugs, but it is associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhages, ulcer activation, and kidney damage.

Eating to Stay Healthy for the Long

Although there is no such thing as a bad food, there is a bad diet. Repeatedly eating meals and snacks of junk foods filled with saturated fat and refined sugars can, indeed, contribute to obesity, heart disease, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, kidney failure, and other diseases associated with

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

In reaction to this buildup of galactose the body makes some abnormal chemicals. The buildup of galactose and these chemicals can cause liver damage, kidney failure, stunted growth, men-cataract clouding of the lens of the eye tal retardation, and cataracts in the eyes.

Nutrition And Diabetes Mellitus

Overall, the risk for death among people with diabetes is about two times that of people without diabetes. People with diabetes are more vulnerable to many kinds of infections and to deterioration of the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and vision. Diabetes can lead to serious complications such as blindness, kidney damage, and lower-limb amputations. Working together, people with diabetes and their health-care providers can reduce the occurrence of these and other diabetic complications (Figure 11-12) by controlling the levels of blood glucose,

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The adult vegans in the Haddad et al. dietary study15 had higher serum albumin levels than the omnivore controls, which demonstrated vegan dietary protein adequacy. The vegans demonstrated this while maintaining lower blood urea nitrogen values. Long term, this pattern aids in the reduction of the incidence of chronic renal failure.

Other Things to Remember

Two days before you have your fillings removed, I advise that you take DMSA to lower your tissue and blood levels as low as possible. This chelating medication powerfully binds mercury in your tissues and promotes its elimination in your urine. This should be supervised by a physician trained in the use of the drug. If this chelator is used, you will have to have a test to see that your kidney function is normal (usually a BUN and a creatinine). I emphasize once again all chelation should be supervised by a physician expert in the procedure.

Diabetes and Microalbuminuria

Microalbuminuria has been shown to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (51). Meta-analysis has shown that the presence of microalbuminuria doubles the risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality and doubles the risk of total mortality (51). In patients with diabetes, the presence of microalbuminuria confers a tenfold higher risk of developing diabetic nephropathy annually, compared to patients without microalbuminuria (51). In a large cross-sectional analysis, when compared to patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria, patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria had a longer duration of diabetes and higher waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), ankle-to-arm index, and serum creatinine (51). They were more likely to have a history of retinal laser therapy, hypertension, cerebrovas-cular disease, peripheral vascular disease, require insulin therapy, be smokers, and have...

Irreversible inhibitors

Experimentally, it is simple to distinguish between irreversible and reversible inhibitors a reversible inhibitor can be removed from the enzyme (for example by dialysis), and this will restore activity. By contrast, an irreversible inhibitor, being covalently bound, cannot be removed by dialysis, and so activity cannot be restored.

Antioxidant Properties Of Wine

Before consumption of polyphenols as a supplement or in wine can be recommended as part of a dietary regimen to reduce risk factors associated with CVD, it is important to review any evidence related to adverse effects. Generally, consumption of polyphenols through a variety of foods is not likely to produce adverse effects, because of the diversity and varying quantities of polyphenols in plant sources. However, evidence suggests that flavonoids may cross the placenta and become concentrated in the developing fetus and perhaps increase the risk of developing infantile leukemia. Therefore, consumption of large doses of polyphenols probably should be avoided during pregnancy, but this area has received little attention. In addition, chronic pharmacologic doses have been reported to produce adverse effects. For example, doses of 1-1.5 g d of cianidanol, a flavonoid drug, produced renal failure, hepatitis, fever, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and skin disorders (Jaeger et al.,...

Minerals And The Elderly Vegetarian Or Vegan

The elderly vegan has an optimal diet for magnesium content. The risk of trauma however, such as brain injury, is a risk for all people in all dietary groups, and even with a high continuous magnesium intake, the rapid decline of magnesium levels will require magnesium salt administration for satisfactory neurologic outcome.106 Caution should be used with magnesium therapy in subjects with any degree of renal failure because hypermagnesmia may develop, which could result in acute renal failure.107

Condiments and sauces such as Worcestershire sauce horseradish ketchup and mustard

The most important health issue that is influenced by overconsumption of salt is high blood pressure, also called hypertension. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. In short, the higher your salt intake, the higher your blood pressure. Individuals with the greatest reductions in blood pressure in response to decreased salt intake are called salt-sensitive. They include middle-aged and older persons, African-Americans, and individuals with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. There is no benefit to consuming more than 1500 mg per day, especially for members of these groups.


Generally speaking, men tend to have higher homocysteine levels than women the same age. And in women, homocysteine levels often increase after menopause, which can lead to a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, homocysteine increases with impaired metabolism of homocysteine by the kidney. For this reason, total homocysteine levels are much higher in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Blood Pressure

One out of every four American adults (nearly 60 million people) has high blood pressure, which is known as the silent killer because it kind of creeps up without any warning. High blood pressure can greatly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. As your heart beats, blood is pumped into your arteries, creating a pressure within them. When too much pressure is placed on the artery walls, high blood pressure, or hypertension, is the result. Over time, your arteries can be so damaged by such constant pressure that the end result could be a heart attack, brain attack (stroke), or kidney disease. The following table provides blood pressure guidelines, as recommended by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Type Diabetes

Once diagnosed, it is imperative that blood-sugar levels be well-controlled or a number of complications, including loss of vision and kidney disease, can occur. Those with Type 1 diabetes are also at an increased risk for hypertension, stroke, heart disease, and problems with the teeth and gums. So obviously, keeping a vigilant watch on blood-sugar numbers is a constant challenge for those with Type 1 diabetes.

Chronic Diseases

As women age, the risk of developing chronic disease increases. Women over age forty-five who are overweight, physically inactive, and have a family history of diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a varied and balanced diet, and engaging in an active lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetes carries many risks with it, including eye disease, nerve disease, kidney disease, and heart disease.

Enough Is Enough

Kidneys As far as increasing the risk for kidney disease, this is really important if you are at risk for kidney dysfunction, but it's not really an issue for most of the athletic population. The evidence is weak that eating a diet very high in protein causes kidney disease in healthy people. The concern is that there is evidence that a diet extremely high in protein increases protein breakdown and results in a by-product called urea, which is basically lost in urine. Therefore, athletes and individuals who choose to follow a diet high in protein should take care to consume adequate amounts of fluids to flush urea from the kidneys.

Diet and Diabetes

With the current epidemic of obesity that is plaguing the United States, a concurrent epidemic of diabetes is tagging alongside, not only in adults but also among children, who have grown accustomed to eating supersized fast foods and spending too much time in front of TV and computer screens instead of playing outside and moving their bodies. Although one type of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, is the result of the body's inability to produce adequate insulin to carry blood sugar into the cells, a second and more common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes, commonly occurs in people who are overweight and underfit. These people need to lose weight, exercise more, and eat better-quality foods (or take medications). If not, the resulting high levels of blood glucose increase their risk of heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease, blindness, and amputation of limbs.

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