Influence of glutamine on T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

The proliferative response of rat (Ardawi and Newsholme, 1983; Szondy and Newsholme, 1989), mouse (Griffiths and Keast, 1990; Yaqoob and Calder, 1997) and human (Chuang et al., 1990; Parry-Billings et al., 1990a; Chang et al., 1999a, b) lymphocytes to T-cell mitogens is dependent upon the availability of glutamine: in the absence of glutamine, these cells do not proliferate, but, as the glutamine concentration in the culture medium increases, lymphocyte proliferation increases (Fig. 6.5). Lymphocyte proliferation increases greatly over the glutamine concentration range between 0.01 and 1 mM and appears to be maximal at normal physiological concentrations. Other amino acids, including glutamate, aspartate and arginine, cannot substitute for gluta-mine to support lymphocyte proliferation (Ardawi and Newsholme, 1983; Calder, 1995b). However, hydrolysable dipeptides that contain glutamine (e.g. alanyl-glutamine or glycyl-glutamine) can act as a replacement for glutamine to support in vitro T lymphocyte proliferation (Brand et al., 1989; Kweon et al., 1991; Kohler et al., 2000).

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