Hyper Glycemia Ebook
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is the result of either too little insulin or of the body's inefficient use of insulin. Indicators of hyperglycemia include frequent urination, thirst, high levels of sugar in the urine, and high blood sugar. Failure to address hyperglycemia results in dehydration and ketoacidosis. Over the long term, hyperglycemia causes heart disease, foot problems, blindness, kidney disease, and nerve damage. For diabetics, frequent blood glucose testing and diet management are critical to preventing hyperglycemia. Regular self-monitoring of blood glucose levels determines the degree of adjustment in insulin and diet. A registered dietician can conduct a nutritional assessment that will reveal nutritional needs critical to preventing and treating chronic complications of diabetes. This assessment, based on personal, cultural, and lifestyle preferences, is the foundation for a diabetic's dietary plan. For meal planning, the diabetic exchange system provides a...
It is quite clear that nutritional intake is associated with common health conditions such as obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), cancer, diabetes (high blood sugar), and cardiovascular disease. People in the United States make daily decisions related to grocery purchases, meal choices, food preparation, and other factors influencing their consumption of food and nutrients, and, thus, likely affecting their health. However, much of the current knowledge and most published works are based on studies or other information that concern the general population. This information is important in influencing dietary patterns, but additional information is needed regarding specific regional and minority populations. Additionally, more detailed information is necessary to determine if there are any differences or similarities between these subpopulations. What follows is a general literature review related to minority groups in the United States.
Gestational diabetes is the onset of high blood sugar (or carbohydrate intolerance) that is generally detected around the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy. Because this condition is caused by the placenta putting out large doses of anti-insulin hormones, as soon as the placenta is removed (during the baby's delivery), the condition disappears in almost all cases. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes have very specific dietary concerns and should work with a qualified nutritionist (registered dietitian) on appropriate meal planning.
People often have to use artificial sweeteners because of a medical condition. For example, sugar substitutes can be great for diabetics, who can't tolerate real sugar because their bodies can't produce the hormone insulin. Insulin delivers the sugar from our blood to our cells, where we utilize it as energy. When your body doesn't have enough insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and doesn't get into the cells. This condition is known as high blood-sugar and can be extremely dangerous for people with diabetes. Because sugar substitutes do not contain any glucose (and therefore do not require insulin), they can be effective sweeteners for people with diabetes.
Health consequences of hyperglycaemia are multiple and most evident in the diabetes mellitus syndrome.28,49,50 Persistently raised blood glucose causes protein glycation throughout the body, leading to cumulative, diffuse damage, emerging as pathology in a number of organ systems. Basal membrane damage is commonly an underlying factor in changes to micro-vessels involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves.51 Intense insulin production in response to diabetic hyper-glycaemia, or to repeated acute glucose loading from large intakes of highly digestible carbohydrate, is thought to contribute to the progression of glucose intolerance, through b-cell toxicity, leading to loss of the capacity of the pancreas to produce insulin.52 Hyperinsulinaemia as a response to elevated blood glucose Post-prandial glycaemia may also lead to a number of acute and sometimes serious disorders, as the body attempts to counter the osmotic effects of high blood sugar levels. The excretion of sugar by the kidneys...
Toxicity is not a problem except in the case of niacin. Nicotinic acid, a form of niacin, is often prescribed by physicians to lower elevated blood cholesterol levels. Unfortunately, it has some undesirable side effects. Starting at doses of 100 milligrams, typical symptoms include flushing, tingling, itching, rashes, hives, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Flushing of the face, neck, and chest lasts for about 20 minutes after a person takes a large dose. More serious side effects of large doses include liver damage and high blood sugar levels.
People with diabetes are at increased risk for serious long-term complications. Hyperglycemia, as measured by fasting plasma glucose concentration or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), causes structural and functional changes in the retina, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. This damage can lead to blindness, numbness, reduced circulation, amputations, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Type 1 diabetes is more likely to lead to kidney failure. About 40 percent of people with type 1 diabetes develop severe kidney disease and kidney failure by the age of fifty. Nevertheless, between 1993 and 1997, more than 100,000 people in the United States were treated for kidney failure caused by type 2 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia state (HHS) are serious diabetic emergencies and the most frequent cause of mortality. Both DKA and HHS result from an insulin deficiency and an increase in counter-regulatory hormones (a.k.a. hyperglycemia). Hyper-glycemia...
Hyperglycemia is a complication of excessive carbohydrate (glucose) provision and must be addressed in reference to the higher percentages of carbohydrate need suggested. Clearly, there is a hyperglycemic effect in the flow phase of burn injury as well as in critically ill patients who may also have a wound. Although short-term hyperglycemia accompanies the stress response to injury, persistent hyperglycemia is a problem that has commonly been associated with poor wound healing and immunity (7). Pediatric burn patients with poor glucose control experienced reduced skin graft take and subsequent mortality. Total caloric intake should be evaluated, as hypercaloric feeding may be associated with hyperglycemia. Further, because carbohydrate is a key substrate in burn wound healing, internal insulin production may be enhanced. Insulin, an anabolic hormone, has positive effects on nitrogen utilization. The use of exogenous insulin has been shown to lead to a decrease in peripheral muscle...
The injured brain does not tolerate excess sugar very well. Several studies of brain-trauma patients have shown that hyperglycemia can actually increase brain injury. In addition, high sugar intake depresses immunity and increases the formation of glycated cell components, which can increase free-radical injury.
Gestational diabetes affects 0.6 percent to 15 percent of pregnant women (35). It implies an increased risk of development of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes (35). Most develop type 2 diabetes, with an incidence of at least 13.8 percent. The incidence of type 1 diabetes is reported to be 0.7 percent to 6.6 percent over 2-11 years. In a study looking at gestational diabetes, the cumulative risk for diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance was 13.8 percent and 42.4 percent after 11 years versus 0.0 and 2.8 percent in women without diabetes (35). Independent, predictive factors for diabetes were prior hyperglycemia four abnormal glucose values on the diagnostic OGTT overt diabetes during pregnancy two-hour blood glucose 11.7 mmol l on the diagnostic OGTT gesta-tional age at diagnosis 24 weeks and prepregnancy body-mass index (BMI) 26.4 kg m2 (35). Race is thought to be a risk factor for gestational diabetes (36). Recurrence rates for gestational diabetes have been reported to...
American recipients than Caucasian recipients), and immunosuppression (39). Transplant recipients with posttransplant diabetes tend to be 0 to 12 years older than those without (39). Non-Caucasian patients had a twofold increased risk of post-transplant diabetes (RR 3.3, 95 percent CI 1.7-7.0) (39). There is an increased incidence of posttransplant diabetes in patients treated with glucocorticoid therapy, cyclosporine, and those treated with high doses of tacrolimus (39, 41). The mean time from transplantation to development of PTDM is 1.2 years (range from one day to 6.2 years), with most cases occurring during the first three months after transplant or after treatment for rejection (41, 42). Significant risk-factor development of PTDM included first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, tacrolimus use, and hyperglycemia in the two weeks immediately after transplantation (42). Patients that developed persistent PTDM had later onset disease (mean 1.9 years) compared to...
The immunocompetent subjects developing esophageal infections will have predisposing conditions that weaken defence mechanisms of the esophageal mucosa. Esophageal disorders that cause slowing of peristalsis and stasis of intraluminal content such as achalasia, systemic sclerosis, myopathies, neuropathies and esophageal strictures predispose to infections of the eso-phageal mucosa, usually candidiasis. Infections in the surrounding organs and structures may also involve the esophagus. Other conditions predisposing to esophageal infections are malnutrition and diabetes mellitus. The latter may derange esophageal peristalsis and emptying of intralumi-nal content, and may impair granulocyte function through hyperglycemia. Finally, antimicrobial drugs can alter the normal oropharyngeal flora leading to overgrowth of Candida organisms.
A large portion of the costs of diabetes is associated with its complications (7). The University Group Diabetes Program, the earliest randomized clinical trial of the treatment of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, failed to show a positive effect of glycemic control on the prevention of the development or progression of microvascular complications (8). However, the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study clearly showed that strict control of blood glucose could positively affect the progression of diabetic complications (9). It has also been shown that elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), an indicator of poor glucose control, is associated with increased mortality in diabetic populations (9). The American Diabetes Association recommends a goal for HbA1c of 7 percent, with the need for intervention when HbA1c is 8 percent (10).
Activity or ability of CPT-1 to transport fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria is believed to be the rate-limiting step of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.89 Malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl CoA), the product of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), allostericaly binds to and inhibits CPT-1 activity,74 thereby inhibiting transport of fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria. The importance of the malonyl CoA-CPT-1 interaction upon rates of fat oxidation has been demonstrated in response to many stimuli.84,89,90 Transgenic mice that lack the ACC enzyme (no production of malonyl CoA) have increased rates of fat oxidation and reduced rates of fat storage1. In addition, the same ACC knockout mice are resistant to weight gain and maintain normal insulin sensitivity in response to a high-fat diet.1 An in vivo human study demonstrated that hyperglycemia hyperinsulinemia decreases long-chain fatty acid oxidation through increasing muscle malonyl-CoA content, but had no effect upon oxidation of...
In clinical trials, subcutaneous injection of GLP-1 before each meal in patients with diabetes resulted in improvement in glycemic control without untoward effects (104). Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist with longer biological action than GLP-1, also is showing promise in clinical trials (105). Endogenous GLP-1 abundance can be augmented by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), the enzyme involved in GLP-1 breakdown. Such a strategy using a novel DPP-4 inhibitor (NVP DPP728) has been reported to improve glycemic control in subjects with diabetes (106). Thus, GLP-1 appears to be an intestinal satiety factor with diverse metabolic effects favorable for control of hyperglycemia. Not surprisingly, there are current
While there's nothing wrong with taking a daily multivitamin, megadoses aren't a good idea because their long-term safety remains in question. Over the years, various supplements have been recommended for an assortment of ailments. B-vitamins, for instance, were used to treat diabetic neuropathy, but their beneficial role was never proven and they're not recommended as a therapeutic option. Although chromium piccolinate was reported to have a good effect on blood-sugar control, it was never conclusively demonstrated. One antioxidant, alphalipoic acid, is a prescription drug in Germany that has been used to treat diabetic neuropathy. Although studies are underway in the United States, results will not be available for years.
The physiological advantage of an emphasis on plant foods may also stem from the influence of these foods on blood sugar control, where there is renewed interest in the role of foods with a lower glycemic index. Whole foods and foods rich in unrefined starch and fiber produce a more blunted postprandial blood sugar response and effectively control hunger than those based on highly refined carbohydrate foods.
South Asian migrants from the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) have higher mortality from CHD than other ethnic groups living in the new host country.84 Reliable population-based CHD mortality data are not available from South Asia, but mortality is probably low in rural areas and high in urban areas.84 Many South Asians are vegetarians, which might suggest that this type of vegetarian diet does not reduce the risk for CHD. However, South Asians differ from other ethnic groups, both in many aspects of lifestyle and also genetically, and a case-control study of risk factors for CHD (specifically acute myocardial infarction) in Bangalore, India, did observe a 45 reduction in risk in vegetarians, which was partly explained by their lower blood glucose concentration and lower waist to hip ratio.85
Table 7.2 Developing nutritional data sets related to health end-points associated with elevated blood glucose A food company that had not kept abreast of nutritional knowledge recently formulated a new 'diabetic muesli bar', replacing all sucrose sources with dextrins, in the belief that 'sugar' replacement would improve blood glucose control. However, such wisdom was obsolete, because sucrose, being half fructose, induces a much lower blood glucose response than dextrins, which are rapidly digested glucose polymers. The new 'diabetic' bar had a greater glycaemic impact than the unmodified version.
The polyphenolics in olive oil inhibit LDL oxidation by scavenging free radicals and chelating free metal ions.149 The polyphenolics also enhance the synthesis of prostacyclin, PGI2, and thus inhibit platelet aggregation. These phenolic compounds are antioxidants that reduce eicosanoid production by leukocytes, so as to modulate inflammation and protect the cell against cancer-forming substances. Olive oil also contains up to 150 ppm of the antioxidant vitamin E, which can also inhibit platelet aggregation. Polyphenolics have also been shown to lower blood glucose levels.151
The b cells of the pancreas first sense, then respond to, elevated blood glucose levels by secreting insulin. The glucose transporter in their cell membranes is GLUT 2 circumstantial evidence suggests that it may be involved in the glucose-sensing mechanism. However, studies in transgenic mice created to express a transforming ras protein in the b cells showed that these animals respond normally to a glucose load, even though their b cells do not express GLUT 2 ( 26). It is thus difficult to consider GLUT 2 part of the sensing apparatus.
The amount of glycogen stored in the liver amounts to approximately 100 g. This quantity may change periodically depending on the amount of glycogen that is broken down for the supply of blood glucose in periods of fasting and the amount of glucose that is supplied to the liver after food intake. Accordingly, liver glycogen reserves increase after meals but diminish in between, especially during the night, when the liver constantly delivers glucose into the bloodstream to maintain a normal blood glucose level (89-91, 135, 158). A constant blood glucose level, within a narrow physiological range, is important because blood glucose is the primary energy source for the nervous system.
Glycaemic effect noun the extent to which a food containing carbohydrate can raise blood sugar levels glycaemic load noun a rating for different types of food based on the amount of carbohydrate that they contain, as well as the extent to which this raises blood sugar levels
Diabetes is a condition that alters the way the body handles carbohydrates. In terms of diet modifications, diabetics can control blood sugar levels by appropriately managing the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in their meals. The amount of carbohydrates, not necessarily the source, is the primary issue. Blood glucose levels after a meal can be related to the process of food preparation, the amount of food eaten, fat intake, sugar absorption, and the combination of foods in the meal or snack.
. . . if chromium supplements help with blood sugar levels As a nutrient, chromium helps your body use blood sugar properly and helps break down proteins and fats. There isn't enough evidence to show that taking chromium supplements improves the way your body uses blood sugar. It may help with blood glucose control for those with diabetes.
. . . if the glycemic index is useful for a weight-loss diet Probably not. The glycemic index (GI) measures how individual foods affect blood sugar levels. But it's not easily applied to real-world eating. And there's insufficient research at this time showing how the glycemic index of a food in a meal affects weight loss or gain. For more about GI, refer to chapter 5. . . . if getting more sleep helps with weight loss Maybe. Scientists are investigating if sleep affects hormones that regulate hunger, feeling full, or metabolic rate. Research also is looking at the links between sleep and heart disease, diabetes, and immunity. Snooze enough, and stay tuned
Hormones are chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream by various organs, such as the liver, to travel to a target organ and influence what it does. Hormones regulate certain body activities so that a constant internal environment (called homeostasis) is maintained. For example, the hormone insulin is released from the pancreas when your blood sugar level goes up after you eat lunch. Insulin stimulates the transport of sugar from the blood into your cells, resulting in lower, more normal blood sugar levels. Amino acids are components of insulin as well as other hormones. In addition, amino acids can be burned to supply energy (4 kcalories per gram) if it is absolutely needed. Of course, burning amino acids for energy takes them away from their vital functions. Some amino acids can also be converted to glucose when necessary to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Eating at regular intervals keeps your blood sugar levels stable, energy is high, and it's easier to stick to a lower-calorie diet. And, it's a great way to shrink your stomach. Eating 1-3 large meals a day stretches out your stomach, which means the same amount of food soon won't be as satisfying - and then you eat more. Scale won't budge, and may even start to creep up.
For a number of years, particularly since the 1980s, when rates of overweight and obesity in the United States began to climb rapidly, experts have been concerned by the effects of different foods on appetite and blood sugar regulation. Scientists became interested in how different foods affect blood sugar, insulin release, and, in turn, energy usage and fat storage. In exploring the impact of foods on blood sugar, scientists constructed the glycemic index (GI), a scale for measuring and classifying foods based on how quickly they raise blood sugar. The best foods, according to these scientists, are foods that rank low on the index foods that are digested slowly, cause a gradual rise in blood sugar, and lead to a moderate insulin response. The least favorable foods in terms of glucose response are those that elevate blood sugar levels quickly and lead to a rapid insulin response that results in a burst of energy that drops off rapidly.
What makes this interesting is that some perfectly healthful foods, such as carrots, potatoes, and white bread, have more simple carbs than others, such as apples, lentils, peanuts, and whole wheat bread. The Glycemic Index, developed at the University of Toronto in 1981, gives you a handle on this by ranking foods according to how quickly they affect blood sugar levels when compared to glucose (the form of sugar your body uses as energy), the glycemic indicator par excellence.
Ideally, during extensive exercise that lasts for more than 60 minutes, you should try to balance your water and energy output with enough fluid to match your sweat losses and enough carbohydrate to provide energy and maintain normal blood sugar level. You can significantly increase your stamina by consuming about 100 to 250 calories (25 to 60 g) of carbohydrate per hour while performing endurance exercise, after the first During a moderate to hard endurance workout, carbohydrate supplies about 50 percent of the energy. As you deplete carbohydrate from muscle glycogen stores, you increasingly rely on blood sugar for energy. By consuming carbohydrate during exercise, such as the sugar in sports drinks, your muscles have an added source of fuel. Sports drinks also help maintain normal blood sugar levels. Because much of performance depends on mental stamina, you should maintain a normal blood sugar level to keep your brain fed and help you think clearly, concentrate well, and remain...
Hormonal changes during pregnancy may trigger a condition called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. The condition can be diagnosed by a screening test between the twenty-fourth and twenty-eighth week of pregnancy. Changes in diet and exercise are often sufficient to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. For most women, the condition goes away after the birth of the baby. Women who have gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.
If you're having trouble losing fat, feeling fatigued, slack off during workouts, and feel a general physical malaise, you could be sending your blood sugar levels on a daily roller coaster ride. Chapter 12 shows you why you should control your blood sugar, and how to do it effectively.
In fact, it's one of the simplest disorders to diagnose. A simple finger prick yields a couple of drops of blood that are analyzed for the presence of sugar. In nonpregnant adults, the criteria for diagnosis is as follows a blood-sugar level of greater than 200 mg dl, a fasting blood-sugar level of greater than 126 mg dl, or a two-hour blood-sugar level of greater than 200 mg dl during an oral glucose tolerance test. All pregnant women should be tested for GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The testing, called an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), is painless and reliable. A blood-sugar level is obtained, and then the patient drinks a glass of sugary liquid. One hour later, a second blood-sugar reading is obtained. If a mom-to-be has a fasting blood sugar of greater than 126 mg dl, or a random blood sugar of greater than 200 mg dl, she meets the criteria for diabetes.
Glucose is the body's principal fuel . It is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles and liver. The blood glucose level (or blood sugar level, or glycaemia) is simply the level of glucose in the bloodstream. On an empty stomach, this is normally one gram per litre of blood. When carbohydrates (bread, honey, starchy foods, cereals, sweets, etc.) are ingested on an empty stomach, the effect on the blood sugar level is found to be as follows So, thirdly, the blood sugar level reverts to normal (see graph on the following page).
When engaging in extended periods of exercise, your goals are to maintain proper hydration and normal blood sugar level. You need to plan your strategies for fueling for the upcoming event and for refueling as soon as possible after the first event to prepare for the next session. Knowing your calorie and fluid goals can guide your calorie intake and menu planning. Having tried-and-true sports foods readily available in your gym bag or a cooler can make this an easier task.
So, should you chug a glucose-laced sports drink to boost your brain power Maybe, but the amount you need to drink is like playing craps. Your optimum dose of glucose at any one time depends on several factors current blood sugar level, physical and mental stress, dietary habits, metabolism, for starters.
A common mistake exercisers make is to set expectations too high or be overwhelmed at the time its g
When you establish a goal such as lowering your cholesterol by 20 points, stabilizing your blood sugar level, or lowering your blood pressure, you have something besides clothing size to measure your progress - and you'll feel better about your body at a deeper level. There's nothing more empowering than feeling healthy and fit.
. . . about competing on an empty stomach You're better off eating. Food consumed within four hours of physical activity is used as fuel for working muscles. For morning events, eating is especially important for endurance. It replenishes liver glycogen and helps maintain your blood sugar level. Don't skip breakfast, just eat something light
This component is found naturally in the body, and is quickly converted to dehydrolipoic acid. In this form it is a very powerful and versatile antioxidant and iron chelator, and has been shown to increase mitochondrial energy production. In my neurosurgical experience I have found it to be very protective of the injured brain. In large doses, 600 mg or more, it can lower blood sugar. I suggest 200 mg a day in two divided doses.
Can help replace water and electrolytes and provide some carbohydrates for energy. During an endurance event or workout, you increasingly rely on blood sugar for energy as your muscle glycogen stores diminish. Carbohydrates taken during exercise can help you maintain a normal blood-sugar level and enhance (as well as lengthen) performance. Athletes often consume 1 2 to 1 cup of sports fluids every 15 to 20 minutes during exercise.
The Maillard Amadori reactions of sugars with amino acids and proteins lead to a cascade of reactions. Products of these reactions are referred to as advanced glycation end products. These reaction end products have been observed in collagen-rich tissues in vivo and in vitro, and they are associated with stiffening of artery walls, lung tissue, and joints and with other aging symptoms. Considerable evidence links hyperglycemia with increased formation of these end products these products accumulate in the blood vessel wall proteins and may contribute to vascular complications of diabetes. Glycation of lens proteins increases somewhat with aging, but it is accelerated in diabetes. Incubation of lens proteins with glucose or glucose 6-phosphate in vitro results in changes in the lens proteins that mimic most of those observed with age- and cataract-related changes in the lens. Drug-induced inhibition of the reactions leading to these end products in diabetic animals prevented various...
The addition of electrolytes, in small quantities as lost by the whole body sweat, will influence neither gastric emptying nor absorption (153,154). The CHO fraction will contribute to the maintenance of a normal blood glucose level and will lead to a sparing of the endogenous CHO reserves (49, 75,
Biloba, garlic, and saw palmetto add to the effects of agents that may also affect blood pressure, such as eucalyptol, eucalyptus oil, flaxseed flaxseed oil, garlic, ginger, and ginkgo, among others and enhance lower blood sugar properties of aloe vera, American ginseng, bilberry, bitter melon, maitake mushroom, marshmallow, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, rosemary, shark cartilage, and Siberian ginseng, among others.38 Omega-3 fatty acids can increase LDL cholesterol concentrations and may work against the potential LDL-lowering properties of agents like barley, garlic, guggul, psyllium, soy, or sweet almond.38
For people with diabetes, glycemic index can be useful as one tool to manage blood sugar levels, along with blood glucose monitoring and monitoring total grams of carbohydrate. That should be guided by a registered dietitian or other health professional. Refer to Diabetes A Growing Health Concern in chapter 22.
Diabetes is a disease in which there is insufficient or ineffective insulin, a hormone that helps regulate the blood sugar level. When the blood sugar rises, such as after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin. The insulin facilitates the entry of glucose into body cells, to be used for energy. If there is no insulin or if the insulin is not working, sugar cannot enter the cells. Thus, high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia) result, and sugar spills into the urine.
Nineteen long-term (mean of 46 years) vegetarian and 12 non-vegetarian, healthy, physically active elderly women (mean age of 71 years) were compared on a variety of hematological, anthropometric, and metabolic factors.30 Although the vegetarian subjects had significantly lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels, no differences between groups were found for submaximal and maximal cardiorespiratory and electrocardio-graphic parameters measured during graded treadmill testing. The authors
Just as carbohydrate is referred to as simple or complex and sugars or starches, it can also be categorized as quick or slow. The quick or slow refers to a complex system called the glycemic index (GI). The glycemic index is theoretically based on how 50 grams (200 calories) of carbohydrate (not counting fiber) in a food will affect blood sugar levels. For example, white bread is a carbohydrate high on the glycemic index and supposedly causes a rapid spike in blood sugar, while beans are considered low on the glycemic index and cause a more gradual increase in blood sugar levels. Table 6.1 provides the glycemic index and glycemic load (glycemic response to a standard serving of food) of popular sports foods. That is, a person might eat 200 calories of carbohydrate from pasta in a sitting,
Congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions are associated with maternal hyperglycemia in the first 12 weeks of gestation. The central nervous system, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, urinary tract, skeleton, and placenta are all vulnerable to adverse effects (Table 10.1) 21-23 . The frequency and severity of complications decrease if maternal normoglycemia is maintained throughout pregnancy. Macrosomia is the most common complication associated with diabetes and pregnancy, estimated at 20-45 , depending on the population 24, 25 . The definition of macrosomia varies and ranges from 4,000 to 4,500 g 26 . Macrosomia is thought to occur if maternal glycemic levels are elevated in the third trimester. Pedersen hypothesized that maternal hyperglycemia leads to fetal hyperglycemia, which stimulates the fetal pancreas to produce excessive insulin and results in excess growth 27 . Macrosomic infants have disproportional large fetal trunks in relation to their head size,...
Folk beliefs and remedies have also been passed down through generations, and they can still be observed today. The majority of African-American beliefs surrounding food concern the medicinal uses of various foods. For example, yellow root tea is believed to cure illness and lower blood sugar. The bitter yellow root contains the antihistamine berberine and may cause mild low blood pressure. One of the most popular folk beliefs is that excess blood will travel to the head when one eats large amounts of pork, thereby causing hypertension. However, it is not the fresh pork that should be blamed for this rise in blood pressure, but the salt-cured pork products that are commonly eaten. Today, folk beliefs and remedies are most often held in high regard and practiced by the elder and more traditional members of the population.
Carbohydrates have been shown to impact wound healing in a variety of ways. Historically, carbohydrates have been viewed as an energy source for patients who are recovering from wounds. Differences have been noted in regards to carbohydrate requirements of patients who suffer from acute traumatic wounds (i.e., burns), acute iatrogenic wounds (i.e., incisions), and chronic wounds (i.e., diabetic wounds) (2). Under normal circumstances, the body increases glucose production via the liver and kidneys. This increase in gluconeogenesis is stimulated by a variety of hormones, including glucagons, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Skin cells are glucose dependent for energy in cutaneous wound healing (3). Although adequate glucose levels are vital for wound healing, excessively high levels (hyperglycemia) have a negative impact on this process.
Factors, diabetes requires lifestyle changes and medication adherence in order to control blood glucose levels. Due to the damage caused by hyperglycemia, diabetic patients also experience a number of complications related to the disease. With good self-management practices, however, individuals with diabetes can live a long and productive life. see also Carbohydrates Exchange System Glycemic Index Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Insulin. Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (1998). Toxicity of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 14 S45-S50.
Skipping breakfast is a common practice among people who exercise early in the morning. If you roll out of bed and eat nothing before you jump into the swimming pool, participate in a stationary cycling class, or go for a run, you may be running on fumes. You will probably perform better if you eat something before you exercise. During the night, you can deplete your liver glycogen, the source of carbohydrate that maintains normal blood sugar levels. When you start a workout with low blood sugar, you fatigue earlier than you would have if you had eaten something.
Although, freshly squeezed or juiced fruit and vegetables are a top way to boost your intake of essential vitamins, minerals, enzymes and micro-nutrients. I've found that too much juice without the added fiber can cause jumps in your blood sugar levels. This can affect some people just like eating processed sugar.
A factor such as age, gender, or food choices in a study that differs among the people being studied. An independent variable is the one being studied a dependent variable, perhaps lower blood sugar level or LDL cholesterol level, happens as a result of the treatment.
At each prenatal visit, eating disorders screening may be conducted (see Table 9.4) along with measurement and documentation of parameters or outcomes related to nutrition interventions and diagnoses. Body weight and rate of weight gain should be tracked and evaluated. Adjustments in energy intake should be based on appropriateness of weight changes. Eating behaviors and dietary intake should be examined at each prenatal visit to assess the adequacy of dietary composition and patterns of intake. Changes in purging and nonpurging behaviors should be noted and addressed. Fingersticks to check hematocrit and glucose may be useful in the monitoring of iron status and hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. In women with established eating disorders, urinalysis may detect starvation or dehydration as noted by urinary ketones, elevated specific gravity, and alkaline urine. Vital signs will show any change in general health status. Glucose tolerance testing should be conducted in the 24th to 28th...
It is perhaps apparent by now that increased lipid availability can impair glucose utilization through many different mechanisms and result in the hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetes. Consequently, there are as many different approaches that can be used to design effective treatment strategies for the disease on the basis of the competition of nutrients as substrates for metabolic reactions. These strategies include limiting the availability of lipids as metabolic fuels inhibition of fatty-acid uptake and oxidation inhibition of gluconeogenesis and uncoupling the energy obtained during fatty-acid oxidation with concomitant manipulation of the fatty-acid Hyperglycemia FIGURE 10.2 Summary of pathways of the glucose-fatty-acid cycle. Increased fatty-acid utilization generates intermediate substrates that impair glucose utilization while enhancing de novo glucose synthesis and storage, resulting in blood-glucose overload or hyperglycemia. As pointed out earlier, fatty-acid oxidation affects...
Early detection of diabetes is important. The longer the body is exposed to high blood sugar levels, the greater the damage to the nervous and circulatory systems and to the blood vessels in the eyes, kidneys, heart, and feet. The early years of diabetes offer an opportunity. If you have diabetes, that's when you can do the most to prevent or reduce its long-term consequences and so live a longer life with fewer health problems. How would you know if you have it These are common symptoms frequent urination, unusual thirst, extreme hunger, unusual weight loss, extreme fatigue, and irritability. In addition, those with type 2 diabetes also may experience frequent infections cuts and bruises that heal slowly blurred vision numb or tingling hands or feet or recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no outward signs associated with high blood sugar levels. Keeping tabs on your blood sugar level is the way to really know. There's another blood glucose...
This B-vitamin is also involved in energy-producing reactions in the cells that convert food to energy. In addition, niacin helps maintain healthy skin, nerves, and your digestive system. In some instances, you can use large doses of niacin as a cholesterol-lowering medication. However, you should only do this under the supervision of your doctor. Megadoses can cause hot flashes, itching, ulcers, high blood sugar, and liver damage.
Although the subjects studied were often normal non-diabetic individuals, the findings are likely to apply to individuals with diabetes. Hence, chocolate products should not be blamed for high blood sugar levels, nor should they be recommended for the treatment of clinical hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in insulin-dependent diabetes. Chocolate products are usually very energy-dense foods and should therefore play a small but nonetheless pleasurable and guilt-free role (e.g. one daily 'indulgence') in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes. Active individuals with type 1 diabetes can afford to include more generous amounts of chocolate as long as blood glucose and lipid control remain within desirable levels.
The goal for diabetes management is this controlling your blood sugar levels so they stay as near to normal as possible. Like a teeter-totter, blood sugar levels go up (hyperglycemia) and down (hypoglycemia) that's part of dealing with diabetes. Those swings can be dangerous when diet, physical activity, and medication such as insulin aren't balanced properly. Too much food or too little insulin Your blood sugar level can soar, affecting your health now and very seriously down the road. sugar drops, and your body can't use blood glucose to produce enough energy. To control the ups and the downs, carefully manage what you eat, how much, and when no matter what type of diabetes you have. Eating raises your blood sugar level physical activity and medication lower it. For example, in case of low blood sugar, consume a small amount of a quick-acting carbohydrate, such as V2 cup juice, followed by a small amount of protein food, perhaps a cheese cube on a cracker. Your doctor likely will...
Growth hormone is secreted by the anterior pituitary. Its secretion is enhanced by hypoglycemia. It has direct and indirect effects on decreasing glucose uptake in specific tissues such as muscle. Part of this effect may be due to the liberation of fatty acids from adipose tissue, which then inhibit glucose metabolism. If growth hormone is chronically administered, it causes persistent hyperglycemia, which stimulates the insulin secretion. The b cells, however, finally become exhausted, and diabetes ensues.
In molecular and animal studies, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia132,133 have been shown to be independent risk factors of colorectal carcinogenesis. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors are expressed by both normal colorectal epithelial cells and colon cancer tissue.134,135 Therefore, both premalignant and cancerous stages can be affected by IGF-1. In a recent review, Chang and colleagues136 summarize the epidemiologic literature with respect to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia as risk factors for colorectal cancer. According to the authors, epidemiologic findings to date indicate a slightly increased risk of colorectal cancer for patients with diabetes however, there are some inconsistencies across the study results. Possible explanations for these inconsistencies might include inadequate information about patients' diabetic disease and treatment status. A greater attention toward medical history, staging and treatment for hyperinsuline-mia and hyperglycemia might be helpful to further...
Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by inadequate secretion of, or peripheral resistance to, insulin. It is characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Diabetes, when poorly controlled, causes widespread damage to blood vessels and nerves, which can result in blindness, kidney failure, or heart attack.
Insulin release and glucose absorption depend on a number of factors, including the glycemic index of food and the co-ingestion of fat and protein. Consumption of high-glycemic foods causes hyperglycemia which results in the release of too much insulin. On the other hand, low-glycemic foods or the ingestion of fat and protein in a meal provide steady glucose absorption and release of insulin. Exercise lowers blood glucose levels and increases the amount of insulin in the bloodstream, along with improving the body's use of insulin. A balance must exist between the sugar used for energy, the sugar available from food, and the insulin used in lowering blood sugar. Consequently, changes may have to be made to insulin, or food intake, or both, prior to and after exercise. see also Diabetes Mellitus Glycemic Index Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia. hyperglycemia high level of sugar in the blood
Excessive quantities of carbohydrates can also have a negative impact in the hospital setting. Even moderate degrees of hyperglycemia may result in an increased incidence of infection and adverse outcomes (42). Persistent hyperglycemia has been associated with poor wound healing and immunity (7). Excessive amounts of glucose have been positively correlated with increased carbon dioxide production and hepatic steatosis in traumatized and septic patients (12,13). Diabetic subjects who suffer from wounds need to be especially careful in regard to the regulation of glucose intake and the maintenance of euglycemia (17).
The objectives of diet management in diabetic patients are to reduce hyperglycemia, prevent hypoglycemic episodes, and reduce the risk of complications. For people with diabetes, the glycemic index is a useful tool in planning meals to achieve and maintain glycemic control. Foods with a low glycemic index release sugar gradually into the bloodstream, producing minimal fluctuations in blood glucose. High GI foods, however, are absorbed quickly into the bloodstream causing an escalation in blood glucose levels and increasing the possibility of hyperglycemia. The body compensates for the rise in blood sugar levels with an accompanying increase in insulin, which within a few hours can cause hypoglycemia. As a result, awareness of the glycemic indices of food assists in preventing large variances in blood glucose levels. hyperglycemia high level of sugar in the blood
Many children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis and for long periods of time thereafter. Consequently, the condition is defined by measures of blood glucose that lie above the normal range. With increasing recognition of the long-term risks of mild elevations of blood-glucose concentrations in adults, the definition of diabetes has changed during the past generation. The diagnosis is established if fasting blood-glucose concentrations exceed 125 mg and if postprandial or postdextrose challenge glucose concentrations exceed 200 mg . Isolated fasting hyperglycemia must be confirmed on a subsequent day, while postprandial or postchallenge hyperglycemia must be accompanied by diabetic symptoms, such as polyuria or polydipsia. The transient hyperglycemia caused by acute stress, illness, pancreatitis, or certain medications (e.g., glucocorticoids, thi-azides) must be excluded. Recent studies and clinical experience, however, have clouded the...
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin action, insulin production, or both. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps the body use and store glucose produced during the digestion of food. Characterized by hyperglycemia, symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, increased thirst, dehydration, weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue, and, occasionally, coma. Uncontrolled hyper-glycemia over time damages the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, kidneys, and heart, causing organ dysfunction and failure. A number of risk factors are attributed to the incidence of diabetes, including family history, age, ethnicity, and social group characteristics, as well as behavioral, lifestyle, psychological, and clinical factors. hyperglycemia high level of sugar in the blood
Chromium deficiency can result in glucose intolerance, which is an inability to reduce blood glucose levels properly after a meal and throughout the day. Conversely, little is known about the toxic effects of chromium in larger doses. Some scientists have reported that supplements of as much as 800 micrograms daily are safe, while others question as to whether excessive chromium consumed chronically would build up in body tissues such as bone, and have milder long-term effects. Vanadium appears to be able to affect glucose metabolism in a manner similar to insulin. Promising research with diabetic animals has suggested that vanadium therapy may control high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). However, the application to hyperglycemia in humans is still questionable and supplementation cannot be recommended at this time.
A phenomenon of fat redistribution, or lipodystrophy, is often seen in HIV-infected individuals on ARV therapy, specifically PI, NRTI, or both 79, 80 . This usually occurs as a result of long-term ARV therapy. The syndrome is characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the face, arms, and legs and oftentimes deposition of excess fat in the neck, upper back, and the trunk 79 . Additionally, metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hyperglycemia are commonly seen.
For many people, the fine regulation of the level of blood glucose becomes impaired. This results in chronic high blood glucose concentrations medically known as hyperglycemia. The impairment may be due to a decreased ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, which is the case in type 1 diabetes. The lack of insulin allows glucose levels to remain elevated even in a fasting state. Furthermore, after a meal blood glucose levels can climb exceptionally high (see Figure 4.4). For most people diagnosed with diabetes, blood glucose regulation is impaired despite their ability to produce insulin. In fact, many of these individuals produce more insulin than what seems normal, at least initially. This type of diabetes is referred to as type 2 diabetes.
Retinopathy affects more than 300,000 people in the U.S. (90). It is the leading cause of blindness in people age 20 to 64 years old (13). It accounts for 12 percent of all new cases of blindness, with 12,000 to 24,000 new cases each year in the U.S. (13). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is 46 percent higher in non-Hispanic blacks and 84 percent higher in Mexican Americans compared to non-Hispanic Caucasians (93). There is evidence to suggest that retinopathy begins to develop at least seven years before type 2 diabetes is clinically diagnosed (94, 95). The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy examined the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy (91). The pathogenesis of retinopathy is thought to begin with hyperglycemia, which leads to increased levels of protein kinase C and aldose reductase activities, nonenzymatic glycosylation, vasoactive substances, growth factors, and free radicals (90, 96). These changes cause functional changes,
Lowers LDL cholesterol and raises HDLs, thereby reducing risk of heart attack.13 Side effects (flushing) can be minimized by raising the dose gradually and taking the niacin with meals. Should betaken only under medical supervision at doses 1 g day because of rare but potentially serious side effects, including liver inflammation and hyperglycemia
Diabetes mellitus represents a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The pathogenic processes involved in the development of diabetes range from autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic P cells with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action (164). There are two main etiopathogenetic categories of diabetes (1) type 1 diabetes, which is caused by deficiency of insulin secretion and rises independently of obesity or the metabolic syndrome (will be covered in Sect. 3), and (2) type 2 diabetes, which is caused by a combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate compensatory insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is the most frequent form of diabetes, accounting for 90 of the disease prevalence, with an estimated 150 million affected people worldwide (165,166). Overall, type 2 diabetes is...
Blood-sugar control on a day-to-day basis is evaluated by using a glucose monitor. However, it is also recommended that a Hemoglobin A1C (A1C) test be performed at least twice a year in patients who are meeting their blood-sugar goals and every three months in individuals whose blood-sugar levels are not well controlled. The A1C is a simple blood test which shows the average blood glucose level over a three-month period. The following table provides guidelines for blood sugar and A1C goals.
Further lowers nutrient absorption from foods. The liver is particularly vulnerable to alcohol - more than three drinks a day causes inflammation and accumulation of fat in the liver. This impairs liver function, reducing the ability to detoxify chemicals and drugs. Because the liver is important for blood sugar control, alcohol-induced liver damage can produce hypoglycemia, leading to fatigue, irritability, and concentration difficulties. Alcohol increases urinary losses of many minerals, including zinc, calcium, and magne-sium.5 Because of these effects, a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat milk products should be carefully chosen.
Supplements of L-cystine (formed by joining two cysteine molecules) should be avoided because they provide none of the antioxidant effects of cysteine and may increase risk of kidney stones. High doses of cysteine may be converted to cystine and precipitate formation of kidney and bladder stones. Ample vitamin C intake helps prevent conversion of cysteine to cystine and reduces the risk of this side effect. Large doses of supplemental cys-teine may interfere with the action of insulin and thereby worsen blood-sugar control in diabetes diabetics should consult their physician before taking large doses of cysteine. There are no reports of toxicity from gluta-thione supplements.
As mentioned, the study found the insulin levels of the high GI meal were much higher than the other meals. When insulin rushes in to lower blood sugar after a high GI meal, the effect can be low blood sugar shortly after, thus the body senses the low blood sugar sending out the hunger signal. Eating low to moderate GI carbs throughout the day keeps steadier blood sugar levels and thus the body senses that adequate food and carbohydrates are coming in. The feedback pathways controlling hunger and appetite (no they are not the same thing) is incredibly complex and beyond the scope of this chapter. Suffice it to say, blood sugar levels and blood sugar levels effects on insulin is one key feedback mechanism the body uses to sense incoming nutrients diverting those nutrients where needed.
Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Untreated, the disease produces serious complications including blindness, renal failure, nerve damage and coronary heart disease. Thus one of the main goals in the management of diabetes is to maintain before-meal and after-meal blood glucose levels as close as possible to normal. Other goals include normalising blood lipid levels, blood pressure and weight status. These objectives apply to both types of diabetes, type 1 (insulin-dependent, juvenile onset diabetes) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent, adult onset diabetes). Historical changes in diets for people with diabetes have been so marked that the reader can be forgiven for being confused. In the past, the prescribed diets were low in carbohydrate (i.e. starch and sugars) because dietary carbohydrate was considered the main factor responsible for high blood glucose levels (1). This had the unintended consequence of increasing...
Starchy foods are rapidly digested and absorbed, giving high blood glucose responses and correspondingly high GI scores. The foods with a high GI ( 70 on a scale where glucose has a value of 100) include white and wholemeal bread, potatoes, most rices, and the majority of breakfast cereals (12). The starch in these foods has been fully gelatinised during processing and is therefore quickly digested and absorbed in the small intestine to glucose.
Many people think eating lots of sugar causes diabetes. Wrong. Being overweight and underfit are the bigger culprits. In a study of 3,200 people (average age in the 50s) who were overweight and had elevated blood glucose, both when fasting and after eating meals (a risk factor for diabetes), some of the subjects were given medicine (metformin) to lower their blood glucose. Others were instructed to exercise at least 150 minutes per week (five times a week for 30 minutes) and to lose weight (about 7 percent of their body weight, or about 11 pounds for a 160-pound person). And some were told to make no changes (these people made up the control group).
The pancreas makes pancreatic juice consisting of enzymes (amylases, lipases, and proteases) and bicarbonate, which helps neutralize acidic secretions produced during digestion. The pancreas delivers the pancreatic juice to the small intestine, in response to a signal of food in the intestine and the release of the hormone secretin. The pancreas also has another function, the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon, which helps maintain a steady state of blood sugar in the body (insulin decreases blood glucose concentration, while glucagon increases it).
It is a storage form of glucose in human muscle and liver, roughly comparable to the storage of glucose in plant starches such as potato, rice, grains and banana. Glycogen is synthesized or broken down by different enzymes within the cytoplasm. When synthesized, glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-1-phosphate. Glucose-1-phosphate is converted to uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucose, which is built into glycogen by the action of the enzyme glycogen synthetase. When the amount of glucose is insufficient, glycogen is broken down by action of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. Glycogen is mainly synthesized in periods when the amount of glucose present in cells exceeds the amount required for energy production. Glycogen metabolism in the liver regulates the blood glucose level. After meals, glucose and fructose are taken up by the liver, leading to liver glycogen storage. During the night or during fasting, liver glycogen will be broken down to maintain a...
Fiber, especially soluble fiber, lowers elevated blood sugar levels. Fruits, vegetables, and some seeds, such as pectins, gums, and mucilages are good sources of soluble fiber. Flaxseed has one of the highest levels of both soluble and insoluble fiber known for any food. It also contains a substance called lignan, which inhibits breast and prostate cancer. One test of non-diabetics demonstrated that taking fifty grams of water plus flaxseed mucilage reduced by 27 percent normally elevated blood sugar levels following a high-glucose meal.422 Fenugreek seed, which contains about 50 percent fiber, is another good source of soluble fiber. Similar tests in diabetic patients have found a significant reduction in blood glucose levels.423 Another advantage of increasing fiber intake to control diabetes is that it significantly reduces cell glycation. Remember, this process is responsible for much diabetes-related damage. In addition, a high-fiber diet removes dietary toxins, improves bowel...
Monitoring your blood sugar is critical. Without constant monitoring, optimal control cannot be achieved. four health care provider will tell you how often to test your blood. For those with Type 1 diabetes, it's usually recommended that blood sugar be tested at least 3 times per day. If the blood glucose is 250 mg dl or higher, urine testing for ketones should be done. For Type 2 diabetes, the choice for glucose testing will be up to you and your doctor. However, blood glucose monitoring is an empowering tool. Using it, a diabetic can learn the effects of foods and exercise on his or her blood-sugar levels. This can help to adjust the diet accordingly and ultimately achieve optimal blood-sugar numbers.
Inconsistencies in your diet can set you up for cravings. For example, if you skimp on breakfast and lunch, with no snacks, you're looking at a pretty ravenous appetite come midafternoon. Then there's dinner - you could wolf down 1,000 or more calories before you know it. And then you'll know it. Balance your meals and snacks throughout the day to control blood sugar levels and keep your energy up.
There are no known or reported contraindications to glucosamine supplementation. Concerns have been expressed for the potential to increase insulin resistance if glucosamine is given intravenously, as it has been shown to do so in both normal and experimentally diabetic animals. However, this effect is not seen in oral preparations. Some researchers, however, do suggest that it is contraindicated in diabetes with concerns about its effect on insulin secretion.4347 Individuals who are diabetic or overweight should err on the side of caution and carefully monitor blood sugar levels if supplements are taken. Because there are no data, children and pregnant or nursing women should avoid consumption.6
Glutamine is broken down to produce energy in many tissues in the body. It is especially important as an energy source for the cells lining the digestive tract and the white blood cells. Glutamine can be taken up by the liver and converted to glucose to maintain blood sugar levels.2
In general, your carbohydrate choices should be based on the glycemic index, which rates foods on a scale of 1 to 100 based on how quickly they affect blood sugar levels. The index is designed so that the most desirable foods are rated below fifty. Also, the more refined a food is, the higher it will be on the glycemic index. For example, foods that release their sugar slowly, such as kidney beans, are rated at 27, while highly refined foods, such as pasta, are rated in the low nineties. While the index is not perfect, it is a good guide. As you begin to notice the effects of different foods, you will be able to determine which ones to avoid.
The more caffeine consumed during the day, the higher the risk of insomnia. Consumption of coffee, tea, or cola drinks should be avoided within 6 hours of bedtime and minimized during the day. Some individuals are sensitive to small amounts of natural stimulants found in aged cheeses, bacon, ham, sausages, sauerkraut, eggplant, spinach, and tomatoes, and these foods may contribute to insomnia if eaten in the evening. Low nighttime blood-sugar levels can cause frequent or early awakening and may be a sign of reactive hy-poglycemia (see pp. 185.)2
The brain and central nervous system are both affected by caffeine and amphetamines, which act to delay fatigue by increasing mental and physical activity. This forces the body to use emergency reserves that should be replenished by rest. Physiologically, caffeine triggers a flow of stimulating chemicals from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream, causing blood sugar levels to rise. This causes blood vessels to constrict and can raise the blood pressure as much as 10 percent. The pulse rate slows down slightly.
A lot of athletes trying to lose a few pounds ask if they should skip breakfast and do their morning workout on an overnight fast. After sleeping for seven, eight, or nine hours, blood sugar levels are very low and fatty acids would be oxidized at low intensities. However, in practice, research shows that individuals who eat some carbohydrates before exercise are able to exercise harder and longer than those who skip a morning meal. So in essence, they burn more calories and wind up with a larger caloric deficit than those who skipped a meal, making eating before exercise the smarter option for overall body fat mobilization.
A 30-year-old woman came to see me recently, two months after she had broken up with her boyfriend. She was depressed. She'd gained weight. She was exhausted. She had trouble keeping up with her work. She had been in psychotherapy but it wasn't helping. I asked her what she was eating and it turned out that there were a number of dietary patterns that were contributing to her emotional state. After I took a careful history of her dietary habits, I discovered that she wasn't so much overeating as having coffee and sweets at times of the day when she was starting to feel tired. She not only gained weight, but the coffee and sweets induced a hypoglycemic cycle, so her blood sugar levels were irregular--which was already making her feel anxious. It was as though at a certain time of the day she was going into a withdrawal phase and the caffeine and sugar would help bring her back up. So the first part of her problem was this hypoglycemic cycle. The other thing she was suffering from was...
If you're vegetarian or can't sit down 4-6 times a day with a solid meal, invest in protein shake mixes. They are very effective in making sure you get your protein in EVERY SINGLE MEAL. That's very important, too. You'll control your blood sugar level (which leads to overeating), feel more satisfied, and keep your energy level high but stable.
The chart makes evident the sugar imbalances that beer can cause. Alcoholics, in general, have a disrupted sugar metabolism, but they can find relief eating fruit as a replacement for alcohol. Regular fruit meals can keep the blood sugar levels balanced assorted greens and plant fats can provide the B vitamins and trace minerals which are usually deficient in the alcohol consumer.
Hypoglycemia is a phenomenon that can be triggered by allergy, infection, exhaustion, or huge amounts of sugar that encourage the growth of yeast in the intestinal tract, which then, in turn, gives rise to some allergic effects and a variety of other subtle effects. I see hypoglycemia as a symptom of a larger problem, rather than as a disease. Most of the time there are other important causes to account for the roller-coastering of the blood-sugar levels. The most common one is probably candida, yeast. The next most likely cause is food allergy. Often, a person is not only gorging on sugar, but is allergic to sugar, is not only gorging on chocolate, but is allergic to chocolate. So you get a curious combination of candida, yeast mold, fungus allergy, and allergy to foods. You usually have to control these several elements, as well as to get adequate nutritional support, in order to quiet these symptoms down.
A number of studies have shown that legumes, such as beans and lentils, lower blood cholesterol levels, improve blood sugar control, lower triglyceride levels, and lower the risk of heart disease.74-76 While beans are good sources of polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, potassium, copper, and soluble fiber, they also contain a variety of important phytochemicals such as flavonoids, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytates, and phytosterols that have cardio-protective and cancer-preventive properties.3,77,78 The anthocyanin pigments isolated from the bean seed coat of Phaseolus vulgarus, the common bean, exhibit strong antioxidative activity.79 These pigments may provide protection against oxidative damage of cell membrane lipids and cell contents.
Whereas depleted muscle glycogen causes athletes to hit the wall, depleted liver glycogen causes them to bonk, or crash. Liver glycogen feeds into the bloodstream to maintain a normal blood sugar level essential for brain food. Despite adequate muscle glycogen, an athlete may feel uncoordinated, light-headed, unable to concentrate, and weakened because the liver is releasing inadequate sugar into the bloodstream.
Damage to the liver can lead to problems with blood sugar levels. When alcohol is present in the body, the liver works to metabolize it. Because the liver is busy metabolizing alcohol, it is often not able to adequately maintain blood sugar levels, which may result in hypoglycemia (low levels of blood sugar). Hypoglycemia is most likely to occur in individuals who have not maintained an adequate diet. When it occurs, the brain is not able to receive the energy it needs to function, and symptoms such as hunger, weakness, headache, tremor, and even coma (in severe cases) may occur.