Allen, J.I., Kay, N.E. and McClain, C.J. (1981) Severe zinc deficiency in humans: association with a reversible T-lymphocyte dysfunction. Annals of Internal Medicine 95, 154-157.
Barnes, PM. and Moynahan, E.J. (1973) Zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropath-ica: multiple dietary intolerance treated with synthetic diet. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 66, 327-329.
Bates, C.J., Evans, PH., Dardenne, M., Prentice, A., Lunn, FIG., Northrop-Clewes, C.A., Hoare, S., Cole, T.J., Horan, S.J. and Longmen, S.C. (1993) A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 243-255.
Beach, R.S., Gershwin, M.E. and Hurley, L.S. (1982) Gestational zinc deprivation in mice: persistence of immuno-deficiency for three generations. Science 218, 469-471.
Beach, R.S., Gershwin, M.E. and Hurley, L.S. (1983) Persistent immunological consequences of gestational zinc deprivation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38, 579-590.
Beck, FW.J., Prasad, A.S., Kaplan, J., Fitzgerald, J.T. and Brewer, G.J. (1997) Changes in cytokine production and T-cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. American Journal of Physiology 272, E1002-E1007.
Bjorksten, B., Black, O., Gustavson, K.H., Hallmans, G., Hagloff, B. and Tarvik, A. (1980) Zinc and immune function in Down's syndrome. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 69, 183-187.
Bogden, J.D., Oleske, J.M., Lavenhar, M.A., Munves E.M., Kemp, FW., Bruening, K.S., Holding, K.J., Denny, T.N., Guaino, M.A., Krieger, L.M. and Holland, B.K. (1988) Zinc and immunocompetence in elderly people: effects of zinc supplementation for 3 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 655-663.
Bogden, J.D., Oleske, J.M., Lavenhar, M.A., Munves, E.M., Kemp, FW., Bruening, K.S., Holding, K.J., Denny, T.N., Guarino, M.A. and Holland, B.K. (1990) Effects of one year supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on cellular immunity in the elderly. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 9, 214-225.
Castillo-Duran, C., Heresi, G., Fisberg, M. and Uauy, R. (1987) Controlled trial of zinc supplementation during recovery from malnutrition - effects on growth and immune function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 602-608.
Chandra, R.K. (1984) Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune response. Journal of the American Medical Association 252, 1443-1446.
Chesters, J.K., Petrie, L. and Lipson, H.E. (1993) Two zinc-dependent steps during G1 to S phase transition. Journal of Cellular Physiology 155, 445-451.
Chvapil, M., Zukoski, C.F, Hattler, B.G., Stankova, L., Montgomery, D., Carlson, E.C. and Ludwig, J.C. (1976) Zinc and cells. In: Prasad, A.S. and Oberleas, D. (eds) Human Health and Disease: Zinc and Copper. Academic Press, New York, pp. 269-281.
Concordet, J.P and Ferry, A. (1993) Physiological programmed cell death in thymocytes is induced by physical stress (exercise). American Journal of Physiology 265, C626-C629.
Cunningham-Rundles, C., Cunningham-Rundles, S., Iwata, T., Incefy, G., Garofalo, J.A., Menendez-Botet, C., Lewis, V., Twomey, J.J. and Good, R.A. (1981) Zinc deficiency, depressed thymic hormones, and T lymphocyte dysfunction in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 21, 387-396.
Department of Health (1991) Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee of Medical Aspects of Food Policy: Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. HMSO, London.
DePasquale-Jardieu, P and Fraker, PJ. (1980) Further characterization of the role of corticosterone in the loss of humoral immunity in zinc deficient A/J mice as determined by adrenalectomy. Journal of Immunology 124, 2650-2655.
Dutz, W., Rossipal, E., Ghavami, H., Vessal, K., Kohout, E. and Post, C. (1976) Persistent cell mediated immune deficiency following infantile stress during the first six months of life. European Journal of Pediatrics 122, 117-130.
Falutz, J., Tsoukas, C. and Gold, P (1988) Zinc as a cofactor in human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression. Journal of the American Medical Association 259, 2850-2851.
Ferguson, A.C. (1978) Prolonged impairment of cellular immunity in children with intrauterine growth retardation. Journal of Pediatrics 93, 52-56.
Fosmire, G.J. (1990) Zinc toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 225-227.
Fraker, PJ., Haas, S.M. and Luecke, R.W. (1977) Effect of zinc deficiency on the immune response of young adult A/J mice. Journal of Nutrition 107, 1889-1895.
Fraker, PJ., DePasquale-Jardieu, R., Zwickl, C.M. and Kuecke, R.W. (1978) Regeneraiton of T-cell helper function in zinc deficient adult mice. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the USA 75, 5660-5664.
Fraker, PJ., Hilderbrandt, K. and Luecke, R.W. (1984) Alteration of antibody-mediated responses of suckling mice to T-cell dependent and independent antigens by maternal marginal zinc deficiency: restoration of responsivity by nutritional repletion. Journal of Nutrition 114, 170-179.
Fraker, PJ., Gershwin, M.E., Good, R.A. and Prasad, A.S. (1986) Interrelationships between zinc and immune functions. Federation Proceedings 45, 1474-1479.
Friis, H., Ndhlovu, P, Mduluza, T., Kaondeva, K., Sandstrom, B., Michaelson, K.F, Vennervald, B.J. and Christensen, N.O. (1997) The effect of zinc supplementation on Schistosoma mansoni reinfection rate and intensities: a randomized, controlled trial among rurual Zimbabwean school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 33-37.
Frost, P, Chen, J.C., Rabbani, I., Smith, J. and Prasad, A.S. (1977) The effect of Zn deficiency on the immune response. In: Brewer, G.J. and Prasad, A.S. (eds) Zinc Metabolism: Current Aspects in Health and Disease. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 143-153.
Gibson, R.S., Heywood, A., Yaman, C., Sohlstrom, A., Thompson, L.U. and Heywood, P (1991) Growth in children from the Wosera subdistrict, Papua New Guinea, in relation to energy and protein intakes and zinc status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 782-789.
Golden, M.H.N., Golden, B.E., Harland, PS.E.G. and Jackson, A.A. (1978) Zinc and immunocompetence in protein-energy malnutrition. Lancet 1, 1226-1228.
Good, R.A. (1981) Nutrition and immunity. Journal of Clinical Immunology 1, 3-11.
Good, R.A., Fernandes, G., Yunis, E.J., Cooper, W.C., Jose, PC., Kramer, T.R. and Hansen, M.A. (1976) Nutritional deficiency, immunologic function, and disease. American Journal of Pathology 84, 599-614.
Kay, R.G. and Tasman-Jones, C. (1975) Acute zinc deficiency in man during intravenous alimentation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 45, 325-330.
Montgomery, D.W., Chvapil, M. and Zukoski, C.F (1979) Effects of zinc chloride on guinea pig complement component activity in vitro: concentration-dependent inhibition and enhancement. Infection and Immunity 23, 424-431.
Moulder, K. and Steward, M.W. (1989) Experimental zinc deficiency: effects on cellular responses and the affinity of humoral antibody. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 77, 269-274.
Ninh, N.X., Thissen, J.-P, Collette, L., Gerrard, G., Khoi, H.H. and Ketelslegers, J.M. (1996) Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) in growth retarded Vietnamese children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 514-519.
Oleske, J.M., Westphal, M.L., Shore, S., Gorden, D., Bogden, J.D. and Nahmias, A. (1979) Zinc therapy of depressed cellular immunity in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Amerian Journal of Diseases of Children 133, 915-918.
Pifer, L.L., Wang, Y.F, Chiang, T.M., Ahokas, R., Woods, D.R. and Joyner, R.E. (1987) Borderline immunodeficiency in male homosexuals: is life-style contributory? Southern Medical Journal 80, 687-691.
Porter, K.G., McMaster, D., Elmes, M.E. and Love, A.H. (1977) Anaemia and low serum-copper during zinc therapy. Lancet ii, 774.
Prasad, A.S. (1991) Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 403-412.
Prasad, A.S. (1993) Biochemistry of Zinc. Plenum Press, New York.
Prasad, A.S. (2000a) Effects of zinc deficiency on immune functions. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 13, 1-20.
Prasad, A.S. (2000b) Effects of zinc deficiency on Th1 and Th2 cytokine shifts. Journal of Infectious Disease 182(Suppl.1), S62-S68.
Prasad, A.S., Halsted, J.A. and Nadimi, M. (1961) Syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism and geophagia. American Journal Medicine 31, 532-546.
Prasad, A.S., Brewer, G.J., Schoomaker, E.B. and Rabbani, P (1978) Hypocupremia induced by zinc therapy in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 240, 2166-2168.
Prasad, A.S., Meftah, S., Abdallah, J., Kaplan, J., Brewer, G.J., Bach, J.F and Dardenne, M. (1988) Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency. Journal of Clinical Investigation 82, 1202-1210.
Prasad, A.S., Beck, FW.J., Grabowski, S.M., Kaplan, J. and Mathog, R.H. (1997) Zinc deficiency: changes in cytokine production and T-cell subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer and in non-cancer subjects. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 109, 68-77.
Prasad, A.S., Beck, FW.J., Kaplan, J., Chandrasekar, PH., Ortega, J., Fitzgerald, J.T. and Swerdlow, P (1999) Effects of zinc supplementation on incidence of infections and hospital admissions in sickle cell disease (SCD). American Journal of Hematology 61, 194-202.
Prasad, A.S., Fitzgerald, J.T., Bao, B., Beck, FW.J. and Chandrasekar, PH. (2000) Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. Annals of Internal Medicine 133, 245-252.
Prasad, A.S., Bao, B., Beck, FW.J. and Sarkar, FH. (2001) Zinc activates NF-kB in HUT-78 cells. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 138, 250-256.
Rajagopalan, S., Winter, C.C., Wagtmann, N. and Long, E.O. (1995) The Ig-related killer cell inhibitory receptor binds zinc and requires zinc for recognition of HLA-C on target cells. Journal of Immunology 155, 4143-4146.
Rosado, J.L., Lopez, P, Munoz, E., Martinez, H. and Allen, L.H. (1997) Zinc supplementation reduced morbidity, but neither zinc nor iron supplementation affected growth or body composition of Mexican pre-schoolers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 13-19.
Roy, S.K., Tomkins, A.M., Akramuzzaman, S.M., Behrens, R.H., Haider, R., Mahalanabis, D. and Fuchs, G. (1997) Randomised controlled trial of zinc supplementation in malnourished Bangladeshi children with diarrhoea. Archives of Disease in Childhood 77, 196-200.
Roy, S.K., Tomkins, A.M., Haider, R., Behra, R.H., Akramuzzaman, S.M., Mahalanabis, D. and Fuchs, G.J. (1999) Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent growth and morbidity in Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 529-534.
Ruel, M.T., Ribera, J.A., Santizo, M.C., Lonnerda, B. and Brown, K.H. (1997) Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. Pediatrics 99, 808-813.
Salas, M. and Kirchner, H. (1987) Induction of interferon gamma in human leucocyte cultures stimulated by Zn2+. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 45, 139-142.
Salvin, S.B., Horecker, B.L., Pan, L.X. and Rabin, B.S. (1987) The effect of dietary zinc and prothymosin on cellular immune responses of RF/J mice. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 43, 281-288.
Sandstead, H.H., Penland, J.G., Xu-Cun, C., Prasad, A.S., Alcock, N.W., Egger, N.G., Carroll, R. and Dayal, H.H. (2000) Zinc and micronutrient repletion of children. Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques 18, 523-527.
Sazawal, S., Black, R., Jalla, S., Bhan, M.K., Bhandari, N. and Sinha, A. (1995) Zinc supplementation in young children with acute diarrhea in India. New England Journal of Medicine 333, 839-844.
Sazawal, S., Black, R.E., Bhan, M.K., Jalla, S., Bhandari, N., Sinha, A. and Majumdar, S. (1996) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India. Journal of Nutrition 126, 443-450.
Sazawal, S., Black, R., Jalla, S., Mazumdar, S., Sinha, A. and Bhan, M.K. (1998) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children - a double-blind controlled trial. Pediatrics 102, 1-5.
Schlesinger, L., Arevalo, M., Arredondo, S., Lonnerdal, B. and Stekel, A. (1993) Zinc supplementation impairs monocyte function. Acta Paedictrica 82, 734-738.
Shankar, A.H. and Prasad, A.S. (1998) Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 447S-463S.
Shankar, A.H., Genton, B., Baisor, M., Paino, J., Tamja, S., Adiguma, T., Wu, L., Rare, L., Bannon, D., Tielsch, J.M., West, K.P, Jr and Alpers, M.P (1998) The influence of zinc supplementation on morbidity due to plasmodium falciparum: a randomized trial in preschool children in Papua New Guinea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, 663-669.
Singh, A., Failla, M.L. and Deuster, R.A. (1994) Exercise induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. Journal of Applied Physiology 76, 2298-2303.
Taylor, C.G. and Bray, T.M. (1991) Effect of hyperoxia on oxygen free radical defence enzymes in the lung of zinc-deficient rats. Journal of Nutrition 121, 460-466.
Todd, W.R., Elvejheim, C.A. and Hart, E.B. (1934) Zinc in the nutrition of the rat. American Journal of Physiology 107, 146-156.
Turner, J.M., Brodsky, M.H., Irving, B.A., Levin, S.D., Perlmutter, R.M. and Littman, D.R. (1990) Interaction of the unique N-terminal region of tyrosine kinase p56'ck with cytoplasmic domains of CD4 and CD8 is mediated by cysteine motifs. Cell 60, 755-765.
Walsh, C.T., Sandstead, H.H., Prasad, A.S., Newberne, PM. and Fraker, PJ. (1994) Zinc health effects and research priorities for the 1990s. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 5-46.
Wang, Y., Liang, B. and Watson, R.R. (1994) The effect of alcohol consumption on nutritional status during murine AIDS. Alcohol 11, 273-278.
Zalewski, PD. (1996) Zinc and immunity: implications for growth, survival and function of lymphoid cells. Journal of Nutritional Immunology 4, 39-80.
Zalewski, PD. and Forbes, I.J. (1993) Intracellular zinc and the regulation of apoptosis. In: Lavin, M. and Watters, D. (eds) Programmed Cell Death: the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Apoptosis. Harwood Academic Publishers, Melbourne, pp. 73-86.
Was this article helpful?
Many women who have recently given birth are always interested in attempting to lose some of that extra weight that traditionally accompanies having a baby. What many of these women do not entirely realize is the fact that breast-feeding can not only help provide the baby with essential vitamins and nutrients, but can also help in the weight-loss process.