Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

4 Cycle Fat Loss Solution

This new and innovational approach to dieting created by Shaun Hadsall might be what people need. Shaun believes that when people do not provide their body with the right amount of nutriments, diet plan, exercises and vitamins, their weight escalates with time. The main idea is to force your body into using stored fat (instead of carbs and protein) as your primary source of energy via precision dieting. That is, the exact schedule and timing of your diet is as important as what foods your diet contains. 4 Cycle Fat Loss Solution is a 100% healthy and results-oriented plan to eat right, to drop off unwanted weight and to stay physically fit forever. With the 4 Cycle Fat Loss Solution, you learn about how your body works with high carb foods and why the information that you have been told about them is simply false. The methods taught in the program have been proven over many years and are backed by science. Read more here...

4 Cycle Fat Loss Solution Overview


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Low Carbohydrate and Other Nontraditional Dietary Approaches

Among the general public, as well as those with type 2 diabetes, there has been a recent increased interest in the use of low-carbohydrate diets for OW OB intervention. Klein et al. (8) summarizes five randomized trials in adults (34-38), comparing subjects assigned to a low-fat diet ( 25 percent to 30 percent Kcal from fat and 55 percent to 60 percent Kcal from carbohydrate) to subjects randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet ( 25 percent to 40 percent of Kcal from carbohydrate). Subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the short term (six months) but not the long term (12 months). In addition, glycemic control was found to be better (35, 37) and some serum lipids were improved. While these studies may offer promising dietary alternatives for those who are OW OB, additional studies of long-term safety and efficacy are needed before low-carbohydrate diets are recommended as a WR strategy for OW OB individuals with type 2 diabetes. Other...

Lowcarbohydrate ketogenic diets

At one time, there was a vogue for low-carbohydrate diets for weight reduction. These were soundly based on the fact that fat and protein are more slowly digested and absorbed than carbohydrates and therefore have greater satiety value. At the same time, a severe restriction of carbohydrate intake would limit the intake of other foods as well one argument was that without bread there was nothing on which to spread butter. Nowadays a low-carbohydrate diet would not be recommended for weight reduction, as the aim for general health promotion is to reduce the proportion of energy from fat and increase that from starches (section 7.3). Furthermore, storage of dietary fat in adipose tissue is metabolically more efficient than synthesis of triacylglycerol from carbohydrate (see sections 5.6.1 and 5.6.3), so that dietary fat will contribute more to adipose tissue reserves than will an equivalent amount of dietary carbohydrate. Nevertheless, to those raised in the belief that carbohydrates...

Can Eating a Low Carbohydrate Diet Make Us Fatter

As will become clearer in Chapter 8, eating too much energy makes us fat, not too much of any one energy nutrient such as carbohydrate. Without question eating a high carbohydrate diet in conjunction with eating excessive energy will certainly support weight (fat) gain so too will eating excessive fat and or protein. High carbohydrate diets can increase body fat when too many calories are consumed by decreasing the burning of stored fat and forming new fat.

Dietary Manipulation of Glycogen Stores Carbohydrate Loading

Dietary manipulation can be used to increase the stores of glycogen in muscle and liver. Glycogen increases when more carbohydrate is eaten. The practice is called carbohydrate loading. The athlete has 3 days of exhausting physical exercise on a low-carbohydrate diet followed by 3 days of rest on a high-carbohydrate diet. In general, athletes dislike both phases in the first, they feel exhausted both mentally and physically, and in the second, they feel bloated because the glycogen retains extra water. However, other feeding programs exist that do not use the carbohydrate depletion phase. For athletes in general, it makes sense to eat plenty of carbohydrate to maximize glycogen storage, as the usual training periods of several hours per day deplete it. There is little doubt that a high-carbohydrate diet improves glycogen storage and athletic performance (see also Chapter,, 4.7.). What to advise athletes to ingest just before an event is difficult. Solid food is not advisable before...

Low CarbCrazy if Youre Active

There also has been research on low-carbohydrate diets and athletic performance. Rosenkranz et al. reported on low-carbohydrate diets in the International Journal of Sports Nutrition, Exercise, and Metabolism in June 2007. A group of athletes was divided and assigned to follow one of two diets a low-carbohydrate diet or the recommended grain-based diet. The athletes on the low-carbohydrate diet experienced disruptions in their training schedule, higher heart rates, and higher perceived rates of exertion during exercise. Blood tests showed the low-carb dieters to have elevated total cholesterol and LDL levels. Athletes should take heed of some potentially dangerous effects on the body that low-carbohydrate diets can pose. Some reported side effects include ketosis (elevated levels of ketone bodies a type of fuel that comes from the breakdown of fat for fuel), fatigue, weakness, headaches, constipation, dizziness, and dehydration. None of these will improve performance. To make matters...

Can Diet Affect the Onset of Exhaustion

During training or competition, researchers have shown that athletes can significantly increase their training time or time till exhaustion by eating a high carbohydrate diet. For instance, one athlete on a low carbohydrate diet will reach muscle exhaustion long before another athlete on a high carbohydrate diet (more than 60 percent carbohydrate). A high carbohydrate diet allows the body to replenish glycogen stores in-between training sessions. Contrary to what many people think, it actually takes a while to rebuild muscle glycogen stores that have been used during exercise. In fact, if an endurance athlete reduces his or her muscle glycogen to nadir levels during training or competition it can take an entire day to rebuild them. This means that the athlete should eat carbohydrates immediately after completing a training session and throughout that day to provide the needed glucose to rebuild those stores.

Nutritional status assessment

In addition to exercise, an individual's dietary intake can also have an influence on his plasma glutamine concentrations. Blanchard et al.28 observed high-carbohydrate (70 ) diets to increase plasma glutamine concentrations compared to low-carbohydrate (45 ) (i.e., high-protein) diets in endurance-trained men completing exercise trials. However, muscle glutamine concentrations did not differ between the two groups, and no association was observed between plasma glutamine concentrations and changes in muscle glycogen concentrations. This suggests that the effect of carbohydrate intake on plasma glutamine is not influenced by the muscle glycogen stores. Likewise, Gleeson et al.29 observed low-carbohydrate diet (7 ) to be associated with a reduction in plasma glutamine concentrations during recovery compared to a high-carbohydrate diet (75 ). Low-carbohydrate and high-protein intakes have been suggested to result in lowering plasma glutamine levels due to a disruption in the acid-base...

Low Carbohydrate Diets

Low-carbohydrate diets are perhaps the most prolific of all weight loss plans. In 1992, Dr. Robert Atkins published Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution 28 . This was eventually followed by the publication of two subsequently revised versions of the book. The premise of this plan is to restrict carbohydrate intake so severely that ketoacidosis ensues. The plan, which provides only 20 g of carbohydrate during the Induction Phase, allows for extremely high-fat (particularly saturated fat) and protein intakes 28 relative to what is generally recommended as healthful for the general population 29 . It should be readily apparent to the practitioner that this amount of carbohydrate is inadequate for supporting pregnancy 1, 6, 29, 30 . More importantly, a state of ketosis during pregnancy is not consistent with a normal metabolic profile for gestation and can be problematic for both the mother and fetus 26, 31 . In addition, the amount of calories that is ultimately provided by this plan will not...

Example Recommended Calorie Intakes for Weight Reduction by Body Weight and Body Mass Indexa

The optimal macronutrient (fat protein carbohydrate) distribution for weight reduction has not been resolved but is currently a matter of active debate (26). In recognition of the high caloric density of dietary fat and its relatively low satiety value compared to isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate and protein, a low-fat diet has been most typically employed for WR in diabetes, as well as in the general OW OB population. However, the recent success of high-protein high-fat low-carbohydrate diets for WR has called this conventional approach into question.

Carbohydrate for Glycogen

Because of the unfounded fear that carbohydrate is fattening or that high protein intake is better for muscles, many athletes today are skimping on carbohydrate foods. The resulting low-carbohydrate diet can potentially hurt performance it contrasts sharply with the diet of 3 to 5 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight (6 to 10 g per kg) or 55 to 65 percent carbohydrate recommended by most exercise and health professionals. A case in point is ice hockey, an incredibly intense sport that relies on both muscular strength and power. During a game, carbohydrate is the primary fuel muscle carbohydrate (glycogen) stores decline between 38 and 88 percent. Muscle glycogen depletion relates closely to muscular fatigue. A motion analysis of elite ice-hockey teams showed that the players with a high-carbohydrate (60 percent) diet skated not only 30 percent more distance but also faster than the players who ate their standard low-carbohydrate (40 percent) diet. In the final period of the...

Make Your Carbs Count

A volumetrics-type plan is good for most people, since most people like to know that they can eat a fair amount of food without getting fat. It also can work for athletes as long as they get enough overall calories to satisfy their higher-than-average energy needs. Athletes concerned about managing their weight are better off following a philosophy such as volu-metrics than a low-carbohydrate diet. A diet high in fruits and vegetables can help them stay hydrated and obtain the lasting energy they need to carry out the physical demands of sports training or competition.

Cholesterol metabolism

Though the benefits of high carbohydrate intake before exercise are well documented, the benefit of a high-fat diet before exercise is not clearly understood. A high-fat low-carbohydrate diet lowers glycogen stores in the liver and muscle, in part by increasing the utilization of fat stores for energy. While consuming a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet for a short period of time (1 to 3 days) can actually decrease one's exercise endurance and capacity, a longer period of consumption (> 7 days) may enhance fat oxidation during exercise, compensating for the reduced carbohydrate availability. Marked carbohydrate sparing occurs with a longer period of fat adaptation (5 days), with 1 day of carbohydrate intake for glucose normalization without any alteration in exercise performance.3536

Cut Out Carb Confusion

Due to the popularity of the Atkins Diet and the low-carbohydrate revolution of the 1970s, carbohydrates have I totally lost weight on the low-carb diet I was diligent and disciplined. I cut out all carbs from fruits to alcohol. My total weight loss was twenty-six pounds and I was very pleased . . . until I woke up with more hair on my pillow than my head. My doctor said one thing to me when he ordered my blood work 'Eat carbs again.' anonymous dieter testimonial earned a reputation as indulgent, fattening, and even unnecessary to your diet. The low-carb craze was rekindled again during the 1990s with the popularity of similar diets, such as the South Beach Diet. We recognize the appeal of these diets in an age of widespread overweight and obesity. Low-carbohydrate diets purport to offer a simple solution to a complex problem managing our weight in an environment where cheap, high-calorie food is widely available. Such diets try to simplify what can only truly be achieved through the...

Noodlin over Carb Headlines

Limited research notes that carbohydrate-rich foods may cause weight gain in insulin-resistant people. For these individuals, it's speculated, the body reacts to sugars and starches by overproducing insulin-and so causing too much carbohydrate to be stored as fat. However, most of us don't gain weight on a high-carbohydrate diet, unless it provides excess calories. The real culprits for weight are inactivity, high-fat eating, and uncontrolled portion sizes from any source of food, including bread, pasta, and other grain products. See Insulin Resistance Syndrome, or 'Metabolic Syndrome' in chapter 22.

Expression of Glycolytic Lipogenic and Gluconeogenic Genes is Regulated by the Carbohydrate Availabil

The expression of several key glycolytic and lipo-genic enzymes is induced by a high-carbohydrate diet in the liver glucokinase (Iynedjian et al., 1987), 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Rongnoparut et al., 1991), (Colosia et al., 1988), aldolase B (Weber et al., 1984) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) (Vaulont et al., 1986) for glycolysis ATP-citrate lyase (Elshourbagy et al., 1990), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Pape et al., 1988), fatty acid synthase (FAS) (Paulauskis and Sul, 1989 Katsurada et al., 1990), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Ntambi, 1992) for lipogenesis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Kletzien et al., 1985 Katsurada et al., 1989) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Miksicek and Towle, 1983) for the pentose-phosphate pathway. The induction of the S14 gene, which encodes a small acidic polypeptide that seems to be related to lipogenesis, should also be mentioned here. S14 is expressed in lipogenic tissues (white and brown adipose tissue, liver, lactating mammary gland) and shares...

Taking Time to Recover

Rest days with little or no exercise are an important part of your training program. Yet, some people feel guilty if they don't train every day. They fear becoming unfit, fat, and lazy if they miss a day of training. That scenario is unlikely. These compulsive exercisers overlook the important physiological fact that rest is essential for top performance. Rest enhances the recovery process, reduces risk of injury, and invests in future performance. To replace depleted glycogen stores completely, the muscles may need up to two days of rest with no exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet. True athletes plan days with no exercise. Compulsive exercisers, in comparison, push themselves relentlessly and often pay the price of poorer performance and overuse injuries.

Carbohydrate requirementsenergy metabolism

In healthy adults, carbohydrate intake should account for 45 to 60 of total consumed calories. Carbohydrate requirements for patients with burn injuries greater than 25 of the body surface area have been recommended at levels up to 60 to 65 of total energy requirement (4,5). Carbohydrate is the key nonprotein energy source for the patient with burns, in particular. In a study by Hart and colleagues of 14 pediatric burn patients, it was shown that the administration of a high-carbohydrate diet (rather then fat) was associated with an improved net balance of skeletal muscle protein across the leg via an apparent protein sparing effect of the high-carbohydrate diet and a concomitant decrease in protein breakdown (6). Protein is needed in adequate amounts approaching 20 to 25 of the total caloric needs, leaving exogenous fat as the balance of caloric need at 20 or less of total calories due to potential immunosuppressive effects.

Ergogenic benefits Performance

Typically, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet has been the diet of choice for many athletes. The competitive athlete, however, demands a more productive routine. Out of a quest for excellence, numerous nutritional protocols have been examined. Among them are included methods to elevate plasma FFA concentration and thus, as discussed earlier, deliver more FAs or ketones to skeletal muscle for oxidation during exercise. Some of the procedures researched include fasting, the ingestion of MCTGs, LCTGs, or combinations of the two, L-carnitine, caffeine, and even intravenous infusions of lipid emulsions. From these studies have emerged suggestions that a high-fat diet, particularly high in MCTGs, may increase VO2max, endurance, and glycogen sparing. Following are brief summaries of some of the research conducted to determine the accuracy of these claims. The effects of three levels of fat on performance and metabolism were evaluated by Horvath et al.67 A low-fat diet (16 of total kcal) and a...

Carbohydratecapturing The Suns Energy

Next to water, carbohydrate is the nutrient needed in the greatest quantity. Nutritionists and researchers advocate the virtues of a high carbohydrate diet. It is the preferred fuel for most body functions and is involved in all of the body's cells. It is ideal to meet the body's energy needs, feed the brain and nervous system, keep the digestive system fit, and to keep the body lean. That makes sense, since it is carbohydrate which contains the sun's radiant energy captured by plants in the form of glucose. How could carbohydrate-rich plant food not help to pass the sun's life-sustaining capacity on to us, when nature has used plants as a storehouse for this vital force As you read this page, billions of glucose molecules are splitting each second to provide the energy which enables you to learn. A marathon runner also must thank the glycogen (the body's storage form of glucose) in his muscles that delivered the power to finish the race. Carbohydrates are the body's premium fuel, and...

Maximizing Stores Carbo Loading

It was once believed that proper carbo-loading required a period of depleting the body of glyco-gen followed by a few days of carb-supercompensation. This approach was characterized by three days of a diet of low carb, high fat and protein, and three days of high carbohydrate intake. Although glycogen stores were increased, restricting carbs for the first three days was difficult and

Strategy You Dont Have To Order From The Menu

Instead of ordering an item directly from the menu, either ask for an item that you like prepared without the sauces or high carbohydrate portions or simply ask for a portion of protein and a few servings of vegetables and fruit on the side. Remember, you're paying top dollar for your meal and you're about to tip your waitress. So don't feel bad asking them to meet your needs. Uh, nutritionally, that is.

Nutritional Properties

Rice is a high-carbohydrate food with 85percent of the energy from carbohydrate, 7 percent from fat, and 8 percent from protein. However, rice also has a considerable amount of protein, with an excellent spectrum of amino acids. The protein quality of rice (66 ) is higher than that of whole wheat (53 ) or corn (49 ). Of the small amount of fat in brown rice, much is polyunsaturated. White rice is extremely low in fat content.

Put a Whole in Your Diet

Stoned-wheat and whole-grain crackers. These low-fat munchies are a perfect high-carbohydrate snack for your sports diet. Be sure to choose wholesome brands of crackers with low fat content, not the ones that leave you with greasy fingers. Look for Ak-Mak, Dr. Kracker, Finn Crisp, Kavli, RyKrisp, Triscuit Thin Crisps, Wasa, and Whole Foods 365 Baked Woven Wheats (among others).

Historical background

Before 1921, women with diabetes were advised to avoid pregnancy or to abort if they conceived because of adverse perinatal outcomes. If the pregnancies advanced to the stage of fetal viability, the infants were often stillborn or were born with major malformations. Medical nutrition therapy was the primary method of management for pregnant women with diabetes prior to 1921 however, the diets were often severely restricted or nutritionally unbalanced. These dietary approaches varied from high carbohydrate-low protein, or high protein-high fat, to brief periods of starvation 4, 5 . Alcohol was often included because of its calming effect on the mother 6 .

Carbohydrate Rich Foods

The 1,800 calories in the pizza, 1,200 were from the protein and fat in the double cheese and pepperoni. Only 35 percent of the calories, from the thin crust and tomato sauce, were from carbohydrate (160 g). No wonder he felt sluggish during the event. I gave Eric a list of carbohydrate in common foods (see table 6.3) to post on his refrigerator. With this tool he learned to select high-carbohydrate foods.

Eat the Right Food at the Right Time

Meals Eat a high-carbohydrate dinner, and drink extra water the day before. On the morning of the event, eat a familiar breakfast by 7 00 to allow three hours for the food to digest. This meal will prevent the fatigue that results from low blood sugar. Popular choices include oatmeal, a bagel, and yogurt. An afternoon game allows time for you to have either a big high-carbohydrate breakfast and a light lunch or a substantial brunch by 10 00, allowing four hours for digestion time. As always, eat a high-carbohydrate dinner the night before, and drink extra fluids the day before and up to noon. Popular brunch choices include French toast, pancakes, or cereal and poached eggs on toast. Meals You can thoroughly digest a hefty high-carbohydrate breakfast and lunch by evening. Plan for dinner, as tolerated, by 5 00, or have a lighter meal between 6 00 and 7 00. Drink extra fluids all day. Two popular dinner choices include pasta with tomato sauce and chicken with a large serving of rice or...

Case study bulimia nervosa during pregnancy

T.J. is a 32-year-old Caucasian, married woman, gravida 2, para 1, seeking prenatal care in the 11th week of gestation. Medical history reveals current BN, the onset of which occurred in the third month postpartum of her previous pregnancy. Since the onset of BN at age 27, T.J. has engaged in binge eating-purging cycles at least twice per day, consuming approximately 2,200 kcal of high-fat, high-carbohydrate snack-type foods during each binge with subsequent vomiting. She reports problems with my teeth and frequent heartburn. T.J. denies laxative, diuretic, or enema use, but admits to moderate exercise of fast-paced walking of up to 2 h per day. She was dissatisfied with her body shape and inability to quickly lose weight after her first pregnancy and is fearful that she will lose control of her body weight during this pregnancy. She gained 47 lb during her first pregnancy. T.J. currently weighs 145 lb and is 5' 7. Laboratory values are within normal limits. She reports having the...

Carbohydrate Is an Excellent Energy Source How Much Carbohydrate Do We

Relatively high carbohydrate content. Conversely, animal foods such as meats, fish, and poultry (and eggs) are virtually void of carbohydrate. Animal flesh (skeletal muscle) does contain a little carbohydrate, primarily as glycogen. However, the glycogen is lost during the processing of the meat. As mentioned above, milk and some dairy products (yogurt, ice cream) are the only significant animal-derived carbohydrate providers.

Athletes with Weight Limits

In a study of wrestlers who quickly lost about 8 pounds (4.5 percent of their body weight), the wrestlers performed 3.5 percent worse on a six-minute arm-crank test designed to be similar to a wrestling competition. These results suggest that rapid weight loss by athletes before competition may be a detriment rather than a competitive advantage (Hickner et al. 1991). Yet, if the athlete follows an aggressive refueling program after the weigh-in, drops in performance can be minimized (Slater et al. 2007). Choose high-carbohydrate, salty foods and drink lots of fluids. For example, enjoy juice and pretzels. Be careful, though, to consume only the amount you can comfortably tolerate.

Mechanical processing

Between 5- and 10-fold when comparing the thiamin contents of milled, polished rice with those of paddy rice. Historically, this only presented a problem in societies with a restricted food supply, leading to the vitamin deficiency disease beriberi (summarised by Bender and Bender, 1997). Despite improvements in the quality of the food supply, both in terms of quantity and diversity, sociological changes can contribute to reoccurrence of the disease, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. Kawai et al (1980) reported the reappearance of shoshin (acute) beriberi in Japanese adolescents consuming a diet made up predominantly of high carbohydrate, low nutrient density foods such as carbonated soft drinks, polished rice and 'instant' noodles.

Timing of Fluid Intake

Depletion due to the breakdown of the carbohydrate stores in the body for the supply of energy. Dehydration can be avoided by ingesting fluid in amounts that approximate the amount of body weight that is lost during exercise. Carbohydrate depletion can be delayed by ingesting carbohydrate sources that can be used for fuel delivery to the muscle. This will make it less necessary to break down local carbohydrate stores or will replenish them if they have been emptied. The main result of such a supply of fluid combined with carbohydrate will be a delay in the development of fatigue and an overall improvement in performance.

But Carbs Make You Fat Right

Moreover, the major premise behind low-carbohydrate diets that carbohydrates promote weight gain more than other nutrients is false. There is nothing magical about protein or fat, just as there is nothing evil about carbohydrates. None of these nutrients causes weight gain or weight loss on its own, since overall calorie consumption versus calories burned determines weight. Eating more calories than your body will burn, calories from any food or combination of foods, can cause weight gain. Approximately thirty-five hundred calories, whether they are consumed as popcorn, steak, butter, or broccoli, will cause an individual to gain one pound of weight. A recent meta-analysis, a report that synthesizes and summarizes data from a number of good studies in the literature, supports the notion that calories, not carbohydrates, count in terms of body weight. The study examined the effects of low-carbohydrate diets, finding that weight loss was linked to three factors decreased caloric intake,...

Strategy have others cook for you

First, you can hire commercial food preparation services to do all the cooking for you. If you're anywhere near a metropolitan area, you'll be able to find dozens to choose from. The two biggies nowadays are Atkins At Home (Atkins Diet) and Zone Nation (The Zone Diet). The Atkins At Home company delivers 3 meals and 1 snack to your door by 6 AM each morning. The cost of this is between 35 and 40 per day. Alternatively, the Zone Nation company delivers 3 meals and 2 snacks to your door by 6 AM each morning for the cost of 35-40 per day, just like the Atkins company. I hear good things about both services.

Amount of fat in the diet and innate immune function

Several studies have compared the effects of feeding laboratory animals low-and high-fat diets on innate immune responses, such as natural killer cell activity. Most studies have found that high-fat diets result in diminished innate immune responses (for references, see Calder, 1998a), but the precise effect depends upon the exact level of fat used in the high-fat diet and its source. Human natural killer cell activity was significantly increased by a reduction in fat intake to less than 30 of energy (Barone et al., 1989 Hebert et al., 1990).

Amount of fat in the diet and acquired immune function

A number of studies have compared the effects of feeding laboratory animals low- and high-fat diets (usually high in saturated fat) upon lymphocytes. These studies have concluded that high-fat diets are associated with suppressed T-cell proliferation (for references, see Calder, 1998a). This conclusion is supported by studies in humans that showed significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens if healthy subjects were fed a diet where fat contributed 25 of energy (Kelley et al., 1989, 1992).

Can Drinking Wine Decrease the Risk of Heart Disease

A few years back it was recognized that there was a decreased incidence of heart disease in France despite the consumption of a high fat diet, a phenomenon referred to as the French Paradox. Since it was well known that this population and others such as Denmark also drink a lot of red wine, scientists began to investigate the potential benefits of red wine. The consumption of wine in these regions is chronic yet only moderate one to four glasses daily. Red wine consumption has been recognized to reduce the incidence of heart disease by perhaps helping keep blood pressure lower, reducing blood clot formation, and reducing LDL oxidation. It is also likely that substances found in red wine, such as quercetin, resveratrol, and similar molecules, provide much of the benefit. Interestingly, the prophylactic effects of alcohol are not limited only to red wine. Researchers have determined that alcohol in a variety of forms (that is, liquor, wine, and beer) consumed chronically but in smaller

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of CAD. Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension, cigarette smoking, elevated blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, triglyceride), a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance

The endurance capacity of an individual on a high CHO diet is approximately tluee times greater than when Oft a high fat diet. When CHO intake is low, rigorous training sessions over several days will result in a gradual depletion of muscle glycogen stores and eventually impair performance. The figure below illustrates depletion of muscle glycogen over three days of running two hours per day. Note that when subjects ate a low CHO diet, glycogen stores gradually became depleted over the three day period. When the high CHO diet was consumed, glycogen stores were repleted between training sessions. Remember that glycogen is composed of glucose molecules linked together. This figure clearly demonstrates the need to consume foods that are high in CHO,

Will Different Types of Diets Evoke the Same Weight Gain

The conversion of excess glucose and protein to fat is not a simple process. These substances must engage in chemical reaction pathways, which will require energy to operate. Therefore, our body must expend energy to make fat. This means that a person eating a higher-carbohydrate protein diet in excess of energy needs will not store quite as much energy in the form of fat in comparison with an individual who eats a high fat diet in excess of energy needs. So, to address the notion that higher-carbohydrate diets make us fat, the answer is yes, but only when we eat more calories than we burn over time. However, if we eat the same amount of fat calories in excess of expenditure it is easier for our body to store the food fat as body fat.

Can Fat Loading Improve Aerobic Performance

Fat loading is a dietary attempt to enhance fat utilization during exercise, thereby decreasing carbohydrate usage and thus slowing glycogen breakdown. The most important considerations with this protocol are timing and practicality as it will take about a week or so for this adaptation to occur and a high fat diet may not be tolerable for many athletes.

Mercury and Multiple Sclerosis

Based on compelling evidence, the consensus in the medical community is that MS is an autoimmune disease. The big question is what triggers this autoimmunity There is growing evidence that a chronic viral infection (Herpes virus 7) plays a major role in this disorder, yet we also know that environmental and nutritional conditions can alter the course of the disease. High-fat diets, low in omega-3 fatty acids (from seafood) and high in omega-6 fatty acids (from vegetable oils), promote the disease and increase the severity of complications. Likewise, high antioxidant intake combined with a low-fat diet and increased DHA intake can reduce the severity of MS.

The Gluten Free Diet and

In addition, while a high-fat diet doesn't necessarily translate to excess body fat, it certainly increases the likelihood that this will occur. Many people with celiac disease find that, as their intestine heals and they are better able to absorb nutrients from the food they eat, they gain weight, sometimes more than they desire. One of the easiest ways to prevent this from happening (or to lose weight if desired) is to lower the amount of total fat in the diet.

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on energy intake and expenditure

The inverse association of CLA with body mass and adiposity prompted research to elucidate the role of CLA to modulate energy intake and expenditure (Table 5.4). Seventeen healthy, nonobese women between the ages of 20 and 41 were supplemented with 3 g day CLA or a sunflower oil placebo for 64 days.28 Energy expenditure measured by respiratory gas exchange, energy intake, or body composition was associated with CLA provided as a low dose and in a short-duration protocol. Similarly, no effect of CLA on energy expenditure was found in adult male Syrian hamsters fed diets with the c9t11 CLA isomer to equate 1.6 of energy or a CLA mixture of 3.2 of energy for 6 to 8 weeks.31 In contrast, male AKR J mice supplemented with CLA reduced energy intake and growth rate.15 The group fed a diet with 1.2 CLA mixture in a high-fat diet and 1.0 CLA mixture in a low-fat diet also had an increased metabolic rate and a decreased nighttime respiratory quotient compared with the controls fed without CLA....

Too Much of a Good Thing

High-fat eating, especially high saturated fat and excessive trans fats, is linked to higher blood cholesterol levels and so a greater chance for heart disease. There's more reason for caution eating a high-fat diet also increases the risk for obesity, and a diet high in saturated fat, for colon and prostate cancers.

Are Energy Nutrient Ratios Important in Weight Loss

But what do we really know about energy nutrient ratios and their influence on weight loss, weight gain, and body composition It does seem that when we eat carbohydrates and protein they are used for energy before fat there is a hierarchy of food calorie utilization. For instance, if we eat 70 percent carbohydrate, then roughly 70 percent of our energy expenditure will be carbohydrate. This is mostly due to the ability of insulin to promote the use of glucose for energy. If we eat 50 percent protein, then roughly that amount of our daily energy expenditure will be from protein. Meanwhile, if you switch to a high fat diet it

Guidelines for a prudent diet

The epidemiological evidence linking dietary factors with the diseases of affluence shows that in countries or regions with, for example, a high intake of saturated fat there is a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer than in regions with a lower intake of fat. It does not show that people who have been living on a high-fat diet will necessarily benefit from a relatively abrupt change to a low-fat diet. Indeed, the results of a number of intervention studies, in which large numbers of people have been persuaded to change their diets, have been disappointing. Overall, premature death from cardiovascular disease is reduced, but the total death rate remains unchanged, with an increase in suicide, accidents and violent death.

Dietary sources of antioxidant vitamins

A balanced diet, containing at least five or six varied portions of fruits and vegetables per day, should provide an adequate supply of antioxidants for healthy individuals. Concerns regarding the taking of supplements centre around the possibilities that certain compounds might have a toxic effect if taken in doses significantly higher than can be obtained from a healthy diet and that a reliance on supplements will lead to a reduced consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, which probably contain a multitude of compounds whose health benefits we have yet to appreciate. However, in elderly individuals, whose diet might be restricted (e.g. by loss of appetite, dental conditions) and where absorption of nutrients is impaired, there might be a case for supplementation with certain nutrients. The case is probably strongest for vitamin E, because it is impossible to obtain high intakes of this nutrient without consuming a high-fat diet. Table 9.2 identifies dietary sources of anti-oxidant...

Consequences of inadequate fat intake on the healing wound

And manifest the scaly skin associated with EFAD. Elderly patients are also potentially at greater risk, because they appear to have a decreased ability to adjust their metabolism (e.g., resting energy expenditure) in response to lower caloric intake.140 There may be benefits to an inadequate fat intake for burn injuries. Immunosup-pression is a common outcome of burn-injured patients. A study in rats found that a low-fat diet (1 fat) compared to a high-fat diet (25 fat) prevented immunosuppression as measured by in vitro splenocyte proliferation.141 A followup study from the same laboratory group found that the type of fatty acid in the diet did not influence the degree of immunosuppression, and that nitric oxide release by macrophages was the cause of reduced T-cell activity.142

EPA and DHA and innate immune function

There are many published animal studies investigating the effects of fish oil on aspects of inflammation and innate immunity. Most of these studies indicate that feeding high amounts of fish oil decreases a wide range of responses. However, not all studies agree with this generalization. Animal studies are often designed to demonstrate effects and to identify potential mechanisms and so result in the use of diets that differ markedly from human diets in both the level and the type of fat. Additional reasons for apparent contradictions in this literature might relate to the species of animal studied, the comparison being made (e.g. to a low-fat diet or to another high-fat diet to saturated fat or to a diet high in n-6 PUFAs), the amount of vitamin E in the diets and the conditions used for ex vivo cell-culture experiments.

Nutrients Vitamin D In Colon Cancer

Secondary bile acid lithocholic acid LCA and its metabolites, which are carcinogenic. By binding to the vitamin D receptor, both LCA and vitamin D may activate a feed-forward catabolic pathway that increases the expression of CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that detoxifies LCA in the liver and intestines to clear LCA from the body.102 This may provide one mechanism to explain how the protective pathway of vitamin D receptor activation may become overwhelmed by high-fat diets (which increase LCA levels) or compromised when vitamin D is deficient with inadequate sun exposure or intake.

Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat

Rising incomes in the developing world have also led to an increase in the availability and consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets. Food balance data can be used to examine the shift in the proportion of energy from fat over time and its relationship to increasing incomes (6).

Selection of methodology

The study of lipids provides great challenges for study design, since incorporation into membranes, as well as direct effects on metabolic pathways, must be considered. There is increasing evidence that increase in fat intake may impair immune function, as well as leading to obesity (Nieman et al., 1996). A relationship between fat intake and cancer risk has been indicated (Risch et al., 1994), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent data demonstrate that the fatty-acid composition of cellular membranes can cause immune perturbation. Mechanisms of action include modulation of adhesion-molecule expression (Miles et al., 2000) and are apparently related to specific fatty-acid composition. The activation state of the cell is a determining factor in how fatty acids affect the immune response (Wallace et al., 2000). This topic has been addressed by Wallace et al. (2001) in a thorough study in which mice were fed low-fat diets or high-fat diets, containing either saturated or unsaturated...

Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle

Activity or ability of CPT-1 to transport fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria is believed to be the rate-limiting step of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.89 Malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl CoA), the product of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), allostericaly binds to and inhibits CPT-1 activity,74 thereby inhibiting transport of fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria. The importance of the malonyl CoA-CPT-1 interaction upon rates of fat oxidation has been demonstrated in response to many stimuli.84,89,90 Transgenic mice that lack the ACC enzyme (no production of malonyl CoA) have increased rates of fat oxidation and reduced rates of fat storage1. In addition, the same ACC knockout mice are resistant to weight gain and maintain normal insulin sensitivity in response to a high-fat diet.1 An in vivo human study demonstrated that hyperglycemia hyperinsulinemia decreases long-chain fatty acid oxidation through increasing muscle malonyl-CoA content, but had no effect upon oxidation of...

Strength of evidence

High intake of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods (causative). There is convincing evidence that a high intake of energy-dense foods promotes weight gain. In high-income countries (and increasingly in low-income countries) these energy-dense foods are not only highly processed (low NSP) but also micronutrient-poor, further diminishing their nutritional value. Energy-dense foods tend to be high in fat (e.g. butter, oils, fried foods), sugars or starch, while energy-dilute foods have a high water content (e.g. fruits and vegetables). Several trials have covertly manipulated the fat content and the energy density of diets, the results of which support the view that so-called ''passive over consumption'' of total energy occurs when the energy density of the diet is high and that this is almost always the case in high-fat diets. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of ad libitum high-fat versus low-fat diets of at least 2 months duration suggested that a reduction in fat content by 10...

Design Of Treatment For Type Diabetes Based On Nutrient Interactions

FIGURE 10.3 Body weights of B 6J mice fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplemental Gln or Ala. Values are means SEM, n 10. The error bars were so small that they are invisible in most data points. Means at a particular time point with different letters are significantly different, p < 0.05. Abbreviations used HL, high fat, low sucrose HL + Gln, high fat, low sucrose with L-glutamine supplementation HL + Ala, high fat, low sucrose with L-alanine supplementation LL, low fat, low sucrose. Reprinted with permission from Figure 2 of reference 55. 55. Opara, EC, Petro, A, Tevrizian, A, Feinglos, MN, and Surwit, RS, L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL 6J mice, J. Nutr., 126 273-279, 1996.

Sugars Starches and Fibers

Carbohydrates contribute so much to the bulk of most foods that many people mistakenly think of them as fattening and avoid them when trying to lose weight. Actually, such a strategy may be counterproductive. People can better control body weight by selecting high-carbohydrate, high-fiber foods and limiting fat-rich foods. All unrefined plant foods grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits provide ample carbohydrate and fiber with little or no fat. (Milk also contains carbohydrates. So do shellfish and organ meats such as liver, but only a little.)

Linoleic and alinolenic acids and acquired immune function

Essential fatty-acid deficiency is reported to decrease thymus and spleen weight and suppress cell-mediated immune responses and antibody production (for references, see Kelley and Daudu, 1993 Calder 1998a). However, a large number of studies in rats, mice, rabbits, chickens and monkeys have reported lower mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production following the feeding of diets rich in linoleic acid (maize, sunflower or safflower oils), compared with feeding high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (for references, see Kelley and Daudu, 1993 Calder, 1998a, b). These data suggest that linoleic acid has the potential to suppress acquired immune function. However, no difference in blood lymphocyte proliferation, circulating immunoglobulins or the delayed-type hypersensitivity response was seen in volunteers consuming low-fat diets (25 energy as fat) that were rich (12.9 of energy) or poor (3.5 of energy) in linoleic acid (Kelley et al., 1989, 1992)....

What Does Osmolarity Mean

Drinks, which contain 40-80 g of carbohydrate per litre and have an osmolarity below 400 mosmol kg, preferably hypotonic, are generally found to be effective for sport events, in terms of a rapid fluid supply. The rate at which carbohydrate ingested during exercise can be used by the body amounts to approximately 0.5-1.1 g min, depending on the exercise intensity and the degree of carbohydrate depletion in the body. The amount of fluid which can be maximally consumed in endurance events amounts to about 400-800 ml h, depending on the body size of the individual and the type of endurance event. Accordingly, in order to combine CHO with water effectively, it is recommended to ingest drinks containing 40-80 g carbohydrate per litre to obtain a sufficient carbohydrate supply. In order to avoid over-consumption of fluid, and the consequent need to urinate during exercise, the athlete is recommended to consume a more concentrated drink, i.e. containing about 130-150 g l. Such an energy-rich...

Pancreatic Signals

Insulin was the first peripheral signal shown to regulate food intake through interaction with central-hypothalamic neurons (87). Protagonists of popular diets have claimed in the lay press that limitation of insulin secretion is the mechanism for hunger control in subjects fed low-carbohydrate, ketotic diets. Yet, the scientific

Train Low Compete High

Consuming carbohydrate also allows for the replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise. In a landmark study by exercise physiologist Dr. J. Bergstrom and his colleagues (Bergstrom et al. 1967), researchers compared the rate at which muscle glycogen was replaced in subjects who exercised to exhaustion and then ate either a high-protein, high-fat diet or a high-carbohydrate diet. The subjects on the high-protein, high-fat diet (similar to an Atkins-type diet with abundant steak, eggs, hamburgers, tuna salad, peanut butter, and cheese) remained glycogen depleted for five days (see figure 6.1). The subjects on the high-carbohydrate diet

The Athletes and Healthy Persons Food Pyramid By Will Brink

In truth, the standard pyramid invites an increase in bodyfat (up to 11 serving per day of breads, pasta and rice ) and other potential problems from the overly high carbohydrate intakes, most of which would be based on heavily processed carbs of the average American diet.

Boosting Your Calories

Try to limit your intake of bad fat and focus on healthful fat, such as peanut butter, walnuts, almonds, avocado, olive oil, and oily fish such as salmon and tuna. You should still eat a basic high-carbohydrate sports diet. Eating too much fatty food leaves your muscles underfueled.

Food Facts The Facts About Lowcarb Foods

Low-carb diets have been around for quite some time and have recently enjoyed some popularity. In response to this interest, food manufacturers have been happy to put over a thousand new low-carb foods on the shelves. Shoppers can choose low-carb pasta, bagels, breads, breakfast cereals, cookies, tortilla chips, soda, ice cream, ketchup, beer, and more during their trips to the supermarket. This Food Facts will look at how these low-carb offerings are different from the foods they replace and how they are labeled. Are low-carbohydrate foods lower in kcalories than regular foods 1. Statements that do not state or imply a specific level of carbohydrates, such as Carb Conscious and Carb Wise, are allowed on product labels. Statements that do state a specific level of carbohydrates, such as Low Carbohydrate, Carb Free, and Only X grams Carbs, are not allowed. 3. Terms such as Low Carbohydrate may not be used to describe a particular food but may be used to describe a diet or lifestyle as...

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension cigarette smoking elevated blood lipids (e.g. cholesterol, triglyceride) a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids) physical inactivity obesity diabetes and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Effect of Glucose on Gluconeogenic Enzyme Gene Expression

Glucose-6-phosphatase is another key gluconeogenic enzyme. As stated previously, its expression is increased in response to glucose shortage in the diet and is repressed by a high-carbohydrate diet and by insulin. Repression by insulin seems to involve a transcription factor of the forkhead family (Nakae et al, 2001 Foufelle and Ferr , 2002). Surprisingly, it has been shown that high glucose concentrations in culture media induce glucose-6-phosphatase expression in both

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

Vegetarian diets tend to contain significantly more carbohydrates, particularly complex carbohydrates. A high carbohydrate meal may actually speed up the resting metabolic rate, while a high fat meal seems to have little effect on metabolism. There is some evidence that overfeeding with carbohydrates but not with fat provokes an insulin-mediated ther-mogenesis that acts to retard weight gain.34 Toth and Poehlman35 found that young male vegetarians had an 11 higher resting metabolic rate than non-vegetarians in spite of similar energy intakes. The major dietary difference between the two groups was an increased ingestion of carbohydrate and a reduction in fat intake by the vegetarians. Campbell36 has proposed that excess protein intake may be responsible for excess weight. Vegetarian diets tend to provide a much lower protein intake than diets that include meat products. The China study, involving dietary records on thousands of Chinese, indicated that protein intake paralleled body...

Muscle Mitochondria And Uncoupling Protein In Obesity

It has long been known that brown adipose tissue has a high capacity for heat production, because the mitochondria of this tissue contains a protein called uncoupling protein (UCP1), which dissipates the proton gradient through the inner membrane, with the energy being released as heat instead of ATP synthesis. Since obesity is associated with energy imbalance, it was speculated that more uncoupling protein might protect against obesity. Evidence to support this hypothesis was provided by an experiment in which UCP1 was overexpressed in skeletal muscle. The UCP1 overexpressing transgenic mice were resistant to weight gain and obesity when placed on a high-fat diet.66 However, since UCP1 is normally only found in brown adipose tissue, and humans have little or no brown adipose tissue, the significance of UCP1 in human obesity is questionable.

Responding To Special Guest Requests

What do you have that's low-carb I'm on the Atkins diet. El Low-Carbohydrate Diet The standard for low-carbohydrate diets is the Atkins diet. Atkins now consists of a four-phase strategy. The amount of carbohydrates you are allowed begins with a mere 20 grams per day in the first phase but is liberalized in later phases. All the phases restrict refined carbohydrates such as high-sugar foods, pasta, and breads made from white flour. Whole grains are accepted, such as multi-grain breads, brown rice, and steel-cut oatmeal. Low-carbohydrate menu items emphasize proteins such as meat and poultry and nonstarchy vegetables such as green beans. These customers are going to try very hard to avoid sugar, white flour, and breading. Good fats in moderation are okay. Don't forget that some of your ingredients contain sugar or flour. For example, commercial salad dressings often have sugar, and sauces may use flour. Figure 10-7 shows an Atkins entr e, Bacon-Wrapped Pork Tenderloin with Brussels...

Beef pork lamb and vealTotal fat grams

While all this new science may seem like a cure for obesity, any potential treatments with drugs or genes must be in addition to diet and exercise. Reducing body fat with leptin while eating a high-fat diet will carry its own health risks. One interesting note, researchers found that diet and exercise help the brain respond to leptin.

Side Bar The Glycerol Story is it a carb

When the body is starved for both calories and carbohydrates, under the right conditions, it will convert certain non-carbohydrate substrates to glucose, such as glycerol, certain amino acids, etc., but this is not major source of carbohydrates (glucose) under normal conditions. Under normal conditions, like when a person is eating normally (i.e. not starving themselves) you can consume enough glycerol to fill an elephant, but you don't get large changes in blood glucose and insulin.

Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Intramyocellular Lipid Accumulation

Triacylglycerols are the culprit for reduced skeletal-muscle insulin action, but more likely they are an inert marker of other lipid intermediates known to suppress insulin sensitivity. An increase in the intramyocellular concentration of lipid intermediates such as fatty acyl-CoAs,50 ceramides,339 and diacylglycerols52 not only correlate with insulin resistance but also directly and indirectly alter insulin signaling.92 Considerable evidence linking increased skeletal-muscle lipid content to insulin resistance has been derived from animal studies employing acute and chronic high-fat diets.24 Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance appears to occur in concert with increased fatty acyl-CoAs.24 Moreover, insulin sensitivity is restored by treatments that reduce intramyocellular lipid accumulation (i.e., low-fat feeding and fasting).78 Similar findings have been observed in humans. Bachmann et al.8 reported significant increases in intramyocellular lipid content and reductions in insulin...

Weight Loss Myths and Truths

Myth High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are the best choice if you want to lose weight. Truth If you want to lose weight, your best bet is to eat smaller portions at dinner and create a calorie deficit for the day. The fundamental type of calories eaten, either protein or carbohydrate, seems to have less importance. In one eight-week study, subjects who ate 1,600 calories of either a high-protein diet (30 percent protein, 40 percent carbohydrate) or a high-carbohydrate diet (15 percent protein, 55 percent carbohydrate) lost the same amount of weight (Luscombe et al. 2002). In another study comparing diets with varying amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat, the subjects lost similar amounts of weight. The bottom line is that all calories count A high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet seemingly works because of several factors 3. Because it lingers longer in the stomach, protein (and fat) tends to be more satiating than carbohydrate. Having highprotein (and high-fat) eggs and bacon...

Essential Fatty Acid Requirements

The concept has emerged that an optimal ratio of n-3 and n-6 FA is required in the diet because n-3 and n-6 families compete for eicosanoid production. Various authorities have recommended that at least 3 of daily calories be provided as linoleate, to prevent EFAD however, equal amounts of C18 2n-6 and various SAFA have been recommended to reduce serum CH for the prevention of atherosclerosis (117). Advocacy for increased intake of vegetable oils rich in C18 2n-6 has resulted in C18 2n-6 consumption of approximately 6 to 7 of calories in the United States, leading to a ratio of n-6 n-3 PUFA consumption above 10 ( 117). Although this amount of C18 2n-6 may be beneficial for reduction of elevated plasma CH in those on a high-fat diet, it has been argued that an n-6 n-3 PUFA ratio exceeding 10 is imbalanced compared with n-6 n-3 ratios of 2 to 4 found in food lipids of hunter gatherer societies ( 103, 117). There is concern that a high intake of C18 2n-6 relative to n-3 PUFA may lead to...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

A near-vegetarian diet is often needed to take advantage of high carbohydrate plant foods such as cereals, pasta, grains, dried fruits, and legumes. In one study of 347 marathon runners, more than 75 reported higher intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and lower intake of red meat and eggs when compared with pre-running dietary habits.37 (See Figure 12.2.) Nonetheless, in most studies, intake of carbohydrate by endurance athletes falls below recommended levels, although there are some noteworthy exceptions (e.g., Tarahumara Indian ultramarathon runners, and triathletes).137-41 The Tarahumara Indians, a Ute-Aztecan tribe inhabiting the rugged Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains in the north-central state of Chihuahua, Mexico, are extraordinary endurance runners who consume a simple, near-vegetarian diet composed primarily of corn and beans (75-80 of total energy intake is carbohydrate).38

Fermentation Excess and Putrefaction

Under these circumstances, the affected person will become intolerant to soluble fiber supplements, since they will increase the short-chained fatty acids that can increase fermentation. Antibiotic treatment may be required to correct the problem. Long term correction requires a low carbohydrate diet and enzyme supplementation when indicated. Garlic can suppress the overgrown bacteria and yeast.

Nutrition Before Exercise Glycogen Loading

Of crucial importance in the pre-competition preparation of an endurance athlete is defining the best method to optimize the body's glycogen levels. In the past, Scandinavian researchers introduced a supercompensation diet. Their recommended strategy and diet is as follows. One week prior to an important race, a bout of exhausting endurance exercise is performed in order to deplete the glycogen stores. Over the next 3 days a high fat diet is ingested, ideally with less than 20 of the energy intake as CHO. During the remaining period leading up to the race, the athlete should ingest a high CHO diet with less than 20 of the energy intake being derived from fat. No endurance training should be undertaken during the 6 days prior to the race. This diet training regimen leads to a large increase in the muscle glycogen stores (160-200 greater than the normal resting levels). However, this protocol has serious disadvantages The high fat diet may cause gastrointestinal problems such as...

Challenges Of Lifestyle Change In The Management Of Obesity

Educating the patient is the main goal of diet counseling, and effectiveness of learning is important for a patient to adhere effectively to a diet. Unfortunately, learning is quite difficult, given the complexities of nutrition information and of food choices available to a patient. Moreover, learning the healthiest food selections has never been as difficult as it is today when even renowned nutrition researchers stage debates in prominent medical journals over what types of foods should be eaten. Patients are often confused about what to eat. Despite multiple studies, clinical guidelines, and public recommendations in support of lowering dietary fat, evidence from a systematic review suggests that low-fat diets are no better than other types of weight-reducing diets in achieving and maintaining weight loss over a 12- to 18-month period.14 Recently, greater weight loss and improvement in serum lipids have been reported with a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (Atkins-type diet).1516 It...

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When those suffering with carbohydrate craving obesity were offered snacks that differed in macro-nutrient composition, towards the late afternoon they snacked almost entirely on high-carbohydrate foods, although they did not eat more at mealtimes (12). When asked why they snacked the response was more likely to be that it made them calm or clear-headed rather than that they were hungry. Those who were carbohydrate cravers felt less depressed and more alert. Those who did not crave carbohydrate felt sleepy and fatigued. Those suffering with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) typically eat more in the winter and put on weight. From the Wurtmans' perspective, this is an attempt to decrease depressive symptoms by eating carbohydrate-rich foods. It has been reported that the eating of carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meals was associated with improved mood in those suffering with SAD (13). In this type of study, the prediction was that the consumption of a high-carbohydrate low-protein meal...

Letter on Corpulence

The excerpt below is from the first low-carbohydrate diet to come to public attention, in William Banting's Letter on Corpulence of 1864. After many fruitless attempts to lose weight, Banting, an English casket maker, began the diet on the advice of Dr. William Harvey and lost 45 pounds. Harvey advised Banting to abstain from bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer, and potatoes because they contain starch and saccharine matter, tending to create fat. The first three editions of the Letter sold 63,000 copies in the United Kingdom alone. From a nutritional standpoint, many fad diets lack important nutrients. For example, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets (such as the Atkins Diet) are low in vitamins E, A, thiamin, B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium, and dietary fiber, and they also require supplementation. In addition, they are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. On the other hand, when individuals are allowed to choose foods from all food groups, their diet is likely to...

Net Carbs No Meaning

Net carbs is a term coined by low-carbohydrate-diet-product manufacturers, not nutritionists. Net carbs, often listed on the labels of foods marketed as low carbohydrate, usually refers to the total carbohydrates minus the carbohydrates from fiber and artificial sweeteners. These carbohydrates are assumed to be non-contributors to the overall calorie content since the body does not break them down in the same way and does not derive as many calories from them as it does from sugar. Whereas insoluble fiber has important health benefits, artificial sweeteners offer the body no known nutritional benefits. There is no approved definition or nutritious use for net carbs.

Final Buzz Kill

A final point to consider about low-carbohydrate diets is that they are based on the assumption that the diet can be summarily and simplistically divided into good foods (protein and fat) and bad foods (carbohydrates). Such rigid, arbitrary rules detract from the pleasure and enjoyment that healthful eating should bring. The reality is that there is nothing simplistic about the diet, or any of the nutrients in it. Most foods are composed of many different types of nutrients, and any diet that suggests avoiding or severely limiting any of them should be avoided. No food should be avoided absolutely, and no food should be eaten in excess. Let the dietary guidelines, a tried-and-true if somewhat imperfect source, guide your food choices from each food group and help you to eat a well-balanced diet. And for goodness sake, enjoy your food

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After a meal, the increase of blood glucose stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin in turn causes the uptake of most amino acids, but not tryptophan, by peripheral tissues such as muscle. In contrast, tryptophan is bound to blood albumin, and insulin increases the affinity of albumin for tryptophan. The result of this sequence of events is that the ratio of tryptophan to the other amino acids in the blood increases. It was thus suggested that a high- as opposed to a low-carbohydrate meal increases the ratio of tryptophan to 'large neutral amino acids' (tyrosine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine and valine) in the blood. Tryptophan and the other large neutral amino acids compete with each other for a transporter molecule that allows entry into the brain. Thus, when a high-carbohydrate meal increases the ratio of tryptophan to other large amino acids, relatively more tryptophan is transported into the brain. Tryptophan is the precursor of the...

Deletion studies

Et ai, 1996), and amino acids including the one missing from the diet are released into the systemic circulation. These amino acids, together with those derived from intestinal absorption, cause an increase in hepatic protein synthesis. The partition of amino acids, however, depends on the dietary level and intake of carbohydrate. Low carbohydrate intake diminishes or eliminates the changes in hepatic protein synthesis. Thus, the biochemical effects of acute amino acid deficiencies represent the consequence of a complex nutritional imbalance rather than that of a simple deficiency (D'Mello and Lewis, 1978).


Dietary carbohydrate intake has become the source of much debate lately. Of course, the US Food Guide Pyramid and the Canadian Food Guide continue to recommend a high carbohydrate diet. However many experts have challenged these recommendations with research that demonstrates higher carbohydrate diets can lead to serious health problems and a difficult time with fat loss. So, what should you do Well, in sedentary folks, a lower carbohydrate intake has been shown to lead to weight loss, losses in body fat, a better preservation of muscle mass and favorable changes in triglycerides and good cholesterol. However, it's likely that athletes following a similar low carb diet would suffer impaired exercise performance, a reduction in work capacity, suppressed immune function, and an increase in perception of effort during normal exercise tasks. So, from this, it should be clear that mid- to long-term low carb diets are probably not the way to go for athletes. As an athlete, if you put your...

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But may also occur in competition settings for athletes who compete in weekly or bi-weekly fixtures, tournaments or multi-stage events. In the absence of muscle damage, muscle glycogen is restored at an average rate of about 5 per hour, and requires about 24 hours before stores are normalised (4). Studies have shown that a high-carbohydrate diet consumed after exercise for 4 hours (51) or 24 hours (52) enhanced recovery such that the endurance capacity of the high-carbohydrate group was better than the control group consuming a placebo (51) or moderate carbohydrate intake (52) at a subsequent trial of running until exhaustion. While the benefits of enhanced fuel recovery on a single bout of exercise are well documented, it is interesting that longitudinal studies do not show clear advantages to training adaptations and performance when a high-carbohydrate diet is compared with a moderate carbohydrate intake during a period of daily training (for reviews, see (53, 54)). It is possible...

How Do You Carbo Load

Carbo loading can be successfully performed with common high-carbohydrate foods such as pasta, grains, fruits, and vegetables. The preferred method of carbo-loading involves maintaining a high carbohydrate diet (over 65 percent total calories) during the week prior to the event. During the same period of time exercise is pretty much halved every 2 days in duration and intensity and halted a day prior to the event (Table 11.3).

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In the 1970s, the importance of avoiding excessive consumption of fat led to the liberalisation of dietary carbohydrate intake to as much as 55 of energy, up from a low of 1020 . However, in the 1990s, concerns about the potentially undesirable effects of very high-carbohydrate diets on certain plasma lipid fractions (triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) led to more flexible recommendations regarding the proportion of carbohydrate and fat in the diabetic diet (2). The distribution of calories between fat and carbohydrate can vary and be individualised based on the overall goals of treatment (degree of reduction in blood glucose, blood lipids and weight loss needed).

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Even in competition preparation when these other nutritional goals are of lower priority, it appears advantageous to eat a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods to meet carbohydrate intake goals. It has been noted from a review of several laboratory studies of carbohydrate loading that when athletes are fed 'loading' diets in which the additional carbohydrate is supplemented from a single food source, the increase in glycogen above the athletes' control diet appears less than that attained from a high-carbohydrate diet of mixed origin (9). Whether this is a real effect requires further investigation it is possible that reliance on a single food in a diet can lead to an underestimation of total carbohydrate intake, due to the compounding of inaccurate food composition data or malabsorption of the food. Chocolate bars offer a compact and enjoyable source of carbohydrate for an athlete who has high carbohydrate requirements. They may provide a useful part of a 'fuelling up' programme,...

Did You Know

. . . a high-carbohydrate diet can boost your endurance 3. Fact A high-carbohydrate meal is the best precompetition meal. It supplies the primary fuel for working muscles. Although a steak dinner may taste great, the fats and proteins in steak take longer to digest than carbohydrates do.

Low Fat Diets

The accepted approach for the diabetic diet has generally included a relatively high-carbohydrate, low-fat (25 percent to 30 percent of Kcal from fat) distribution (27). While there are a variety of approaches to WR, this macronutrient distribution describes the conventional WR therapy for OW OB. Randomized, controlled trials and other interventional studies of WR have found that decreasing dietary-fat intakes leads to decreased total energy intake and weight loss (28-30). Pirozzo et al. (31) systematically reviewed six randomized, controlled trials that compared a low-fat diet with another type of WR diet. The intervention and follow-up durations were 3-18 months and 6-18 months, respectively. The efficacy of low-fat diets was equal to but not greater than other WR diets with regards to sustained weight loss. However, only one of the six trials focused on subjects with type 2 diabetes (32). Very-low-fat diets have not been extensively studied but could be a concern because of the...


The decision to wean should be based on the desires and needs of the mother and child. Weaning should be gradual. Women returning to work can pump and store their milk for later use. Solid foods should be given based on the age and developmental stage of the child. In some countries, many toddlers become malnourished because they are given too many high carbohydrate foods, such as cassava, potatoes, and other root vegetables, too early. These foods are filling, but they are low in protein and other nutrients essential for growth and development.

Cereal Alternatives

Cereal may be one breakfast of champions, but it's not the only one. For you non-cereal-eaters, rest assured that other breakfasts can fuel you for a high-energy day. See the recipes in part IV for some wholesome high-carbohydrate breakfast breads and muffins you might want to enjoy with a glass of low-fat milk and some fruit or juice.

What Is Carbo Loading

Some athletes preparing for a big event will attempt to carbohydrate load or carbo load. These events include marathons, triathlons, bicycle centuries or longer, and long-distance swimming. The desired outcome is achieving the highest possible level of muscle glycogen just prior to the onset of the competition by coordinating a high carbohydrate intake (over 60 percent) for at least a week prior to competition while at the same time tapering both the intensity and duration of training sessions.

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It has been suggested that as the eating of chocolate is associated with a high carbohydrate intake, it may result in an increased level of brain serotonin. The behavioural consequences of increased serotonergic activity include changes in aggressiveness, mood and pain sensitivity. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate, as opposed to a high-protein, meal will decrease alertness and be associated with a general decline in cognitive efficiency (11). There are, however, many problems with the idea that the high sugar content of chocolate leads to enhanced serotonin synthesis.

After You Compete

For every pound of body weight, strive for about 0.5 gram of carbohydrates. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, eat at least 75 grams of carbohydrates. That's easy to do with a high-carbohydrate snack or meal. For strenuous exercise that lasts ninety minutes or longer, consume that much in carbohydrates within thirty minutes after exercise, then again about two hours later. A little protein eaten with carbohydrate foods, perhaps milk with cereal, aids recovery. See 'Carbo' Foods in the Appendices.

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Before competition, an athlete should ensure that liver and muscle glycogen stores are able to support the anticipated fuel needs of the event. For sports events lasting less than 60 min, muscle glycogen stores, which have been normalized to the resting levels of trained athletes, are considered adequate (3). In the absence of muscle damage, muscle glycogen levels can be restored by 2436 hours of high carbohydrate intake, in conjunction with a reduction in exercise volume and intensity (4). Thus, 'fuelling up' for most events simply consists of high carbohydrate eating and tapered training on the day before competition. Athletes who compete in events longer than 90 min may improve their performance by maximizing muscle glycogen stores over the 36 days prior to their competition via an exercise-diet programme known as glycogen (or carbohydrate) loading. 'Loaded' glycogen stores permit the athlete to continue exercising at their optimal pace for a longer time, postponing the onset of...

Glycogen utilization

Endurance athletes require a slow release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen over a period of hours, rather than a rapid release. There is some evidence that this is achieved better from glycogen that is less branched, and therefore has fewer points at which glycogen phosphorylase can act. The formation of branch points in glycogen synthesis is slower than the formation of a 1 4 links, and this has been exploited in the process of 'carbohydrate loading' in preparation for endurance athletic events. The athlete exercises to exhaustion, when muscle glycogen is more or less completely depleted, then consumes a high-carbohydrate meal, which stimulates rapid synthesis of glycogen with fewer branch points than normal. There is little evidence to show whether or not this improves endurance performance such improvement as has been reported may be the result of knowing that one has made an effort to improve performance rather than any real metabolic effect.

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If there is no clear evidence that the intake of carbohydrate increases specifically during the premenstrual stage, is there support for the anecdotal reports that there is an increased craving for sweet foods Sucrose intake has been found to be higher in the luteal phase (84). The intake of dietary fibre is lower (85), a reflection of an increased choice of sweets, cake and chocolate. During menstruation a preference for chocolate foods, rather than similar non-chocolate alternatives, has been found (86). Fong and Kretsch (87) found that carbohydrate intake was higher when bleeding compared with the time around ovulation, a reflection of an increase in sweet consumption, mainly chocolate. There is little evidence that carbohydrate is the subject of the craving, rather than pleasant-tasting, high-fat high-carbohydrate foods.

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Chocolate is often cited as a high-carbohydrate food which obese carbohydrate cravers select in an attempt to reduce depression (66, 67). However, as Drewnowski et al. (35) have suggested, foods which have been targeted by carbohydrate cravers are more accurately described as sugar fat mixtures (e.g. chocolate candies, chocolate bars, cakes, cookies and ice cream). The self-medicating theory of carbohydrate craving suggests that the obese, premenstrual and individuals suffering from seasonal affective disorder select foods high in carbohydrates in order to increase the availability of tryptophan across the bloodbrain barrier, thereby increasing the synthesis of serotonin. However, cravings for foods which are more effective in promoting tryptophan uptake, such as rice, potatoes and pasta, are less likely to be reported than foods which are high in sugar and fat, such as chocolate. Therefore, it remains unclear whether such cravings among obese consumers and others reflects a serotonin...

What is Right

The figure of 90 min is most often based on two different observations. The first comes from studies carried out on endurance athletes. If, for example, long distance runners, cyclists or triathletes compete in multi-hour events, the exercise intensity will be such that the rate of carbohydrate breakdown is not maximal. In these cases signs of carbohydrate depletion first become apparent after 1.5 h of exercise. Studies on middle distance runners who perform interval training sessions or tempo runs, as well as studies performed on athletes involved in interval-type events (multiple sprint) such as soccer and ice hockey, show that the rate of glycogen breakdown in the most active muscle can be so high that its carbohydrate depletion can occur in less than 45 min. In one particular study it was observed that a 30 s sprint reduced the glycogen content in active muscles by 25 .

Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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