Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. Read more here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary

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Low Carbohydrate and Other Nontraditional Dietary Approaches

Among the general public, as well as those with type 2 diabetes, there has been a recent increased interest in the use of low-carbohydrate diets for OW OB intervention. Klein et al. (8) summarizes five randomized trials in adults (34-38), comparing subjects assigned to a low-fat diet ( 25 percent to 30 percent Kcal from fat and 55 percent to 60 percent Kcal from carbohydrate) to subjects randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet ( 25 percent to 40 percent of Kcal from carbohydrate). Subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the short term (six months) but not the long term (12 months). In addition, glycemic control was found to be better (35, 37) and some serum lipids were improved. While these studies may offer promising dietary alternatives for those who are OW OB, additional studies of long-term safety and efficacy are needed before low-carbohydrate diets are recommended as a WR strategy for OW OB individuals with type 2 diabetes. Other...

Lowcarbohydrate ketogenic diets

At one time, there was a vogue for low-carbohydrate diets for weight reduction. These were soundly based on the fact that fat and protein are more slowly digested and absorbed than carbohydrates and therefore have greater satiety value. At the same time, a severe restriction of carbohydrate intake would limit the intake of other foods as well one argument was that without bread there was nothing on which to spread butter. There is certainly a benefit in reducing the intake of carbohydrates with a high glycaemic index (section 4.2.2), as these lead to a larger insulin response, and hence result in more triacylglycerol synthesis in response to insulin than an equivalent amount of carbohydrate with a low glycaemic index. Nowadays a low-carbohydrate diet would not be recommended for weight reduction, as the aim for general health promotion is to reduce the proportion of energy from fat and increase that from starches (section 7.3). Furthermore, storage of dietary fat in adipose tissue is...

Can Eating a Low Carbohydrate Diet Make Us Fatter

As will become clearer in Chapter 8, eating too much energy makes us fat, not too much of any one energy nutrient such as carbohydrate. Without question eating a high carbohydrate diet in conjunction with eating excessive energy will certainly support weight (fat) gain so too will eating excessive fat and or protein. One of the reasons that carbohydrates have been bashed as of late is because of the effects of insulin upon stored fat. Insulin hinders the release of fat from adipose tissue. Therefore many dieters believe that carbohydrates, or more specifically insulin, are working against them. However, this function of insulin is very important in the normal scheme of things. By design, insulin keeps the fat tissue from breaking down and releasing fat during and for a couple of hours after a meal. At this time absorbed food energy nutrients are circulating in our blood so there would be no need to break down our fat stores. Insulin will also promote the formation of fat from excess...

Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance

The endurance capacity of an individual on a high CHO diet is approximately tluee times greater than when Oft a high fat diet. When CHO intake is low, rigorous training sessions over several days will result in a gradual depletion of muscle glycogen stores and eventually impair performance. The figure below illustrates depletion of muscle glycogen over three days of running two hours per day. Note that when subjects ate a low CHO diet, glycogen stores gradually became depleted over the three day period. When the high CHO diet was consumed, glycogen stores were repleted between training sessions. Remember that glycogen is composed of glucose molecules linked together. This figure clearly demonstrates the need to consume foods that are high in CHO,

Carbohydrates A Complex Story

Discovering the different kinds of carbohydrates Understanding how your body uses carbohydrates Loading up on carbohydrates before athletic competition Valuing dietary fiber Carbohydrates the name means carbon plus water are sugar compounds that plants make when they're exposed to light. This process of making sugar compounds is called photosynthesis, from the Latin words for light and putting together. In this chapter, I shine a bright light on the different kinds of carbohydrates, illuminating all the nutritional nooks and crannies to explain how each contributes to your vim and vigor not to mention a yummy daily menu.

Finding the carbohydrates you need

The most important sources of carbohydrates are plant foods fruits, vegetables, and grains. Milk and milk products contain the carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar), but meat, fish, and poultry have no carbohydrates at all. These foods provide simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, and the natural bonus of dietary fiber. Table sugar, honey, and sweets which provide simple carbohydrates are recommended only on a once-in-a-while basis. One gram of carbohydrates has four calories. To find the number of calories from the carbohydrates in a serving, multiply the number of grams of carbohydrates by four. For example, one whole bagel has about 38 grams of carbohydrates, equal to about 152 calories (38 x 4). (You have to say about because the dietary fiber in the bagel provides no calories, because the body can't metabolize it.) Wait That number does not account for all the calories in the serving. Remember, the foods listed here may also contain at least some protein and fat, and these two...

Checking Out Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates come in three varieties simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, and dietary fiber. All are composed of units of sugar. What makes one carbohydrate different from another is the number of sugar units it contains and how the units are linked together. 1 Simple carbohydrates These carbohydrates have only one or two units of sugar. A carbohydrate with one unit of sugar is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide (mono one saccharide sugar). Fructose (fruit sugar) is a monosaccharide, and so are glucose (blood sugar), the sugar produced when you digest carbohydrates, and galactose, the sugar derived from digesting lactose (milk sugar). I Complex carbohydrates Also known as polysaccharides (poly many), these carbs have more than two units of sugar linked together. Carbs with three to ten units of sugar are sometimes called oligosaccharides (oligo few). Because complex carbohydrates are, well, complex, with anywhere from three to a zillion units of sugars, your body takes...

Are There Different Types and Classes of Carbohydrates

As you may guess, numerous different kinds of carbohydrates are found in nature. However our discussion will be limited to those carbohydrates found in greater amounts in our diet and those important to our body. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, which include glucose (dextrose), fructose, and galactose. Other examples of monosaccharides include xylose, mannose, and ribose, but these may not be as familiar to you. There are over one hundred different monosac-charides found in nature and these serve as the building blocks for larger carbohydrates, such as disaccharides, oligosaccharides, starches, and fibers (most).

Recommendations for carbohydrates fats dietary fiber and alcohol

What nutrients are missing from the RDA list of essentials Carbohydrates, fiber, fat, and alcohol. The reason is simple If your diet provides enough protein, vitamins, and minerals, it's almost certain to provide enough carbohydrates and probably more than enough fat. Although no specific RDAs exist for carbohydrates and fat, guidelines definitely exist for them and for dietary fiber and alcohol. In 1980, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined forces to produce the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see Chapter 16). This report has been modified many times. The latest set of recommendations, issued in the spring of 2005, sets parameters for what you can consider reasonable amounts of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fats, protein, and alcohol. According to these guidelines, as a general rule, you need to i Eat enough carbohydrates (primarily the complex ones from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) to account for 45 to 65...

Do Pasta and Other Carbohydrates Make You

In this era of trendy low-carb and no-carb diets, this may be the best thing you've heard in a while Carbohydrates will not make you fat Consistently overeating calories will make you fat and those calories may come from protein, fat and or carbohydrate. Always remember that appropriate amounts of high-quality carbohydrates will prolong your energy and improve your health. Furthermore, carbs are the body's preferred source of fuel. In fact, some of the body's tissues can only use carbohydrates to function optimally. Why all the confusion For starters, some people confuse weight gain from fat with weight gain from carbohydrates. One gram of fat has more than double the amount of calories as one gram of carbohydrate. What some people don't realize is that fat usually accompanies carbohydrates at a meal. For S Some excellent sources of carbohydrates include fruits, vegetables, legumes, brown rice, barley, couscous, oatmeal, pita bread, oat bran pretzels, whole wheat tortillas, high-fiber...

Where Do Carbohydrates Come From

To create energy-providing carbohydrates from the non-energy-providing molecules H2O and CO2 is a talent limited to plants and a handful of bacteria. In a process called photosynthesis, these life-forms are able to couple H2O and CO2 by harnessing solar energy. Along with carbohydrates, oxygen is also a product of this reaction Humans are unable to perform photosynthesis and thus we eat plants and plant products such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and grain products to obtain a rich supply of carbohydrates. Beyond plants and their products, milk and dairy are also good sources of carbohydrates. In fact, milk and some dairy products are the only considerable source of carbohydrate from animal foods. It should be mentioned that although humans cannot perform photosynthesis, we do possess the ability to make some carbohydrate in our body. However, in order to do so, we must start with molecules that already possess energy, as we will discuss soon enough.

Other ways your body uses carbohydrates

Providing energy is an important job, but it isn't the only thing carbohydrates do for you. Carbohydrates also protect your muscles. When you need energy, your body looks for glucose from carbohydrates first. If none is available, because you're on a carbohydrate-restricted diet or have a medical condition that prevents you from using the carbohydrate foods you consume, your body begins to pull energy out of fatty tissue and then moves on to burning its own protein tissue (muscles). If this use of proteins for energy continues long enough, you run out of fuel and die. A diet that provides sufficient amounts of carbohydrates keeps your body from eating its own muscles. That's why a carbohydrate-rich diet is sometimes described as protein sparing. What else do carbohydrates do They

Some problems with carbohydrates

Some people have a hard time handling carbohydrates. For example, people with Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes do not produce sufficient amounts of insulin, the hormones needed to carry all the glucose produced from carbohydrates into body cells. As a result, the glucose continues to circulate in the blood until it's excreted through the kidneys. That's why one way to tell whether someone has diabetes is to test the level of sugar in that person's urine. Other people can't digest carbohydrates because their bodies lack the specific enzymes needed to break the bonds that hold a carbohydrate's sugar units together. For example, many (some say most) Asians, Africans, Middle Easterners, South Americans, and Eastern, Central, or Southern Europeans are deficient in lactase, the enzyme that splits lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose. If they drink milk or eat milk products, they end up with a lot of undigested lactose in their intestinal tracts. This undigested lactose makes...

Carbohydrates during Exercise

Now that you understand your hydration needs, the next order of business is your carbohydrate requirements. Most of us have about two thousand calories' worth of stored carbohydrates among what's stored in our liver, muscles, and blood to use during exercise. That will last about sixty to ninety minutes, depending on how big you are and the intensity of the exercise. An hour of high-intensity exercise has been shown to burn through 55 percent of liver glycogen, and in two hours, that glycogen is kaput. This is why athletes can get by with only water when exercising less than an hour but go longer, and they'll need additional carbohydrates to keep the pace and intensity levels high. Hundreds of studies have shown that carbohydrates consumed during exercise delay fatigue in endurance athletes, but carbohydrates during exercise also are important for athletes in high-intensity stop-and-go sports such as soccer, ice hockey, tennis, basketball, baseball, and football, as well as in...

Limitations of food composition data the case of carbohydrates

The above framework for building practical, evidence-based data sets linked to health end-points is illustrated below by reference to two physiological effects of food carbohydrates postprandial glycaemia (post-meal elevation of blood glucose), and faecal bulking. Postprandial glycaemia is determined largely by carbohydrate digestibility,45 and faecal bulk largely by non-digestible, non-fermentable polysaccharides.46 Standard food analyses do not account for the large effects of the structure of carbohydrate molecules and foods in the carbohydrate nutrition. Monosaccharide composition and order, glycosidic bonds, degree of polymerisation, chain configurations, non-covalent interactions between chains, and crosslinks that carbohydrates readily form may all greatly affect physicochemical properties,6,47 and the physiological effects that depend on such properties. Furthermore, food structure, such as particle size, may considerably modulate the ability of food carbohydrates to express...

All About Complex Carbohydrates

Now that you know what you shouldn't load up on, let's take a look at the foods you should eat. By now, you should be clued-in to which foods are rich in complex carbohydrates (pasta, rice, grains, breads, cereal, legumes, and vegetables). Although they're actually made from hundreds or even thousands of simple sugars linked together, they react quite differently inside your body. After you ingest a complex carbohydrate (or starch), several enzymes break it down into its simplest form, called glucose. Glucose is the simple sugar that your body recognizes and absorbs. All types of carbohydrate (simple and complex) must be broken down and converted into glucose before your body can absorb and use it for energy. Simple carbohydrates (simple sugars) are molecules of single sugar units or pairs of small sugar units bonded together. Complex carbohydrates (complex sugars) are compounds of long strands of many simple sugars linked together. Another reason to choose complex carbohydrates is...

Other bad carbohydrates

I have deliberately discussed in greatest detail the bad carbohydrates you are most likely to be eating on a regular basis, and which you will have to give up, at least temporarily. Other bad carbohydrates tend to be foods which contain a good deal of carbohydrate but very little protein, and which have only poor quality fibre. The combination of these factors confers on such foods a high glycaemic index. It is worth mentioning carrots and beetroot in this category. Also to be included are all the carbohydrate-lipid items, such as biscuits, croissants and pastries, which should be ruled out in Phase I.

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides, are composed of simple sugar units in long chains called polymers. Three polysaccharides are of particular importance in human nutrition starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber. Starch and glycogen are digestible forms of complex carbohydrates made of strands of glucose units linked by alpha bonds. Starch, often contained in seeds, is the form in which plants store energy, and there are two types amylose and amylopectin. Starch represents the main type of digestible complex carbohydrate. Humans use an enzyme to break down the bonds linking glucose units, thereby releasing the sugar to be absorbed into the bloodstream. At that point, the body can distribute glucose to areas that need energy, or it can store the glucose in the form of glycogen. Pastas and whole-grain breads contain complex carbohydrates, which are long strands of glucose molecules. Nutritionists recommend that 55-60 percent of calories come from carbohydrates, and especially...

Carbohydrates and energy A biochemical love story

When you eat carbohydrates, your pancreas secretes insulin, the hormone that enables you to digest starches and sugars. This release of insulin is sometimes called an insulin spike, which means the same thing as insulin secretion but sounds a whole lot more sinister. Eating simple carbohydrates such as sucrose (table sugar) provokes higher insulin secretion than eating complex carbohydrates such as starch. If you have a metabolic disorder such as diabetes that keeps you from producing enough insulin, you must be careful not to take in more carbs than you can digest. Unmetabolized sugars circulating through your blood can make you dizzy and maybe even trip you into a diabetic coma. For info on why the difference between simple and complex carbs can matter for athletes, check out the section called Who needs extra carbohydrates

How Are Dietary Carbohydrates Digested

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates picks up again in the small intestine as the pancreas delivers pancreatic amylase along with a battery of other digestive enzymes. Pancreatic amylase resumes the assault upon starch molecules, breaking them into smaller links of glucose. The cells that line the small intestine will play the final role in carbohydrate digestion as they produce enzymes that digest the smaller carbohydrates, such as disaccharides and the remaining branch points on what was once starch. The enzymes that split sucrose, maltose, and lactose into monosaccharides are called sucrase, maltase, and lactase, respectively. Carbohydrates are primarily absorbed as monosaccharides, thus disaccharides and starch must be digested.

Impact on key nutrients carbohydrates

Reducing sugars such as glucose and lactose participate in Maillard reactions, which will be discussed further in section 14.3. The shear forces during extrusion can also create reducing sugars from complex carbohydrates as well as from sucrose and other sugars. Sucrose losses of up to 20 were found in protein-enriched biscuits (Noguchi and Cheftel, 1983). While sucrose loss may affect product color and flavor, there is an opportunity to reduce the content of indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause flatulence. Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose decreased significantly in extruded pinto bean high-starch fractions (Borejszo and Khan, 1992). Corn-soy snacks had lower levels of both stachyose and raffinose compared to unextruded soy grits and flour, but values were not corrected for the 50-60 corn present (Omueti and Morton, 1996). Starch and stachyose were lower in extruded peas compared to raw peas (Alonso et al, 2000), but an increase in total free sugars did not fully account for...

The Chemists View of Carbohydrates

To understand the structure of carbohydrates, look at the units of which they are made. The sugars most important in nutrition are the 6-carbon monosaccharides known as hexoses. Each contains 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygens (written in shorthand as C6H12O6). carbohydrates compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydrates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule (CH2O)n. simple carbohydrates (sugars) monosaccharides and disaccharides. complex carbohydrates (starches and The carbohydrates are made of carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H). Each of these atoms can form a specified number of chemical bonds carbon forms four, oxygen forms two, and hydrogen forms one.

Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates

What Ch2oh Called

Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio Cn H 'O . The basic unit of the carbohydrates is the sugar molecule or monosaccharide. Note that sugar is used here in a chemical sense, and includes a variety of simple carbohydrates that are collectively known as sugars. Ordinary table sugar (cane sugar or beet sugar) is correctly known as sucrose as discussed in section 4.2.1.3, it is a disaccharide. It is just one of a number of different sugars found in the diet. 4.2.1 The classification of carbohydrates Dietary carbohydrates can be considered in two main groups sugars and polysaccharides. As shown in Figure 4.3, the polysaccharides can be further subdivided into starches and non-starch polysaccharides. Figure 4.3 Nutritional classification of carbohydrates. Figure 4.3 Nutritional classification of carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols are formed by the reduction of the aldehyde group of a monosaccharide to a hydroxyl ( OH) group. The most important of these is...

How much of carbohydrates after training

Pavel Ythjall

Ingest 0,5-1 gram of carbohydrates for every pound of bodyweight directly after training. The more difficult it is for you to gain muscle mass, the more carbohydrates should be included after workouts. One way to do that without gaining body fat is to have small portions of carbohydrates. One example I weigh 120 lbs and easily gain muscle mass but also body fat. Before my workout I take in 17 grams of dextrose (glucose) with whey protein and other supplements.

The Complex Carbohydrates

Amylopectin

The simple carbohydrates are the sugars just mentioned glucose, fructose, and galactose, either singly or paired with glucose. In contrast, the complex carbohydrates contain many glucose units and a few other monosaccharides strung together as polysaccharides. Three are important in nutrition glycogen, starches, and fibers. glycogen (GLY-co-gen) an animal polysaccharide composed of glucose it is manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.

Dietary Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (Fig, 3,1) thus exist as a vast family of naturally occurring compounds and derivatives of these compounds. Fortunately, only a small number of them are commercially significant and used in the food industry, while a similar number are of metabolic importance. Dietary carbohydrate is a major nutrient for both man and omnivorous animals. Human adults in the Western world obtain approximately half their daily caloric requirements from dietary carbohydrates in the developing countries, it is the major source. Of this ingested carbohydrate, some 60 is in the form of polysaccharides, mainly starch and glycogen, but the disaccharides sucrose and lactose represent 30 and 10 , respectively (I ble 3,1). More recently, in a few Western countries, a significant intake of monosaccharide sugars (glucose and fructose) can be obtained from manufactured foods and drinks. Some oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, are found in small amounts in various legumes. They cannot be...

Carbohydrates Primary Source Of Energy

Common among bodybuilders is the practice of going on diets high in protein and very low in carbohydrate. Their understanding of the essential role played by protein in building muscle and repairing tissue is certainly correct. Yet too many remain unaware that carbohydrates are needed to power those muscles and to generate energy needed for training. Remember, the energy needs of the body take priority over all other functions, and when you do not have sufficient carbohydrates in the diet to provide energy it will be taken from the protein needed to build tissue. For this reason, many bodybuilders enter competitions in sad shape. j.'urdl Jeal oJ tin-. problem may unsf irom 1 mtMaken understanding I i5h* sources oi carbohydrate- Iruc. ifrmuis pj . cake-. icecream. padry and nlhci inch items jiiJ snack foods an loaded vs 11 h carbohydrates Hut none > f these should ne uiidl ti> provide vour sourer af carbohydrates. Instead they should eamtr primarily from liesli lruii ind vegt blrn...

Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

All forms and sources of carbohydrate are not alike. The carbohydrate family includes both simple and complex carbohydrates. The simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides (single- and double- Complex carbohydrates, such as starch in plant foods and glycogen in muscles, are formed when sugars link together to form long complex chains, similar to a string of hundreds of pearls. They can be symbolized like this

Carbohydrates energy metabolism and wound healing

In general, calories are needed to supply the energy that is necessary for wound healing. Nutritional support generally includes some form of carbohydrates (parenteral dextrose, and enteral lactose, oligosaccharides, etc.). Glucose is a critical nutrient, especially in patients who have experienced significant trauma, such as a burn, as it is required for cellular growth, fibroblastic mobility, and leukocyte activity. As the metabolic rate increases, there is a concomitant increase in the conversion of amino acids to glucose and an increased rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis if adequate carbohydrate substrates are not provided. Carbohydrates have been shown to impact wound healing in a variety of ways. Historically, carbohydrates have been viewed as an energy source for patients who are recovering from wounds. Differences have been noted in regards to carbohydrate requirements of patients who suffer from acute traumatic wounds (i.e., burns), acute iatrogenic wounds (i.e., incisions),...

Carbohydrates wound healing and immune function

Release and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, macrophages move into the wound (29). These cells also secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors and control leukocyte recruitment. During all of this cell adhesion, migration and proliferation is regulated by cell-surface carbohydrates. Specifically, P-4-galactosylated carbohydrate chains synthesized by P-4Gal-I play a critical role in the wound healing process (30). Carbohydrates provide energy to wound cells, which helps in cell proliferation and phagocytic activity however, more recently, carbohydrates have also been shown to play a variety of non-energy-related roles via their functions as communication or recognition markers when they are formed into glycoproteins or glycolipids. These roles become extremely important after a trauma, when the body must mobilize an immune response. Carbohydrates have been found to play a significant role as components of glycoproteins in cell communication and have also been shown to...

What kind of carbohydrates

Pavel Ythjall

Except for the pre workout meal and the four small meals after working out, the carbohydrates you choose should be slow-digesting ones like vegetables, oatmeal, parboiled rice, lentils and beans. These carbohydrates keeps your blood sugar in check and don't make you gain fat. Keeping your blood sugar steady is good for many reasons Within the three hours after working out, opt for fast-digesting carbohydrates like instant rice, white bread, honey, cereal and baked potatoes. Keep the portions relatively small so all carbohydrates will get absorbed by the muscles and not enter your fat cells.

Carbohydrates

Dietary carbohydrate intake has become the source of much debate lately. Of course, the US Food Guide Pyramid and the Canadian Food Guide continue to recommend a high carbohydrate diet. However many experts have challenged these recommendations with research that demonstrates higher carbohydrate diets can lead to serious health problems and a difficult time with fat loss. So, what should you do Well, in sedentary folks, a lower carbohydrate intake has been shown to lead to weight loss, losses in body fat, a better preservation of muscle mass and favorable changes in triglycerides and good cholesterol. However, it's likely that athletes following a similar low carb diet would suffer impaired exercise performance, a reduction in work capacity, suppressed immune function, and an increase in perception of effort during normal exercise tasks. So, from this, it should be clear that mid- to long-term low carb diets are probably not the way to go for athletes. As an athlete, if you put your...

Simple Carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates include monosaccharides (one-sugar molecules) and disaccharides (two-sugar molecules). Monosaccharides include glucose (commonly known as blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose (a kind of milk sugar). Disaccharides which are always composed of SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES When you think of simple carbohydrates, often you'll think of candy or junk food, and actually, many simple carbs are wasted calories (except for fruit, of course). If there is a type of carbohydrate to limit, it's the added sugar in candy, soft drinks, and sweet snack foods. These offer calories the same four calories per gram offered by any other type of carbohydrate but little else in terms of nutrition. That's why we often call them empty calories. Simple carbohydrates are rapidly digested, sometimes even in the mouth or soon after entering the stomach, and they may raise blood sugar rapidly. They tend to generate a quick rush (think sugar rush) of energy, which usually is short-lived....

Good Carbohydrates

Unlike the carbohydrates mentioned above, good carbohydrates are those which are only partly absorbed by the body, and which therefore produce a much smaller rise in blood glucose level. They include whole cereals (unrefined flour, for example), wholegrain rice and some starchy foods, such as lentils and broad beans. Most importantly, they also include most fruits, and all the vegetables which are classified as fibre (leeks, turnips, lettuce, green beans, etc.) and which all contain a small quantity of glucose.

Dietary Manipulation of Glycogen Stores Carbohydrate Loading

Dietary manipulation can be used to increase the stores of glycogen in muscle and liver. Glycogen increases when more carbohydrate is eaten. The practice is called carbohydrate loading. The athlete has 3 days of exhausting physical exercise on a low-carbohydrate diet followed by 3 days of rest on a high-carbohydrate diet. In general, athletes dislike both phases in the first, they feel exhausted both mentally and physically, and in the second, they feel bloated because the glycogen retains extra water. However, other feeding programs exist that do not use the carbohydrate depletion phase. For athletes in general, it makes sense to eat plenty of carbohydrate to maximize glycogen storage, as the usual training periods of several hours per day deplete it. There is little doubt that a high-carbohydrate diet improves glycogen storage and athletic performance (see also Chapter,, 4.7.). What to advise athletes to ingest just before an event is difficult. Solid food is not advisable before...

Low CarbCrazy if Youre Active

There also has been research on low-carbohydrate diets and athletic performance. Rosenkranz et al. reported on low-carbohydrate diets in the International Journal of Sports Nutrition, Exercise, and Metabolism in June 2007. A group of athletes was divided and assigned to follow one of two diets a low-carbohydrate diet or the recommended grain-based diet. The athletes on the low-carbohydrate diet experienced disruptions in their training schedule, higher heart rates, and higher perceived rates of exertion during exercise. Blood tests showed the low-carb dieters to have elevated total cholesterol and LDL levels. Athletes should take heed of some potentially dangerous effects on the body that low-carbohydrate diets can pose. Some reported side effects include ketosis (elevated levels of ketone bodies a type of fuel that comes from the breakdown of fat for fuel), fatigue, weakness, headaches, constipation, dizziness, and dehydration. None of these will improve performance. To make matters...

Can Diet Affect the Onset of Exhaustion

During training or competition, researchers have shown that athletes can significantly increase their training time or time till exhaustion by eating a high carbohydrate diet. For instance, one athlete on a low carbohydrate diet will reach muscle exhaustion long before another athlete on a high carbohydrate diet (more than 60 percent carbohydrate). A high carbohydrate diet allows the body to replenish glycogen stores in-between training sessions. Contrary to what many people think, it actually takes a while to rebuild muscle glycogen stores that have been used during exercise. In fact, if an endurance athlete reduces his or her muscle glycogen to nadir levels during training or competition it can take an entire day to rebuild them. This means that the athlete should eat carbohydrates immediately after completing a training session and throughout that day to provide the needed glucose to rebuild those stores.

Nutritional status assessment

In addition to exercise, an individual's dietary intake can also have an influence on his plasma glutamine concentrations. Blanchard et al.28 observed high-carbohydrate (70 ) diets to increase plasma glutamine concentrations compared to low-carbohydrate (45 ) (i.e., high-protein) diets in endurance-trained men completing exercise trials. However, muscle glutamine concentrations did not differ between the two groups, and no association was observed between plasma glutamine concentrations and changes in muscle glycogen concentrations. This suggests that the effect of carbohydrate intake on plasma glutamine is not influenced by the muscle glycogen stores. Likewise, Gleeson et al.29 observed low-carbohydrate diet (7 ) to be associated with a reduction in plasma glutamine concentrations during recovery compared to a high-carbohydrate diet (75 ). Low-carbohydrate and high-protein intakes have been suggested to result in lowering plasma glutamine levels due to a disruption in the acid-base...

Low Carbohydrate Diets

Low-carbohydrate diets are perhaps the most prolific of all weight loss plans. In 1992, Dr. Robert Atkins published Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution 28 . This was eventually followed by the publication of two subsequently revised versions of the book. The premise of this plan is to restrict carbohydrate intake so severely that ketoacidosis ensues. The plan, which provides only 20 g of carbohydrate during the Induction Phase, allows for extremely high-fat (particularly saturated fat) and protein intakes 28 relative to what is generally recommended as healthful for the general population 29 . It should be readily apparent to the practitioner that this amount of carbohydrate is inadequate for supporting pregnancy 1, 6, 29, 30 . More importantly, a state of ketosis during pregnancy is not consistent with a normal metabolic profile for gestation and can be problematic for both the mother and fetus 26, 31 . In addition, the amount of calories that is ultimately provided by this plan will not...

Example Recommended Calorie Intakes for Weight Reduction by Body Weight and Body Mass Indexa

The optimal macronutrient (fat protein carbohydrate) distribution for weight reduction has not been resolved but is currently a matter of active debate (26). In recognition of the high caloric density of dietary fat and its relatively low satiety value compared to isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate and protein, a low-fat diet has been most typically employed for WR in diabetes, as well as in the general OW OB population. However, the recent success of high-protein high-fat low-carbohydrate diets for WR has called this conventional approach into question.

Carbohydrate for Glycogen

Because of the unfounded fear that carbohydrate is fattening or that high protein intake is better for muscles, many athletes today are skimping on carbohydrate foods. The resulting low-carbohydrate diet can potentially hurt performance it contrasts sharply with the diet of 3 to 5 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight (6 to 10 g per kg) or 55 to 65 percent carbohydrate recommended by most exercise and health professionals. A case in point is ice hockey, an incredibly intense sport that relies on both muscular strength and power. During a game, carbohydrate is the primary fuel muscle carbohydrate (glycogen) stores decline between 38 and 88 percent. Muscle glycogen depletion relates closely to muscular fatigue. A motion analysis of elite ice-hockey teams showed that the players with a high-carbohydrate (60 percent) diet skated not only 30 percent more distance but also faster than the players who ate their standard low-carbohydrate (40 percent) diet. In the final period of the...

Make Your Carbs Count

As you can glean from the information above, carbohydrates come in many varieties, from extremely nutritious to essentially nutritionally void. When it comes to calories versus nutrition, the carbohydrates to include in the diet are whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Vegetables and fruits in particular are nutrient-dense calorie bargains. This means that people can eat a large volume of these foods and derive a lot of good nutrition from them without a lot of calories. Barbara Rolls of Penn State University coined the term volumetrics to describe a way of eating that focuses on satisfying hunger through low-calorie, high-nutrient foods. Because fruits and vegetables have high water and fiber contents, they tend to make us feel full quickly. Thus we end up feeling full after eating a large volume in terms of mass but not in terms of calories. Carbohydrates (and protein) contain four calories per gram, versus the nine calories per gram in fat. Thus we can eat a greater amount of...

Cholesterol metabolism

Though the benefits of high carbohydrate intake before exercise are well documented, the benefit of a high-fat diet before exercise is not clearly understood. A high-fat low-carbohydrate diet lowers glycogen stores in the liver and muscle, in part by increasing the utilization of fat stores for energy. While consuming a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet for a short period of time (1 to 3 days) can actually decrease one's exercise endurance and capacity, a longer period of consumption (> 7 days) may enhance fat oxidation during exercise, compensating for the reduced carbohydrate availability. Marked carbohydrate sparing occurs with a longer period of fat adaptation (5 days), with 1 day of carbohydrate intake for glucose normalization without any alteration in exercise performance.3536

Cut Out Carb Confusion

Like low-waist denim jeans or men with long hair, carbohydrates fall in and out of favor. The carb-cutting craze hit big in the late 1990s, but if you track the history, this trend had recurred over the years, popping up in new diet books, with novel names, every other decade. It is likely that the trend will return, but after reading this chapter, you should be unscathed when it presents on bookshelves, diet blogs, and quack sites. The aim is that you leave with a clear understanding of what carbohydrate-containing Due to the popularity of the Atkins Diet and the low-carbohydrate revolution of the 1970s, carbohydrates have I totally lost weight on the low-carb diet I was diligent and disciplined. I cut out all carbs from fruits to alcohol. My total weight loss was twenty-six pounds and I was very pleased . . . until I woke up with more hair on my pillow than my head. My doctor said one thing to me when he ordered my blood work 'Eat carbs again.' anonymous dieter testimonial earned a...

Noodlin over Carb Headlines

Can carbs make you fat-as some headlines suggest The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid recommend an eating pattern with starches (complex carbohydrates) from foods such as whole-grain breads, cereals, rice, pasta, fruits, vegetables, and legumes (dry beans). Limited research notes that carbohydrate-rich foods may cause weight gain in insulin-resistant people. For these individuals, it's speculated, the body reacts to sugars and starches by overproducing insulin-and so causing too much carbohydrate to be stored as fat. However, most of us don't gain weight on a high-carbohydrate diet, unless it provides excess calories. The real culprits for weight are inactivity, high-fat eating, and uncontrolled portion sizes from any source of food, including bread, pasta, and other grain products. See Insulin Resistance Syndrome, or 'Metabolic Syndrome' in chapter 22.

Expression of Glycolytic Lipogenic and Gluconeogenic Genes is Regulated by the Carbohydrate Availabil

The expression of several key glycolytic and lipo-genic enzymes is induced by a high-carbohydrate diet in the liver glucokinase (Iynedjian et al., 1987), 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Rongnoparut et al., 1991), (Colosia et al., 1988), aldolase B (Weber et al., 1984) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) (Vaulont et al., 1986) for glycolysis ATP-citrate lyase (Elshourbagy et al., 1990), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Pape et al., 1988), fatty acid synthase (FAS) (Paulauskis and Sul, 1989 Katsurada et al., 1990), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Ntambi, 1992) for lipogenesis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Kletzien et al., 1985 Katsurada et al., 1989) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Miksicek and Towle, 1983) for the pentose-phosphate pathway. The induction of the S14 gene, which encodes a small acidic polypeptide that seems to be related to lipogenesis, should also be mentioned here. S14 is expressed in lipogenic tissues (white and brown adipose tissue, liver, lactating mammary gland) and shares...

Taking Time to Recover

Rest days with little or no exercise are an important part of your training program. Yet, some people feel guilty if they don't train every day. They fear becoming unfit, fat, and lazy if they miss a day of training. That scenario is unlikely. These compulsive exercisers overlook the important physiological fact that rest is essential for top performance. Rest enhances the recovery process, reduces risk of injury, and invests in future performance. To replace depleted glycogen stores completely, the muscles may need up to two days of rest with no exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet. True athletes plan days with no exercise. Compulsive exercisers, in comparison, push themselves relentlessly and often pay the price of poorer performance and overuse injuries.

Carbohydrate requirementsenergy metabolism

In healthy adults, carbohydrate intake should account for 45 to 60 of total consumed calories. Carbohydrate requirements for patients with burn injuries greater than 25 of the body surface area have been recommended at levels up to 60 to 65 of total energy requirement (4,5). Carbohydrate is the key nonprotein energy source for the patient with burns, in particular. In a study by Hart and colleagues of 14 pediatric burn patients, it was shown that the administration of a high-carbohydrate diet (rather then fat) was associated with an improved net balance of skeletal muscle protein across the leg via an apparent protein sparing effect of the high-carbohydrate diet and a concomitant decrease in protein breakdown (6). Protein is needed in adequate amounts approaching 20 to 25 of the total caloric needs, leaving exogenous fat as the balance of caloric need at 20 or less of total calories due to potential immunosuppressive effects.

Ergogenic benefits Performance

Typically, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet has been the diet of choice for many athletes. The competitive athlete, however, demands a more productive routine. Out of a quest for excellence, numerous nutritional protocols have been examined. Among them are included methods to elevate plasma FFA concentration and thus, as discussed earlier, deliver more FAs or ketones to skeletal muscle for oxidation during exercise. Some of the procedures researched include fasting, the ingestion of MCTGs, LCTGs, or combinations of the two, L-carnitine, caffeine, and even intravenous infusions of lipid emulsions. From these studies have emerged suggestions that a high-fat diet, particularly high in MCTGs, may increase VO2max, endurance, and glycogen sparing. Following are brief summaries of some of the research conducted to determine the accuracy of these claims. The effects of three levels of fat on performance and metabolism were evaluated by Horvath et al.67 A low-fat diet (16 of total kcal) and a...

Transform a sound meal plan into a disaster In addition even the most sensible diets ignore the cruc

More than 24 hours.1314 In other words, the body is primed for the acceptance of protein for muscle maintenance and growth. Equally important is the need for consuming plenty of carbohydrates. After you work out, your body is somewhat depleted of its glycogen stores. Remarkably, studies have shown that high-glycemic carbohydrates are the preferred source for replenishing the body's energy stores after training.15 Not only does that result in greater storage for recovery and subsequent workouts, but it also significantly decreases muscle breakdown.16 Postworkout meals should contain about twice the normal amount of carbohydrates and protein, and you should eat them immediately following exercise. For example, if you were eating five meals per day and 3,000 calories, your postworkout meal would be approximately 1,000 calories, while the other four meals would average 500. Postworkout meals should also contain a larger percentage of protein than preworkout meals to keep up with the...

Carbohydratecapturing The Suns Energy

Next to water, carbohydrate is the nutrient needed in the greatest quantity. Nutritionists and researchers advocate the virtues of a high carbohydrate diet. It is the preferred fuel for most body functions and is involved in all of the body's cells. It is ideal to meet the body's energy needs, feed the brain and nervous system, keep the digestive system fit, and to keep the body lean. That makes sense, since it is carbohydrate which contains the sun's radiant energy captured by plants in the form of glucose. How could carbohydrate-rich plant food not help to pass the sun's life-sustaining capacity on to us, when nature has used plants as a storehouse for this vital force As you read this page, billions of glucose molecules are splitting each second to provide the energy which enables you to learn. A marathon runner also must thank the glycogen (the body's storage form of glucose) in his muscles that delivered the power to finish the race. Carbohydrates are the body's premium fuel, and...

Maximizing Stores Carbo Loading

Try to get a reservation at an Italian restaurant the night before a marathon and you'll be competing with racers to secure your party of five. Athletes recognize the importance of having adequate carbohydrates and load up on pasta and bread before an event. The rules of carbo-loading have evolved over the years, all with the same goal to maximize carbohydrate (glycogen) stores. Studies revealed that not only is the body capable of storing more glycogen when fed more carbohydrates, but that this increase in stores can improve performance by 2 to 3 percent if exercising for more than ninety minutes. It was once believed that proper carbo-loading required a period of depleting the body of glyco-gen followed by a few days of carb-supercompensation. This approach was characterized by three days of a diet of low carb, high fat and protein, and three days of high carbohydrate intake. Although glycogen stores were increased, restricting carbs for the first three days was difficult and

Strategy You Dont Have To Order From The Menu

Here's a hot tip that most people fail to realize. Most restaurants can easily provide a meal custom to your specifications even if it's not on the menu. So don't become a slave to the menu offerings. Ordering a specific number from the menu is almost always a recipe for disaster unless the menu is designed for healthy eating or whatever the restaurant is calling it. Most normal dishes have too much fat and too many processed carbohydrates for most body-conscious individuals. Instead of ordering an item directly from the menu, either ask for an item that you like prepared without the sauces or high carbohydrate portions or simply ask for a portion of protein and a few servings of vegetables and fruit on the side. Remember, you're paying top dollar for your meal and you're about to tip your waitress. So don't feel bad asking them to meet your needs. Uh, nutritionally, that is.

Nutritional Properties

Rice is a high-carbohydrate food with 85percent of the energy from carbohydrate, 7 percent from fat, and 8 percent from protein. However, rice also has a considerable amount of protein, with an excellent spectrum of amino acids. The protein quality of rice (66 ) is higher than that of whole wheat (53 ) or corn (49 ). Of the small amount of fat in brown rice, much is polyunsaturated. White rice is extremely low in fat content.

Put a Whole in Your Diet

Stoned-wheat and whole-grain crackers. These low-fat munchies are a perfect high-carbohydrate snack for your sports diet. Be sure to choose wholesome brands of crackers with low fat content, not the ones that leave you with greasy fingers. Look for Ak-Mak, Dr. Kracker, Finn Crisp, Kavli, RyKrisp, Triscuit Thin Crisps, Wasa, and Whole Foods 365 Baked Woven Wheats (among others).

Historical background

Before 1921, women with diabetes were advised to avoid pregnancy or to abort if they conceived because of adverse perinatal outcomes. If the pregnancies advanced to the stage of fetal viability, the infants were often stillborn or were born with major malformations. Medical nutrition therapy was the primary method of management for pregnant women with diabetes prior to 1921 however, the diets were often severely restricted or nutritionally unbalanced. These dietary approaches varied from high carbohydrate-low protein, or high protein-high fat, to brief periods of starvation 4, 5 . Alcohol was often included because of its calming effect on the mother 6 .

Carbohydrate Rich Foods

The 1,800 calories in the pizza, 1,200 were from the protein and fat in the double cheese and pepperoni. Only 35 percent of the calories, from the thin crust and tomato sauce, were from carbohydrate (160 g). No wonder he felt sluggish during the event. I gave Eric a list of carbohydrate in common foods (see table 6.3) to post on his refrigerator. With this tool he learned to select high-carbohydrate foods.

Eat the Right Food at the Right Time

Meals Eat a high-carbohydrate dinner, and drink extra water the day before. On the morning of the event, eat a familiar breakfast by 7 00 to allow three hours for the food to digest. This meal will prevent the fatigue that results from low blood sugar. Popular choices include oatmeal, a bagel, and yogurt. An afternoon game allows time for you to have either a big high-carbohydrate breakfast and a light lunch or a substantial brunch by 10 00, allowing four hours for digestion time. As always, eat a high-carbohydrate dinner the night before, and drink extra fluids the day before and up to noon. Popular brunch choices include French toast, pancakes, or cereal and poached eggs on toast. Meals You can thoroughly digest a hefty high-carbohydrate breakfast and lunch by evening. Plan for dinner, as tolerated, by 5 00, or have a lighter meal between 6 00 and 7 00. Drink extra fluids all day. Two popular dinner choices include pasta with tomato sauce and chicken with a large serving of rice or...

Case study bulimia nervosa during pregnancy

T.J. is a 32-year-old Caucasian, married woman, gravida 2, para 1, seeking prenatal care in the 11th week of gestation. Medical history reveals current BN, the onset of which occurred in the third month postpartum of her previous pregnancy. Since the onset of BN at age 27, T.J. has engaged in binge eating-purging cycles at least twice per day, consuming approximately 2,200 kcal of high-fat, high-carbohydrate snack-type foods during each binge with subsequent vomiting. She reports problems with my teeth and frequent heartburn. T.J. denies laxative, diuretic, or enema use, but admits to moderate exercise of fast-paced walking of up to 2 h per day. She was dissatisfied with her body shape and inability to quickly lose weight after her first pregnancy and is fearful that she will lose control of her body weight during this pregnancy. She gained 47 lb during her first pregnancy. T.J. currently weighs 145 lb and is 5' 7. Laboratory values are within normal limits. She reports having the...

Carbohydrate Is an Excellent Energy Source How Much Carbohydrate Do We

We are eating more calories today than in the past several decades and carbohydrates are making a greater contribution to those calories. In countries such as the United States and Canada, about half of the energy adults eat comes by way of carbohydrates. About half of this carbohydrate is in the form of starch and the other half in the form of simple sugars. Sucrose makes up about half of the simple sugars we eat. In other areas of the world, such as Africa and Asia, sucrose consumption makes a lesser contribution while grains (for example, wheat and rice), fruits, and vegetables make a greater contribution. The carbohydrate content of certain types of food is listed in Table 4.3. This includes easily digested carbohydrates such as sugars and starches, as well as carbohydrates that not easily digested such as oligosaccharides and fibers. Looking at this table we see that sweets such as candies and cakes are among those with the highest content of carbohydrate. Furthermore, nearly all...

Athletes with Weight Limits

In a study of wrestlers who quickly lost about 8 pounds (4.5 percent of their body weight), the wrestlers performed 3.5 percent worse on a six-minute arm-crank test designed to be similar to a wrestling competition. These results suggest that rapid weight loss by athletes before competition may be a detriment rather than a competitive advantage (Hickner et al. 1991). Yet, if the athlete follows an aggressive refueling program after the weigh-in, drops in performance can be minimized (Slater et al. 2007). Choose high-carbohydrate, salty foods and drink lots of fluids. For example, enjoy juice and pretzels. Be careful, though, to consume only the amount you can comfortably tolerate.

Mechanical processing

Between 5- and 10-fold when comparing the thiamin contents of milled, polished rice with those of paddy rice. Historically, this only presented a problem in societies with a restricted food supply, leading to the vitamin deficiency disease beriberi (summarised by Bender and Bender, 1997). Despite improvements in the quality of the food supply, both in terms of quantity and diversity, sociological changes can contribute to reoccurrence of the disease, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. Kawai et al (1980) reported the reappearance of shoshin (acute) beriberi in Japanese adolescents consuming a diet made up predominantly of high carbohydrate, low nutrient density foods such as carbonated soft drinks, polished rice and 'instant' noodles.

Timing of Fluid Intake

Depletion due to the breakdown of the carbohydrate stores in the body for the supply of energy. Dehydration can be avoided by ingesting fluid in amounts that approximate the amount of body weight that is lost during exercise. Carbohydrate depletion can be delayed by ingesting carbohydrate sources that can be used for fuel delivery to the muscle. This will make it less necessary to break down local carbohydrate stores or will replenish them if they have been emptied. The main result of such a supply of fluid combined with carbohydrate will be a delay in the development of fatigue and an overall improvement in performance.

But Carbs Make You Fat Right

Moreover, the major premise behind low-carbohydrate diets that carbohydrates promote weight gain more than other nutrients is false. There is nothing magical about protein or fat, just as there is nothing evil about carbohydrates. None of these nutrients causes weight gain or weight loss on its own, since overall calorie consumption versus calories burned determines weight. Eating more calories than your body will burn, calories from any food or combination of foods, can cause weight gain. Approximately thirty-five hundred calories, whether they are consumed as popcorn, steak, butter, or broccoli, will cause an individual to gain one pound of weight. Carbohydrates provide four calories per gram. A recent meta-analysis, a report that synthesizes and summarizes data from a number of good studies in the literature, supports the notion that calories, not carbohydrates, count in terms of body weight. The study examined the effects of low-carbohydrate diets, finding that weight loss was...

Strategy have others cook for you

First, you can hire commercial food preparation services to do all the cooking for you. If you're anywhere near a metropolitan area, you'll be able to find dozens to choose from. The two biggies nowadays are Atkins At Home (Atkins Diet) and Zone Nation (The Zone Diet). The Atkins At Home company delivers 3 meals and 1 snack to your door by 6 AM each morning. The cost of this is between 35 and 40 per day. Alternatively, the Zone Nation company delivers 3 meals and 2 snacks to your door by 6 AM each morning for the cost of 35-40 per day, just like the Atkins company. I hear good things about both services.

Amount of fat in the diet and innate immune function

Several studies have compared the effects of feeding laboratory animals low-and high-fat diets on innate immune responses, such as natural killer cell activity. Most studies have found that high-fat diets result in diminished innate immune responses (for references, see Calder, 1998a), but the precise effect depends upon the exact level of fat used in the high-fat diet and its source. Human natural killer cell activity was significantly increased by a reduction in fat intake to less than 30 of energy (Barone et al., 1989 Hebert et al., 1990).

Amount of fat in the diet and acquired immune function

A number of studies have compared the effects of feeding laboratory animals low- and high-fat diets (usually high in saturated fat) upon lymphocytes. These studies have concluded that high-fat diets are associated with suppressed T-cell proliferation (for references, see Calder, 1998a). This conclusion is supported by studies in humans that showed significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens if healthy subjects were fed a diet where fat contributed 25 of energy (Kelley et al., 1989, 1992).

Can Drinking Wine Decrease the Risk of Heart Disease

A few years back it was recognized that there was a decreased incidence of heart disease in France despite the consumption of a high fat diet, a phenomenon referred to as the French Paradox. Since it was well known that this population and others such as Denmark also drink a lot of red wine, scientists began to investigate the potential benefits of red wine. The consumption of wine in these regions is chronic yet only moderate one to four glasses daily. Red wine consumption has been recognized to reduce the incidence of heart disease by perhaps helping keep blood pressure lower, reducing blood clot formation, and reducing LDL oxidation. It is also likely that substances found in red wine, such as quercetin, resveratrol, and similar molecules, provide much of the benefit. Interestingly, the prophylactic effects of alcohol are not limited only to red wine. Researchers have determined that alcohol in a variety of forms (that is, liquor, wine, and beer) consumed chronically but in smaller

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of CAD. Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension, cigarette smoking, elevated blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, triglyceride), a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Will Different Types of Diets Evoke the Same Weight Gain

The conversion of excess glucose and protein to fat is not a simple process. These substances must engage in chemical reaction pathways, which will require energy to operate. Therefore, our body must expend energy to make fat. This means that a person eating a higher-carbohydrate protein diet in excess of energy needs will not store quite as much energy in the form of fat in comparison with an individual who eats a high fat diet in excess of energy needs. So, to address the notion that higher-carbohydrate diets make us fat, the answer is yes, but only when we eat more calories than we burn over time. However, if we eat the same amount of fat calories in excess of expenditure it is easier for our body to store the food fat as body fat.

Can Fat Loading Improve Aerobic Performance

Fat loading is a dietary attempt to enhance fat utilization during exercise, thereby decreasing carbohydrate usage and thus slowing glycogen breakdown. The most important considerations with this protocol are timing and practicality as it will take about a week or so for this adaptation to occur and a high fat diet may not be tolerable for many athletes.

Mercury and Multiple Sclerosis

Based on compelling evidence, the consensus in the medical community is that MS is an autoimmune disease. The big question is what triggers this autoimmunity There is growing evidence that a chronic viral infection (Herpes virus 7) plays a major role in this disorder, yet we also know that environmental and nutritional conditions can alter the course of the disease. High-fat diets, low in omega-3 fatty acids (from seafood) and high in omega-6 fatty acids (from vegetable oils), promote the disease and increase the severity of complications. Likewise, high antioxidant intake combined with a low-fat diet and increased DHA intake can reduce the severity of MS.

The Gluten Free Diet and

In addition, while a high-fat diet doesn't necessarily translate to excess body fat, it certainly increases the likelihood that this will occur. Many people with celiac disease find that, as their intestine heals and they are better able to absorb nutrients from the food they eat, they gain weight, sometimes more than they desire. One of the easiest ways to prevent this from happening (or to lose weight if desired) is to lower the amount of total fat in the diet.

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on energy intake and expenditure

The inverse association of CLA with body mass and adiposity prompted research to elucidate the role of CLA to modulate energy intake and expenditure (Table 5.4). Seventeen healthy, nonobese women between the ages of 20 and 41 were supplemented with 3 g day CLA or a sunflower oil placebo for 64 days.28 Energy expenditure measured by respiratory gas exchange, energy intake, or body composition was associated with CLA provided as a low dose and in a short-duration protocol. Similarly, no effect of CLA on energy expenditure was found in adult male Syrian hamsters fed diets with the c9t11 CLA isomer to equate 1.6 of energy or a CLA mixture of 3.2 of energy for 6 to 8 weeks.31 In contrast, male AKR J mice supplemented with CLA reduced energy intake and growth rate.15 The group fed a diet with 1.2 CLA mixture in a high-fat diet and 1.0 CLA mixture in a low-fat diet also had an increased metabolic rate and a decreased nighttime respiratory quotient compared with the controls fed without CLA....

Too Much of a Good Thing

High-fat eating, especially high saturated fat and excessive trans fats, is linked to higher blood cholesterol levels and so a greater chance for heart disease. There's more reason for caution eating a high-fat diet also increases the risk for obesity, and a diet high in saturated fat, for colon and prostate cancers. Weight control is a good reason to go easy on fat since high-fat foods are often high in calories, too. Whether they're saturated or unsaturated, calories from fat are all alike. Every fat gram supplies 9 calories, or more than twice the amount provided by 1 gram of carbohydrate or protein. And excess calories, whether from fats, carbohydrates, or proteins, are stored in the body as fat. Remember The total amount of calories eaten, not just the calories from fat, is the issue in weight management. Check Primer Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol in Food earlier in this chapter to compare the calories in higher-fat foods.

Are Energy Nutrient Ratios Important in Weight Loss

But what do we really know about energy nutrient ratios and their influence on weight loss, weight gain, and body composition It does seem that when we eat carbohydrates and protein they are used for energy before fat there is a hierarchy of food calorie utilization. For instance, if we eat 70 percent carbohydrate, then roughly 70 percent of our energy expenditure will be carbohydrate. This is mostly due to the ability of insulin to promote the use of glucose for energy. If we eat 50 percent protein, then roughly that amount of our daily energy expenditure will be from protein. Meanwhile, if you switch to a high fat diet it

Guidelines for a prudent diet

The epidemiological evidence linking dietary factors with the diseases of affluence shows that in countries or regions with, for example, a high intake of saturated fat there is a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer than in regions with a lower intake of fat. It does not show that people who have been living on a high-fat diet will necessarily benefit from a relatively abrupt change to a low-fat diet. Indeed, the results of a number of intervention studies, in which large numbers of people have been persuaded to change their diets, have been disappointing. Overall, premature death from cardiovascular disease is reduced, but the total death rate remains unchanged, with an increase in suicide, accidents and violent death.

Dietary sources of antioxidant vitamins

A balanced diet, containing at least five or six varied portions of fruits and vegetables per day, should provide an adequate supply of antioxidants for healthy individuals. Concerns regarding the taking of supplements centre around the possibilities that certain compounds might have a toxic effect if taken in doses significantly higher than can be obtained from a healthy diet and that a reliance on supplements will lead to a reduced consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, which probably contain a multitude of compounds whose health benefits we have yet to appreciate. However, in elderly individuals, whose diet might be restricted (e.g. by loss of appetite, dental conditions) and where absorption of nutrients is impaired, there might be a case for supplementation with certain nutrients. The case is probably strongest for vitamin E, because it is impossible to obtain high intakes of this nutrient without consuming a high-fat diet. Table 9.2 identifies dietary sources of anti-oxidant...

Consequences of inadequate fat intake on the healing wound

And manifest the scaly skin associated with EFAD. Elderly patients are also potentially at greater risk, because they appear to have a decreased ability to adjust their metabolism (e.g., resting energy expenditure) in response to lower caloric intake.140 There may be benefits to an inadequate fat intake for burn injuries. Immunosup-pression is a common outcome of burn-injured patients. A study in rats found that a low-fat diet (1 fat) compared to a high-fat diet (25 fat) prevented immunosuppression as measured by in vitro splenocyte proliferation.141 A followup study from the same laboratory group found that the type of fatty acid in the diet did not influence the degree of immunosuppression, and that nitric oxide release by macrophages was the cause of reduced T-cell activity.142

EPA and DHA and innate immune function

There are many published animal studies investigating the effects of fish oil on aspects of inflammation and innate immunity. Most of these studies indicate that feeding high amounts of fish oil decreases a wide range of responses. However, not all studies agree with this generalization. Animal studies are often designed to demonstrate effects and to identify potential mechanisms and so result in the use of diets that differ markedly from human diets in both the level and the type of fat. Additional reasons for apparent contradictions in this literature might relate to the species of animal studied, the comparison being made (e.g. to a low-fat diet or to another high-fat diet to saturated fat or to a diet high in n-6 PUFAs), the amount of vitamin E in the diets and the conditions used for ex vivo cell-culture experiments.

Nutrients Vitamin D In Colon Cancer

Secondary bile acid lithocholic acid LCA and its metabolites, which are carcinogenic. By binding to the vitamin D receptor, both LCA and vitamin D may activate a feed-forward catabolic pathway that increases the expression of CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that detoxifies LCA in the liver and intestines to clear LCA from the body.102 This may provide one mechanism to explain how the protective pathway of vitamin D receptor activation may become overwhelmed by high-fat diets (which increase LCA levels) or compromised when vitamin D is deficient with inadequate sun exposure or intake.

Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat

Rising incomes in the developing world have also led to an increase in the availability and consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets. Food balance data can be used to examine the shift in the proportion of energy from fat over time and its relationship to increasing incomes (6).

Selection of methodology

The study of lipids provides great challenges for study design, since incorporation into membranes, as well as direct effects on metabolic pathways, must be considered. There is increasing evidence that increase in fat intake may impair immune function, as well as leading to obesity (Nieman et al., 1996). A relationship between fat intake and cancer risk has been indicated (Risch et al., 1994), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent data demonstrate that the fatty-acid composition of cellular membranes can cause immune perturbation. Mechanisms of action include modulation of adhesion-molecule expression (Miles et al., 2000) and are apparently related to specific fatty-acid composition. The activation state of the cell is a determining factor in how fatty acids affect the immune response (Wallace et al., 2000). This topic has been addressed by Wallace et al. (2001) in a thorough study in which mice were fed low-fat diets or high-fat diets, containing either saturated or unsaturated...

Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle

Activity or ability of CPT-1 to transport fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria is believed to be the rate-limiting step of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.89 Malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl CoA), the product of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), allostericaly binds to and inhibits CPT-1 activity,74 thereby inhibiting transport of fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria. The importance of the malonyl CoA-CPT-1 interaction upon rates of fat oxidation has been demonstrated in response to many stimuli.84,89,90 Transgenic mice that lack the ACC enzyme (no production of malonyl CoA) have increased rates of fat oxidation and reduced rates of fat storage1. In addition, the same ACC knockout mice are resistant to weight gain and maintain normal insulin sensitivity in response to a high-fat diet.1 An in vivo human study demonstrated that hyperglycemia hyperinsulinemia decreases long-chain fatty acid oxidation through increasing muscle malonyl-CoA content, but had no effect upon oxidation of...

Strength of evidence

High intake of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods (causative). There is convincing evidence that a high intake of energy-dense foods promotes weight gain. In high-income countries (and increasingly in low-income countries) these energy-dense foods are not only highly processed (low NSP) but also micronutrient-poor, further diminishing their nutritional value. Energy-dense foods tend to be high in fat (e.g. butter, oils, fried foods), sugars or starch, while energy-dilute foods have a high water content (e.g. fruits and vegetables). Several trials have covertly manipulated the fat content and the energy density of diets, the results of which support the view that so-called ''passive over consumption'' of total energy occurs when the energy density of the diet is high and that this is almost always the case in high-fat diets. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of ad libitum high-fat versus low-fat diets of at least 2 months duration suggested that a reduction in fat content by 10...

Design Of Treatment For Type Diabetes Based On Nutrient Interactions

FIGURE 10.3 Body weights of B 6J mice fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplemental Gln or Ala. Values are means SEM, n 10. The error bars were so small that they are invisible in most data points. Means at a particular time point with different letters are significantly different, p < 0.05. Abbreviations used HL, high fat, low sucrose HL + Gln, high fat, low sucrose with L-glutamine supplementation HL + Ala, high fat, low sucrose with L-alanine supplementation LL, low fat, low sucrose. Reprinted with permission from Figure 2 of reference 55. 6. Randle, PJ, Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years, Diabet. Metab. Rev., 14 263-283, 1998. 55. Opara, EC, Petro, A, Tevrizian, A, Feinglos, MN, and Surwit, RS, L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL 6J mice, J. Nutr., 126 273-279, 1996.

Make Your Calories Count

Carbohydrates It's true that carbohydrates are important for healthful eating. Two forms of carbohydrates sugars and starches are your body's main energy sources. Fiber, a nondigestible carbohydrate, has other health bene What foods have carbs Fruits, vegetables, grain products, and milk all nutrient-rich contain carbohydrates naturally. Fruits and dairy foods, for example, have natural sugars. Grain products, vegetables, and fruits contain starches (complex carbohydrates) that break down into sugars during digestion. In many processed and prepared foods and drinks, sugars are added for flavor and function. To the human body, sugars look and act alike, regardless of their sources. How do you know which foods and drinks have added sugars Check the ingredient list on food labels. Be aware, Nutrition Facts list only amounts of total carbohydrates and total sugars, not added sugars. Chapter 11 gives label reading tips.

Sweet Satisfaction The Lowdown on Simple Sugars

So your favorite sugary sweets are classified as carbohydrates and you're supposed to eat a lot of carbohydrates so it's okay to load up on gummy bears and licorice, right Not a chance. Here's why The quality of your carbohydrates matters tremendously. Simple sugars such as candy, sodas, and sugary sweeteners found in cakes and cookies offer little in the form of nutrition except providing your body with energy and calories. These foods are literally empty calories calories with no nutritional value. In moderation, simple sugars are perfectly fine (and, I admit, yummy), but people who consistently load up on the sweet stuff often find themselves too full for, or uninterested in, the healthy foods their bodies require. The end result is too much sugar and not enough nutrition. Actually, all foods that contain carbohydrates (rice, pasta, potato, cakes, cookies, and, yes, candy) can mix with the bacteria in plaque and increase your risk for tooth decay. Sadly, nutrient-dense raisins are...

Close the Door on Carb Confusion

If you're not convinced that carbohydrates are a necessary, tasty component of your diet that provides energy for your active body, then we give up. Our last-ditch effort would be to remind you that without carbohydrates, your brain and body will eventually starve. The brain can only use carbohydrates for fuel, and the body requires carbohydrates for vital functions such as body temperature maintenance, blood circulation, and nutrient metabolism. In the absence of ample carbohydrates, the body will break down muscle and other lean mass for energy leaving you weak and flabby. More specifically, in the short term this can lead to weakness, dizziness, higher perceived rates of exertion, and a number of other unfavorable conditions. In the long term it can lead to severe consequences such as electrolyte and acid-base imbalances and, potentially, kidney failure and heart arrhythmias. All sound terrible.

Glycaemic Index Table

CARBOHYDRATES CARBOHYDRATES CARBOHYDRATES with low carbohydrates) (good carbohydrates) So, for simplicity's sake, I propose to place carbohydrates in one of two categories good carbohydrates(with a low glycaemic index) and bad carbohydrates (with a high glycaemic index). This is the distinction which, as you will discover in the following chapters, will enable you to pinpoint, among other things, the reasons why you may be overweight.

Low Carb High Protein Diets

Recent headlines and best-selling books promote low-carb and high-protein eating as a great solution to weight loss and fitness. Carbohydrates starches and or sugars are often falsely accused as the culprits for weight gain. In fact, these diet plans aren't new. They've been around with different names for years. The facts are . . . Simply because these diets are lower in calories, they may promote loss if you stick with them. Here's what happens. By consuming fewer carbs, your body burns stored carbohydrates and releases water, thus water weight. If your carb intake is very low, your body also burns some fat, creating ketone bodies, which suppress appetite. If your total calorie intake (from any energy nutrients) is low enough, you lose weight and muscle tissue. For most people, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein eating approach for weight loss raises concerns

Have You Ever Wondered 117

. . . if going low carb would be a good approach for managing diabetes Your goal should be to manage the carbohydrates in your food choices, not eliminate them. After all, you need the glucose (blood sugar) from carbohydrates as energy for your brain and other body cells. Remember with diabetes, the issue is how insulin, which may be inadequate or not working properly, handles carbohydrates not whether you need carbohydrates. Talk to your registered dietitian or diabetes educator to help you use food labels to manage your carb intake. The Nutrition Facts can help you. Look at the serving number, serving size, and calories and nutrients per serving. Count the total carbohydrates, not just the sugars, in a serving. Talk to your registered dietitian or diabetes educator about adjusting for foods with fiber and sugar alcohols. Be wary of label claims, such as net carbs, low carb, or low impact carbs, which aren't approved claims at this time. Consider calories, too, as you take steps to...

Structure and function

Carbohydrates are defined as compounds that are composed of simple sugars (monosaccharides). They were initially named this because they contain both carbon (carbo) and H2O (water), as shown in Figure 2.1. Until recently, most medical textbooks focused primarily on the nutrient energy roles played by three simple sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose), three disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose), as well as the fiber energy roles of complex carbohydrates (cellulose, glycogen, and starch). Over 200 simple carbohydrates are now known to be produced by plants. Eight of these carbohydrates (galactose, glucose, mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, fructose 6, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and xylose) are now recognized as being essential for health, and new roles for carbohydrates are constantly being discovered (1).

What Are Monosaccharides and What Foods Have Them

Monosaccharides are as small as carbohydrates get. Said another way, monosaccharides cannot be split into smaller carbohydrates. All other carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides linked together. For instance, disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides linked together. The three disaccharides found in our diet, including their monosaccharide building blocks, are listed in Table 4.1. Glucose and fructose can be found in foods either independently or as part of larger carbohydrates. Fructose is what makes honey and many fruits sweet and is used commercially as a sweetener either as fructose or high-fructose corn syrup. On the other hand, while some galactose is found in certain foods, it is mostly found as part of larger carbohydrates.

Diabetes Carbohydrate Modified Diets and Carbohydrate Counting

Diabetes is a condition that alters the way the body handles carbohydrates. In terms of diet modifications, diabetics can control blood sugar levels by appropriately managing the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in their meals. The amount of carbohydrates, not necessarily the source, is the primary issue. Blood glucose levels after a meal can be related to the process of food preparation, the amount of food eaten, fat intake, sugar absorption, and the combination of foods in the meal or snack. Carpi, Anthony. Carbohydrates. Visionlearning. Available from < http www.vision learning.com> Kennedy, Ron. Carbohydrates in Nutrition. Doctor's Medical Library. Available from Northwestern University, Department of Preventive Medicine. Nutrition Fact Sheets Carbohydrates. Available from nutrition>

Fat and protein intakes for optimal function

As already highlighted, the typical breakdown of energy distribution of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins depends to a major extent on the types of activities in which athletes participate and to a lesser degree on body size and composition. Endurance athletes runners, skiers, skaters, and others typically need a high carbohydrate and protein intake to meet their high energy demands and tissue repair and replacement needs. Power athletes lifters, track throwers, football down-linemen, sumo wrestlers, and others require a high total energy intake, including fats. It is speculated that practically all of these two broad classes of high-level competitive athletes consume adequate amounts of energy, but not enough EFAs, especially the omega-3 PFAs, unless they take a daily supplement. Recreational athletes have no

Pulling energy from fat

Although fat has more energy (calories) per gram than proteins and carbohydrates, your body has a more difficult time pulling the energy out of fatty foods. Imagine a chain of long balloons the kind people twist into shapes that resemble dachshunds, flowers, and other amusing things. When you drop one of these balloons into water, it floats. That's exactly what happens when you swallow fat-rich foods. The fat floats on top of the watery food-and-liquid mixture in your stomach, which limits the effect that lipases fat-busting digestive enzymes in the mix below can have on it. Because fat is digested more slowly than proteins and carbohydrates, you feel fuller (a condition called satiety) longer after eating high-fat food. Glucose, the molecule you get by digesting carbohydrates, is the body's basic source of energy. Burning glucose is easier and more efficient than burning fat, so your body always goes for carbohydrates first. But if you've used up all your available glucose maybe...

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrates made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms are classified as mono-, di-, and polysaccharides, depending on the number of sugar units they contain. The monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and fructose obtained from the digestion of food are transported from the intestinal mucosa via the portal vein to the liver. They may be utilized directly for energy by all tissues temporarily stored as glycogen in the liver or in muscle or converted to fat, amino acids, and other biological compounds.

The content of amino acids during white tea withering

Carbohydrates in white tea vary along with withering time . At the early withering stage, the content of carbohydrates decreases . Both reducing and nonreduc-ing sugars follow the same trend as the total carbohydrates (table 3 .6) . However, their contents increase under the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides at the later withering stage, and decrease again during heating at the drying stage . 6 In addition, different processing methods have different effects on the changes of carbohydrates Basket drying decreases the total carbohydrates more than sunshine drying and airing due to the combined impact of both heat and light 6

Carbohydrate Requirements

So, 4,095 calories divided by 2 2,047.5 calories from carbohydrates. 2,047.5 divided by 4 (the number of calories in a gram of carbohydrates) 512 (511.75 to be exact) grams or carbohydrates. This is more than sufficient to fuel tough workouts and refill liver and muscle glycogen after exercise in a 200lb moderately lean person. Choose carbohydrates from the moderate and low GI lists above and eat meals consisting of high GI carbs immediately post-workout.

Drop Fat The Low Carb Way

Drop Fat The Low Carb Way

Sick Of Going Round In Circles With Your Dieting? You're About To Discover The Easiest Way To Drop The Fat Once And For All, And Start Living The Life You've Always Dreamed Of This book is one of the most valuable resources when looking at starting a low carb die.

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