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I believe that knowledge is power. You can put the power of nutrition knowledge to work for you.

This is the most important thing you can do to preserve and improve your mind and body. Good health is the key to longevity and provides the foundation that enables you to enjoy life.

The Encyclopedia of Foods: A Guide to Healthy Nutrition imparts the knowledge that eating a healthy diet can provide the various nutrients needed to maintain fitness and prevent the many common diseases that affect our health and longevity. Experts at Mayo Clinic and the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition have contributed their knowledge and experience to this book to improve the quality of life through proper nutrition. This book is a 4-year collaborative effort by a large team of experts from the medical profession and the field of nutrition.

It is very difficult to make up one's mind to eat properly and avoid the temptations and health consequences of consuming an excess amount of calories, fats, and refined sugar. Too much of these can detract from healthy living and the enjoyment of life. It is now clear from many studies that what you choose to eat can determine whether you have heart disease, diabetes, or many common forms of cancer. An extensive array of books have been written on this subject. This book encapsulates the guidelines for eating foods that are beneficial to the body and that preserve health and longevity.

I, along with most people, have not always been so concerned with health. When I became chairman of Dole Food Company 16 years ago, I truly began to understand the meaning of nutrition and the need for eating a well-balanced diet. A great deal of progress has been made in discovering the benefits to our health provided by fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, a healthy diet, and proper exercise and lifestyle. Dole, known as the largest distributor of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world, intends to take a leadership role in disseminating scientific information on the benefits of fruits and vegetables and other foods necessary for promulgating a healthy lifestyle. We intend to publish additional information as it is being developed by institutions throughout the world. We all have the opportunity to instill in our children the knowledge that will enable them to have the healthy life we wish them to enjoy.

The Encyclopedia ofFoods is a practical guide and personal reference tool of food, nutrition, and health. Many physicians, doctors of philosophy, nutritionists, dietitians, researchers, writers, editors, designers, illustrators, and countless others have worked together to create a comprehensive reference book and present it in an attractive, useful, and friendly fashion.

I personally hope that you will read this book and use it to make the necessary changes in your lifestyle and diet to improve your health and longevity.

David H. Murdock

Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Dole Food Company, Inc.

PART I A Guide to Healthy Nutrition 2

Chapter 1 Optimizing Health 5

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 5

America's Health Goals 6

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 8

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid 11

Other Voices: Guidelines of Health Organizations 14

The Bottom Line: Optimizing Health 15

Chapter 2 The Nutrients and Other Food Substances 17

The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats 18

Carbohydrates 18

Protein 23

Fats 26

The Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals 29

Water 33

On the Nutrient Horizon: Phytochemicals 33

Supplements: Foods, or Functional Foods? 34

Nutrition and Your Stage of Life 39

Chapter 3 The Food-Health Connection 47

Obesity 47

High Blood Pressure 53

Diabetes Mellitus 57

Coronary Artery Disease 61

Osteoporosis 67

Cancer 73

Chapter 4 Planning Meals: Selecting Healthful Foods, Plus Two Weeks of Menus 79

Plan to "Eat Well" 79

Eat Breakfast 80

What's for Lunch? 81

Snack Time 83

Grocery Shopping: Another Key to Healthful Meals jESt 88

Foods and Issues You May Have Wondered About flKV; . . .90

Two Weeks of Menus 95

Chapter 5 Preparing Healthful Meals jf 125

Change Is Good yT 125

Refrigerating or Freezing Food TV . . . IIIIHILglg||h 149

The Bottom Line on Food Safety \ . . jIH. .IIIIIIFk 149

PART II Encyclopedia of Foods HIIIIH 150

Fruits HPT 153

Vegetables 211

Grains 269

Grains 272

Grain Products 282

High-Protein Foods 291

Poultry 291

Eggs 296

Meat 298

Fish 310

Shellfish 317

Legumes 324

Nuts and Seeds 333

Dairy Foods 345

Milk 348

Cheese 353

Yogurt 358

Ice Cream and Dairy Desserts 359

Herbs & Spices 363

Beverages 377

Fats, Oils & Sweeteners 389

Glossary 407

Reading List 417

Appendix 421

Index 501

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