Ionizing Radiation Ebooks Catalog
DXA is used to measure bone mineral and soft tissue composition of the body. It provides estimates for the total body and of specific regions in the form of bone mineral, fat-free soft tissues (sometimes called bone-free lean tissue), and fat. The method requires a low radiation exposure, 0.05 to 1.5 mrem, depending on the machine and how quickly the total body scan is done 14 . The DXA unit measures the attenuation of the low-dose x-ray beam as it passes through different tissues of the body. How much of each photon beam is
Irradiated food does not become radioactive and this is now accepted even by opponents of the procedure. The limitation of allowable isotope sources to cobalt-60 and caesium-137 and the limitation of the maximum energy of electrons to 10MeV and of the maximum nominal energy for X-rays (bremsstrahlung or braking radiation) to 5MeV provides adequate safeguards. Even if the nominal energy for X-rays is increased to 10MeV the theoretically induced radioactivity would be much less than the natural activity there already is in food due mainly to the presence of potassium-40. Furthermore, it would be very difficult to measure such sparse induced activity in the presence of the natural radioactivity. It can be generally stated that the safety record of the radiation processing industry is slightly higher than that of other branches. There have been only a few accidents related to radiation exposure or radioactive contamination and the reason for all of them was a conscious violation of safety...
Apart from avoidance of exposure to ionizing radiation, there is little that can be done to prevent the formation of radicals, as they are the result of normal metabolic processes and responses to infection. There are, however, a number of mechanisms to minimize the damage done by radical action. As the important radicals are oxygen radicals, and the damage done is oxidative damage, the protective compounds are known collectively as antioxidants.
All women are vulnerable to breast cancer-eventually. What's your risk Among the probable risk factors family history of breast cancer, early menstruation, late menopause (after age fifty-five), older-age pregnancy of a first child, some forms of benign breast disease, obesity after menopause, ovarian and endometrial cancer, exposure to ionizing radiation, and simply getting older.
Irradiation is a technique that exposes food to electron beams or gamma radiation, a high-energy light stronger than the X-rays your doctor uses to make a picture of your insides. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation, the kind of radiation that kills living cells. Ionizing radiation can sterilize food or at least prolong its shelf life by About 90 percent of all compounds identified as radiolytic products (RP) also are found in raw, heated, and or stored foods that have not been deliberately exposed to ionizing radiation. A few compounds, called unique radiolytic products (URPs), are found only in irradiated foods.
Estimate lean tissue and mineral Estimates FM Estimates muscle mass Estimates muscle mass Estimates of fat, muscle, and bone without ionizing radiation, plus chemical composition Estimates of bone, muscle, and fat Estimates of fat, muscle, and bone Estimates of fat, muscle, and bone Estimates of subcutaneous fat and predictions of FM and FFM
Deltanoids can be effectively combined with ionizing radiation and chemo-therapeutic agents such as adriamycin to induce apoptosis in breast tumor models both in vitro and in vivo.82-86 While the primary response of breast tumor cells to deltanoids such as EB 1089 is growth inhibition, apoptosis has been observed in a fraction of the cell population. The possibility that the combination of deltanoids with radiation might promote cell death (i.e., through a differentiation stimulus plus DNA damage) was investigated by exposing both TP53 wild-type Treatment with EB 1089 was found to block the increase in p21waf1 cip1 levels induced by adriamycin and interfere with induction of MAP kinase activity by ionizing radiation. These effects may be related to the capacity of EB 1089 to promote secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. Similarly, pretreatment with another deltanoid, ILX 23-7553, shifted the dose-response curve for clonogenic survival, increasing sensitivity to...
If an essential amino acid such as leucine is used to study protein turnover, the only sources are from dietary intake (I) or protein breakdown (B). Amino acids like leucine can be removed from the plasma, either for protein synthesis (S), oxidation (O), or incorporation into other metabolic pathways after transamination deamina-tion. In the case of leucine, this amino acid can also be completely oxidized in the human body to CO2, allowing for the measurement of O as well. A simple model in the measurement of protein turnover flux therefore takes into consideration the above factors so that flux (Q) is equal to I + B, which is in turn equal to S + O (i.e., Q I + B S + O). Isotope studies are used to derive these variables of protein turnover, since amino acid tracers can be used to measure Q and O, and if intake equals zero, then Q B, and by subtraction, S Q - O.53 Isotopes are molecules that share the same atomic number (protons), yet have different numbers of neutrons (atomic mass)....
Action of matter with the electromagnetic field always results in an energy transfer and therefore in a temperature change. However, some effects are specific to the interaction with electromagnetic energy and cannot be achieved by conventional heating. Other effects are identical to interaction with thermal energy i.e. by conventional conductive or convective heating. For microwaves, the optical and geometrical effects during exposure of matter can result in locally high and low power levels and therefore in hot spots and cold spots. In many cases, researchers were unaware of such phenomena and therefore their conclusions on microwave-specific effects were incorrect. The objects exposed to microwaves can be considered as antennae if they are geometrically separated and are small compared to the wavelength(s) they will not be 'seen' by microwaves, in the same way as a radio or TV antenna must be of correct size for optimal reception. As a consequence, many reported observations about...
With the desire to limit radiation exposure, particularly in children, alternative means of diagnosis are sought. Radionuclide bolus transport has been evaluated as one such alternative, with achalasia diagnosed when esophageal emptying time is prolonged. When evaluating patients with mano-metrically diagnosed achalasia using radionuclide transport, Stacher et al found that sensitivity for this evaluation was 68 , with a specificity of 95 .80 Their criteria were an esophageal emptying time of 20 s (the time for 95 of the bolus to enter the stomach), compared to a normal median time of 7.3 s (range 5.5-12.0 s). Because radionu-clide bolus transport is a functional study with relatively low sensitivity (other esophageal motility disorders also show prolonged transit time), this study may be best suited for follow-up of patients after treatment, or in the few cases in which achalasia is suspected, despite normal LES pressure on manometry.67,73,80
Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides, petroleum-based fertilizers or sewage sludge-based fertilizers, bioengineering (also called biotechnology), or ionizing radiation (also called irradiation). Before a product can be labeled organic, a government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards. Organic farmland has been expanding, and over 12,000 farms were certified organic as of 2005, which is a little under 1 percent of all farms. B. The use of genetic engineering, ionizing radiation, and sewage sludge is prohibited.
In order to understand the physical principles behind the radiation energy transfer, it is necessary to understand that electromagnetic energy comes in portions called 'photons' or 'quanta' that are discrete but very small quantities. An impinging photon must match exactly the energy difference between several allowed atomic energy states of the electrons in the treated material otherwise, no energy is absorbed and the object is 'transparent' to the electromagnetic wave. This is the reason that food, which is mainly water with regard to microwave heating, can be heated, but glass or plastic containers remain cold. (A mother heating a baby's bottle in a microwave oven and testing the temperature by sensing its surface temperature with her cheek may not realise that the milk is boiling inside.) In addition, the 'heat capacity' of the substance must be considered. It determines the heating effect some food components such as fat do not absorb the microwave energy as efficiently as water...
Microwave noun an oven that heats food by means of very-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation verb to heat a dish in a microwave microwaves plural noun very-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation used for heating up and cooking food (note Microwaves transfer their energy to food by causing certain types of molecules to vibrate at their frequency.)
Irradiation is a technique that exposes food to electron beams or to gamma radiation, a high-energy light stronger than the X-rays your doctor uses to make a picture of your insides. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation, the kind that kills living cells. As a result, irradiation prolongs the shelf life of food by
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