Training in

In this chapter you will learn about:

  • Exercises to perform when space and equipment are limited.
  • Designing a circuit training workout.
  • Maintaining morale during deployment.

During deployment or extended training exercises you may encounter conditions that limit your physical training routines and options. Submarines and small assault craft probably create the greatest challenge; but a well balanced training program can be maintained even with limited space and equipment. So, take this opportunity to design new routines with alternative exercises and have fun. The concepts for designing training routines in confined spaces is the same as any gym-based routine, you just have to be more creative. Follow the FITT Principle guidelines outlined in Chapters 4, 5, and 7 and try some of the exercise in this chapter when designing your workouts.

Aerobic Conditioning

Performing your aerobic training routines may seem impossible if you don't have access to cardiovascular training equipment or large areas to train. However, with a little creativity you can design a training routine to maintain your fitness level. Some exercises you can perform in confined quarters with minimal equipment include:

  • Jogging or marching in place.
  • Jumping rope or jumping jacks.
  • Stair stepping, if you have access to stairs or if you have space for an aerobic step bench (plastic step with risers).

Strength Training

In addition to calisthenics, strength exercises using light-weight, portable equipment, such as elastic tubing, dumbbells or a ball, can be performed in small spaces. Examples of these exercises are shown in Table 10-1. Regardless of the equipment used, the general principles and techniques outlined in Chapter 7 for muscle strength and endurance training apply. Follow the set and rep recommendations outlined in Chapter 8 for calisthenic exercises, starting with one set of eight reps. Include exercises for each of the major muscle groups mentioned in Chapter 7, Figure 7-2.

Elastic Tubing and Bands

These come in different widths and resistances, each designated by a different color. (As a rule, the smaller the tube's width, the less resistance it provides.) The basis of elastic tubing exercises is that as you stretch the tubing during your exercise, it provides a continuously increasing resistance. Resistance can be adjusted by: 1) altering the placement of the tubing (addressed in Table 10-1), 2) using two tubes, 3) using a thicker tube, or a combination of all these. Note that using two thin tubes may provide less resistance than using one thick tube. Typically, tubes and bands are sold in

c.

a. 4 ft. elastic band

b. 1 ft. elastic loop

1

with foam handles.

IT

c. Nylon anchor

i

piece to place in

'a.

door jams.

4 ft. lengths and cost $5 to $10. When purchasing tubing, buy one with handles large enough to slip over your forearms. Buy several tubes of varying widths since you will need different resistances for different exercises. Also, check the tubes periodically for wear and tear.

Inflatable Resistance Balls

These light-weight balls are becoming very popular in fitness centers and are excellent for abdominal, lower back, stability, and stretching exercises. The goal in resistance ball training is to keep your balance and stability while performing exercises on the ball, which acts as an unstable base. Resistance balls are typically 18 to 30 inches in diameter and cost about $30. Purchase a resistance ball that when you sit on it after it is fully inflated, your thighs are parallel to the deck. In addition, when you purchase these balls, you get a video of various exercises and routines. One drawback is that you need access to an air pump because, if the ball is kept inflated, it can take up a lot of storage space.

Strength Exercises

Table 10-1 shows exercises that can be performed using resistance tubing (bands) and balls. When performing elastic tubing exercises, you can use a partner, instead of an anchor, to secure the tubing during your exercise. Just be sure your partner holds the tubing at the appropriate height and distance from you (and doesn't let go!). When using the resistance bands, it is important to anchor them properly. Some examples are shown in Figure 10-1.

Figure 10-1. Anchoring Elastic Tubing

  1. Wrap the band around the top and sides of both feet, then pull the handles up through the middle of your feet. This type of wrap is useful for anchoring the band during rowing exercises.
  2. a. Using the 1 ft. elastic loop, sit down and place your right foot on the middle of the loop.
  3. Wrap the right end of the tubing over your foot.
  4. Pull the left end of the tubing up through the right end of the tubing loop.
  5. Take the left end of the tubing loop and wrap it around your left foot.

This type of anchor is useful for leg lifts and leg curls.

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Bent-Over Row with Band Grab one end of the band in each hand. Step on the middle of the band with your left foot, step back 2 ft. with your right foot. Bend forward slightly at the waist, keep your shoulders and hips facing forward. Count 1: Lift both hands from your thighs to your waist. This should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second. Count 2: Return hands to thigh level in 4 seconds. Keep your elbows close to your body throughout the exercise. Works the back and biceps muscles.

Lat Pulldown with Band Secure the middle of the band to a fixed object above your head. Grasp one handle in each hand. Facing the anchor, step back 1 foot and kneel. Arms should be extended above head. Count 1: Pull hands down to shoulder height in front of your head, keeping chest and head up. Back should remain straight. Press your shoulder blades together in the middle of your back as you pull your arms down. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position in 4 seconds. Variation: may need to use the tubing loop instead of a band for adequate resistance.

Seated Row with Band Sit on deck with legs extended, knees slightly bent. Place the center of the band under your feet. Count 1: With arms extended at chest level and hands over knees, bend your elbows and pull your hands back to each side of your chest. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2; Return to start position in 4 seconds. Works back and biceps.

Lower Back on Ball

Kneel beside resistance ball, lay your chest on top of the ball, place your hands in front of the ball. Extend your legs so only your feet are on the deck and walk forward, rolling the ball back closer to your hips. Place your hands behind your back. Count 1: Keep your back straight and raise your torso up off the ball until your back is extended. Count 2: Return to the start position. Try to keep ball steady during exercise. Works the lower back. Similar to prone back extension performed on the deck. Variations: Can do all the same extension exercises as on the deck.

Abdominal Crunch with Band

Anchor the middle of the band above your head. Kneel 1 ft. in front of the anchor, and grasp both ends of the band in your hands. Place your hands palms down on your shoulders. Count 1: Pull your rib cage down closer to your hips. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Keep your hips and legs still. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds.

Abdominal Crunch on Ball

Sit on ball, slowly walk feet away from ball as you lie back on to the ball. Ball should be underneath your midback. Place your hands behind your head. Count 1: Pull your rib cage closer to your hips. Count 2: Return to the start position. Try to keep ball steady during exercise. Works the abdominals. Variations: Use a towel under your lower back instead of the ball; perform side crunches on the ball to target the obliques.

CD r

Chest Fly with Band

Sit on the deck with your left leg straight and your right leg bent, with your right foot touching your left thigh. Hold one handle of the band in each hand. Wrap the band under your left heel, about 1/3 the length of the band down from your left hand. Keep your back straight, head up, and shoulders back. Place your right hand on the deck by your right knee. Straighten your left arm so that your elbow is only slightly bent and raise your arm in front of you to chest level. Count 1: Slowly pull your upper left arm across your chest without bending your elbow; this should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second.

Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Your torso and hips should not move during this exercise. Works your chest muscles.Variations: a) perform this standing or kneeling by anchoring the band to a stationary object at chest height; b) lie on your back on a bench and use dumbbells; c) have a partner push (manual resistance) against your upper arms as you do the exercise.

Chest Press with Band

Wrap the band at shoulder height around a bench that is wider than shoulder-width (or secure with two anchors). Keep your back straight, shoulders down and head up. Grip one end of the band in each hand, and place your hands on each side of your chest. Count 1: Extend arms straight in front of you at chest height, do not lock your elbows; this should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Works your chest, shoulders, and triceps.Variations: a) have a partner hold the band in both hands, keeping his hands at your shoulder height and wider than your shoulder-width; b) lie on back on a bench and use dumbbells; c) have a partner provide manual resistance against your hands as you perform a press.

Incline Press with Band

Grab one end of the band in each hand. Step on the band with your right foot, step your left foot through the band and forward 2 ft. Bring your hands to your shoulders with your palms facing forward. Count 1: Extend your arms up and forward in front; your hands should be in front of and a little higher than your forehead. This should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position. Works the chest and shoulders. Variations: a) for more resistance, use a second tube and place it under your front foot; b) for less resistance, anchor the tube to a stationary object at waist height, step forward 2 ft. and perform the exercise.

Biceps Curl with Band

Grab one end of the band in each hand. Step on the band with your left foot, step your right foot through the band and forward 2 ft. Count 1: With hands at sides and palms up, bring your palms to your shoulders. This should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position. Works the biceps. Variations: a) for more resistance, use a second tube (as shown) and place it under your front foot); b) use dumbbells; c) have a partner pull against your lower arm during the curl.

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Triceps Extension with Band

Stand with feet hip distance apart, knees slightly bent. Grab one end of the band in your right hand and place it over your right shoulder. Your right elbow should be beside your head and the band should be dangling down your back. Reach around your back with your left hand and grab the other end of the band with your left hand. Place your left hand on your low back. Count 1: Extend your right arm straight above your head, keeping your left hand still and your right elbow close to your head. Do not lock your right elbow. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Works the right triceps. Switch arms to work the left triceps.Variations: a) if you have a long piece of tubing, grab the middle of the tubing (instead of the end) with your left hand; b) use dumbbells.

Triceps Kickback with Band

Grab one end of the band in each hand. Step on the middle of the band with your left foot, step back 2 ft. with your right foot. Bend forward slightly at the waist, keep your shoulders and hips facing forward. Place your left hand on your left thigh for support. Pull your right hand up to your right hip, keeping your right elbow close to your body. Count 1: Straighten your lower right arm behind your back without lifting your elbow. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Works the right triceps. Switch to work the left triceps. Variations: a) use dumbbells; b) have a partner push against your lower arm during the lift.

Lateral Raise with Band

Grab one end of the band in each hand. Stand on middle of the band, feet shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent. With arms at sides, bend elbows 90o. Count 1: raise your upper arms to eaoch side until your elbow (still bent 90o) is level with your shoulder. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position in 4 seconds. Keep your elbow bent during the lift. Works the shoulders. Variations: a) for more resistance, use 2 bands, stand on only one band with each foot, hold one end of each band in each hand; b) use dumbbells; c) have a partner push down against your upper arms as you lift; d) increase the difficulty of the exercise by straightening your elbow.

Upright Rows with Band

Stand on the middle of the band, feet shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent. Cross ends of band in front of you and grasp one end of the band in each hand, palms facing back. Count 1: With arms extended and hands together at the center of your body, pull elbows up and back to the level of your shoulders. Your arms should form a "V". This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position in 4 seconds. Do not arch your back during the lift. Works the front of the shoulders. Variations: a) for more resistance, use 2 bands, stand on only one band with each foot, hold one end of each band in each hand; b) use dumbbells.

Reverse Fly with Band

Anchor the middle of the band at chest height. Facing the anchor, step back 4-5 ft. Grab one end of the band in each hand. Extend your arms straight in front of you at chest level, elbows slightly bent. Count 1: Pull your upper arms out to each side without bending your elbows any more. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Works the back of the shoulders. Variations: a) kneel on one knee, bend at the waist, rest chest on opposite thigh, and use dumbbells or have a partner push against your upper arms

Lunge with Band

Grab one end of the band in each hand. Step on the middle of the band with your left foot, step your right foot through the band and beside your left foot. Bring hands up to shoulders, palms facing forward. Band should be behind your arms. Count 1: Take a large step forward with your right foot, keep your back straight and head up. Count 2: Squat straight down, dropping your left knee, until your right knee is over your right ankle. Count 3: Lift up. Count 4: Push off your right foot to return to the start position. Works the leg muscles. Switch sides. Variation: a) for more resistance, use a second tube and place it under your front foot; b) on Count 1, step to the left or right instead of straight ahead; c) use dumbbells.

Leg Curl with Band

Wrap one end of the tubing loop around your right foot. Hook the other end on your left foot. Lie on your stomach with both legs extended. Count 1: Lift your left heel up toward your buttocks, keeping your right knee and hips flat on the deck. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Lower your leg to the start position in 4 seconds. Works the hamstrings.

Leg Lifts with Band

Anchor the band at shin height. Wrap the band around your left ankle and, facing the anchor, step back 3 ft. Place feet side by side and point your left foot up. Place your hand on the wall for support and slightly bend your right knee. Count 1: Keeping your left leg extended, pull your left ankle back 1-2 ft. This should take 2 seconds. Pause for 1 second. Count 2: Return to start position in 4 seconds. Switch legs. Works hamstring and gluteal muscles. Variations: a) to work inner and outer thighs and hip flexors, change the position of your body so you pull against the band in all four directions (front, back, and two sides); b) lie down and use ankle weights.

Squat with Band

Grasp one handle in each hand, step on the band with feet hip-width apart, knees slightly bent. Bring hands up to shoulders, palms facing forward. Band should be behind your arms. Count 1: Slowly squat down; look forward, keeping your shoulders back, chest and head up. Squat until your knees are above your toes. This should take 2 seconds. Pause 1 second. Count 2: Return to the start position in 4 seconds. Works the quadriceps and gluteals.

Wall Squat with Ball

Stand against a flat wall, place both feet 2 ft. from the wall hip distance apart. Place a small ball between your knees. Count 1: Slide down the wall until your knees are over your feet and squeeze the ball between your knees. Hold this position for 10 seconds. Count 2: Return to the start position. Works the thigh muscles.Variations: a) hold dumbbells in your hands.

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Workout Design

The FITT principle guidelines described in Chapters 4, 5, 7, and 9 should be followed for each type of fitness training. Since space, equipment, and time are limiting factors during deployment, one of the most effective workouts for you to perform is circuit training (described in Chapter 7). The basics of this type of workout are:

  • Total session is 30-60 minutes, divided into 30-60 second stations.
  • Each station is a new exercise; alternate aerobic and strength stations, and upper and lower body exercises.
  • Perform aerobic exercises in your target heart rate zone.
  • Perform strength exercises with proper form and use a resistance that you can lift 10-12 times.
  • Stretch after your workout. (See Chapter 9.)
Table 10-2. Circuit Training Workout

Station

Exercise

Time

Warm-up

5 minutes

1

Wall Squat with Ball

60 sec

2

Push ups

60 sec

3

Jog in place

60 sec

4

Stair step/Jog

60 sec

5

Jumping Jacks

60 sec

Check heart rate

10 sec

6

Lat Pulldown with Band

60 sec

7

Abdominal Crunches and Lower Back Extensions

60 sec (30 sec each)

8

Biceps curl and Triceps Extension with band

60 sec (30 sec each)

9

Jumping Jacks

60 sec

10

Stair Step/Jog

60 sec

11

Jog in place

60 sec

12

Jumping Jacks

60 sec

Check heart rate

10 sec

Repeat Stations 1-12, 2-4 times

Cool Down

5 minutes

Stretch

5-10 minutes

Note: One cycle of this circuit training workout has 7 minutes of aerobic exercises and one set of strength exercises for each of the major muscle groups.

Note: One cycle of this circuit training workout has 7 minutes of aerobic exercises and one set of strength exercises for each of the major muscle groups.

Morale During Deployment

Although confined spaces can limit your training options and make you feel less than enthusiastic to train, you need to remain physically active. Stopping all physical training results in a rapid decline in muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and aerobic conditioning (see Chapter 4). One option to boost morale and increase participation in physical training during deployment is to create training competitions. Some ideas include:

  • Mini-triathlons - Perform any three aerobic exercises back-to-back for the best time. Honor the winner by engraving his/her name on a plaque or give him/her a token that is symbolic of the competition.
  • Organize team competitions that coincide with major sporting tournaments, such as the NFL playoffs or the NCAA Final Four tournament. Assign each crew member to a team and organize the teams into tournament-style playoffs. Record the time each team member exercises. The team with the most total exercise time wins the tournament.

Anyone can organize these types of competitions. Such events make exercising a social and morale boosting activity for all sailors during deployment.

Finally, you may feel that the biggest barrier to working out when deployed is time limitations. In actuality, it requires less time to maintain fitness levels than to increase fitness levels. Though not ideal, you can maintain your fitness level by working at your usual intensity fewer times per week and for shorter durations than what is required to improve your fitness level. A minimum of one strength session, which includes exercises for all the major muscle groups (1 set of 8-12 repetitions), and two 20-minute aerobic sessions, within your target heart rate zone, per week will allow you to maintain your current fitness level. Though this limited amount of training is not ideal for your overall fitness, it is much better than not performing any exercise at all. Remember, detraining occurs rapidly when all training is stopped (see Chapter 4).

Nutrition for Exercise

In this chapter you will learn about:

  • Dietary practices for enhancing endurance and strength performance.
  • Dietary measures for exercise recovery.

Your physical performance is greatly influenced by regular conditioning and by following sound dietary practices. Both prolonged aerobic exercise and multiple bouts of high intensity exercise impose significant demands on energy and fluid balance. Failure to replace energy and fluids used during exercise can significantly impair performance in later activities.

The following recommendations are for an individual who regularly participates in at least 90 minutes of aerobic exercise each day or in multiple, strenuous bouts of exercise several times a week. This information does not apply if you exercise less than one hour per day.

Carbohydrate Needs

During heavy training you must increase your kcal intake, especially from carbohydrates (CHO), to meet your energy demands. Failure to do so may result in:

  • Chronic muscular fatigue.
  • A feeling of staleness.
  • Weight and muscle mass loss.
  • Poor sleep patterns.

Liver and muscle glycogen are the primary sources of glucose for energy during prolonged and intense physical activities. Once your glycogen stores are used, your performance decreases sharply. So, the key to optimal performance is to maintain glycogen stores by eating a high-CHO diet.

CHO for Endurance Training

The endurance capacity of an individual on a high-CHO diet is approximately 3 times greater than on a high-fat diet. When CHO intake is low, several days of rigorous training will result in a gradual depletion of muscle glycogen stores and eventually impair performance. The guidelines for CHO intake while training are:

60 - 65% of your total daily kcal intake.

Worksheet 11-1. Calculate Your Daily CHO Needs x 0.60 =

Your EER*

Your EER*

You should eat to kcal from CHO per day.

kcal from CHO per day.

kcals from CHO daily.

* Your estimated energy requirement (EER) was calculated in Chapter 1, Worksheet 1-2. To calculate grams of CHO see Worksheet 2-1.

Keep a dietary log for a few days to see if your CHO intake is adequate.

CHO Loading/Glycogen Supercompensation

CHO Loading is a regimen that combines diet and exercise to "pack" more glycogen into muscle and liver (Figure 11-1). It is used by endurance athletes to optimize physical performance during prolonged endurance events. CHO loading causes temporary weight gain (2.7 grams of water are stored with every gram of glycogen). The extra weight may impair performance. CHO loading is unnecessary for individuals who eat according to the dietary guidelines outlined in Chapter 3 and whose CHO intakes are within the range calculated in Worksheet 11-1.

Figure 11-1. CHO Loading for Endurance Events

CHO loading requires that you reduce your training sessions and increase your CHO intake the week prior to an event. As shown to the left, five to six days before the event train no more than 40 minutes (solid line). CHO intake (dotted line) should be approximately 50% of your total energy intake. Two to three days before the event train no more than 20 minutes a day and increase CHO intake to 70% of your total energy intake. Rest the day before the event and keep CHO intake at 70%.

CHO for Strength Training

CHO are required for strength training because the exercises rely on muscle glycogen stores for energy. The recommended CHO intake is:

55-60% of your total daily caloric intake.

This is slightly lower than the requirements for endurance activities (see Worksheet 11-1) because the total amount of energy expended is less. CHO loading is not recommended for strength training because it causes extra water to be stored in the muscle.

Protein Needs

Protein needs of strength athletes and endurance athletes are quite similar at:

0.6 - 0.8 grams of proteins per pound of body weight.

This corresponds roughly to 10-15% of your total daily kcals. It is highly likely that your diet provides adequate proteins since most Americans consume proteins in excess of their needs. Use Worksheet 11-2 or Worksheet 2-2 (Chapter 2) to determine your protein needs.

LH 20

LH 20

2 3 4 Days

Race

5 6 Day

2 3 4 Days

Race

5 6 Day

'Body Weight =

lbs.

0.6 grams/lb x lbs. =

  • grams proteins.
  • Body weight)

0.8 grams/lb x lbs. =

  • grams proteins.
  • Body weight) Your daily protein grams =

to y

The High-Protein Myth

One of the most common myths is that eating high-protein diets and protein supplements leads to bigger muscles. Clearly, this is not the case! Muscle is only 20% proteins; the rest is water, minerals, lactic acid, and urea. (See Figure 11-2.) Moreover, excessive protein intakes, mostly from protein supplements, can cause:

  • More waste production.
  • Increased water needs.
  • Greater demands on the liver and the kidneys.
  • Imbalances in the essential amino acids.
  • Diarrhea or abdominal cramps.

For these very reasons, avoid protein powder drinks that provide excessive amounts of proteins or selected amino acids. Although heavily advertised and endorsed by celebrities, you do not need protein supplements to build muscle. Supplements can be very expensive, dangerous to your health, and they are quite unnecessary. Spend your money on a variety of foods for a balanced diet that will sufficiently meet your protein needs. Exercise to gain muscle!

Figure 11-2. Components of Muscle

Muscle is:

20% proteins,

75% water, and

5% inorganic salts, urea, and lactate.

Vitamin and Mineral Needs

Any increased vitamin and mineral needs can be met by eating according to the Food Guide Pyramid (Chapter 3, Figure 3-1). Particularly, increase the number of fruits and vegetables you eat as these foods are good sources of many vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants. (See Chapter 3 page 22, Table 2-2, Table 2-3, and Appendix A.) These antioxidants may protect you from environmental stressors and may accelerate your recovery from exhaustive exercise. Fresh fruits and vegetables also provide potassium, which is lost during prolonged strenuous exercise (see Table 2-3).

Fluid Needs

Drinking fluids at regular intervals and eating foods with a high water content (i.e., fresh fruits) are important for maintaining hydration and fluid status during training. See Chapter 2 for more information on fluid balance.

Getting Enough Fluids

  • Drink 16 oz. (2 cups) of fluid two hours before starting exercise.
  • Drink 3 to 4 oz. (1/2 cup) of fluid every 15-20 minutes during exercise.
  • Weigh yourself before and after exercise to determine how much fluid you lost. Drink 16 oz. of fluid for every pound of weight lost.
  • Do not rely on thirst as an indicator of fluid needs because it is not adequate. Once you feel thirsty you are already dehydrated.
  • Drink water when exercising less than 60 minutes. Drink a sports drink (5% to 8% CHO with electrolytes) when exercising longer than 60 minutes.
  • Monitor your urine: urine should be a pale yellow (unless you take vitamin B supplements) and you should be urinating frequently.

What to Drink

Many beverages can replenish lost fluids, so select a beverage that:

  • Does not cause gastrointestinal or stomach discomfort.
  • Is rapidly absorbed from your gut, especially when exercising.
  • Contains electrolytes (see Glossary) and CHO (5% to 8%) when performing prolonged or strenuous exercise.
  • Rehydrate with a non-caffeinated, non-carbonated, non-alcoholic beverage.

Overhydration

Although less common than dehydration, untreated overhydration can be life threatening. It is seen when plain water is used to replace fluid losses during prolonged (greater than 3 hours) strenuous exercise. Remember, water and electrolytes are lost during sweating, so both need to be replaced in this situation.

Overhydration decreases the concentration of electrolytes in the body, upsets metabolism and other bodily functions, and is just as harmful as dehydration. Prevent overhydration by drinking a beverage that contains electrolytes (such as a sport drink) or by eating a light snack (e.g., oranges) with your water. Between exercise sessions, electrolytes lost through sweating can be easily replenished by eating well-balanced meals and snacks (Chapter 3).

Nutrition for Exercise Recovery

Within 30 minutes of completing an extended or intense exercise session, consume at least 50 grams of CHO (roughly 200 kcals). Also, continue to snack on high-CHO foods for up to six hours. This will help restore your muscle glycogen for the next exercise session. Some foods and servings sizes that contain roughly 50 grams of CHO are:

Bagel with jam

Shredded wheat cereal, 1.4 cups

Baked potato with skin

Baked Beans, 1 cup

Cooked sweet corn, 1.5 cups

Bananas (2)

Cornflakes, 2.5 cups

Cooked oatmeal, 2 cups

Watermelon, 4.5 cups

Cooked Rice, 1 cup

Raisins, 0.4 cup

Orange juice, 2 cups

For more information on the CHO content of foods, check food labels (Figure 3-2), check the USDA website at http://www.usda.gov, or ask a dietitian.

Deployment and Altered Climates

In this chapter you will learn about:

  • Acclimation.
  • General guidelines for altered environments.
  • Maintaining performance in the heat, cold, and at altitude.

Adapting to a new environment, such as extreme changes in climate or altitude, imposes considerable demands on the body. This adaptation, or acclimation, occurs gradually, allowing the individual to better tolerate and perform in that new environment. Thus, acclimation is the gradual change the body undergoes in order to function more efficiently in a new environment.

Acclimating to New Environments

Adapting to a new environment can take one to three weeks. During this time, endurance activities become more difficult and onset of fatigue occurs sooner. If environmental conditions permit, gradually increase the intensity of exercise until you reach your desired training intensity. Having a good aerobic fitness base will accelerate your acclimation to new environments. Factors that negatively affect acclimation include:

Dehydration.

Drinking alcohol.

Cessation of physical activity.

Electrolyte depletion.

Inadequate energy intake.

General Nutrition Issues

Maintaining or improving health and fitness is more challenging in adverse conditions such as extreme heat, cold, or altitudes. Even highly, physically fit individuals can be quickly overcome by "environmental exposure" if proper preparation is overlooked or if symptoms of impending illness are ignored. The adaptation of the body to adverse environments increases energy expenditure and water losses. Furthermore, dehydration results in a loss of appetite. If energy and fluid needs are not met, then performance will be impaired. General suggestions for meeting increased energy and fluid requirements are provided below. Issues relevant to a particular environment are provided later.

Maintaining Energy Balance

  • Eat a high-CHO diet to meet increased kcal needs, as CHO are more readily absorbed and better tolerated than fats or proteins.
  • Avoid fatty foods which may not be well tolerated.
  • Avoid high-protein intakes which will increase water loss and can lead to dehydration. (See Chapter 2 page 9.)
  • Eat small frequent meals.
  • When eating field rations, eat the entrees as well as the other food and beverage items provided in the pack.
  • Drink a high-CHO beverage to increase your kcal intake if you are having difficulty eating enough solid foods to meet your energy needs.

Maintaining Fluid Balance

Maintaining fluid balance is crucial to avoid dehydration, as stated in Chapter 2 on page 17. Dehydration can limit performance and severe dehydration can be life-threatening. Tips for maintaining fluid balance include:

  • Monitor hydration status by the frequency and color of your urine. Infrequent and dark yellow urine suggests dehydration.
  • When possible, monitor fluid status by weighing yourself prior to and after prolonged physical activities. For every pound of weight lost due to water losses, drink 2 cups (0.45 L or 16 oz.) of water.
  • Thirst is not a good indicator of fluid status. Drink fluids regularly throughout the day. When working in the heat, do not drink more than 6 cups of fluid an hour.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages as alcohol increases fluid losses.
  • Reduce caffeine consumption as caffeine increases fluid losses.
  • Avoid salty foods as salt increases fluid needs.
  • Drink CHO/electrolytes beverages during prolonged physical activity or on extended missions (Chapter 11, page 90).

Hot Environments

How hot is too hot? Heat advisories are announced when a wet bulb-globe temperature (WB-GT) is over 87° F (30.5° C) or when temperature and humidity are over 85° F and 60%, respectively. Under these conditions exercise should be performed indoors or undertaken with caution. Any time you perform physical activities in the heat, you will lose a lot of water and electrolytes through sweat. Only the sweat that evaporates effectively cools the body; sweat that "drips" provides little cooling effect. As you adapt to the heat, you will start producing more dilute sweat (less salty) to conserve electrolytes. Factors that can limit "effective cooling" include high humidity, impermeable clothing, and skin conditions, such as sunburns or rashes.

Energy Needs

Although appetites may be suppressed in the hot weather, especially during the first few days after arriving, adequate caloric intake is very important. Inadequate food intake will lead to weight loss which can impair both physical and mental performance. When you do the same task in a hot environment, energy requirements are increased due to the increased work of maintaining a normal body temperature. When living and working in temperatures ranging from 86o to 104oF (30o to 40oC), kcal intakes should be increased by 10%, unless your activity level decreases accordingly.

If your activity level decreases, you do not need extra kcals!

Worksheet 12-1. Calculate Your Energy Requirements for a Hot Environment

Your Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) =

(from Worksheet 1-2)

A 10% increase in energy requirements equals: _EER x 0.10 =

kcal/day.

Your total energy requirement equals:

.kcal/day.

kcal/day.

Tips for Maintaining Performance in a Hot Environment

  • Prepare by maximizing aerobic fitness before your exposure.
  • Plan your workouts to avoid the heat of the day.
  • Plan for decreased physical performance the first two weeks.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and eat enough kcals.
  • Be aware of any symptoms that may predispose you to dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, fever).
  • Be aware of the warning signs of heat illness. Stop if signs or symptoms of heat injury become apparent (See Chapter 13).
  • Avoid substances that can lead to dehydration or heat injuries.

Table 12-1. Substances that Can Cause Dehydration

Caffeine Antihistamines

Alcohol Decongestants

Atropine and other anticholenergics

Check with the medical department for other substances that may affect fluid balance.

Cold Environments

What is a cold environment? It is considered cold if the air temperature is below 15° F and the wind speed is greater than 25 m.p.h, or the water temperature is below 64oF. Cold wind and cold water accelerate heat loss by replacing the warm layer of air or water surrounding the body with colder air or water.

The body responds to cold by constricting (tightening) blood vessels to conserve heat and by shivering to generate heat and guard against hypothermia. There is increased urination and increased energy metabolism in cold environments, both on land and in water.

Energy Needs

Many studies have shown that soldiers tend to progressively lose weight when conducting field exercises in the cold for two to three weeks. Because significant weight loss can result in fatigue and performance decrements, energy intake must increase to meet the increased energy demands. Energy requirements can increase by 25 to 50% because of the increased work associated with performing physical tasks in the cold and the kcal expenditure due to shivering. Factors that increase energy requirements in the cold include:

  • Increased basal metabolic rate (BMR, see page 3).
  • Shivering.
  • Working in cold weather gear.

To meet energy needs consume a diet that is high in CHO (roughly 60% of your total daily kcals). This will replace glycogen stores (page 7) that are being used to maintain body temperature. Eat frequent high-CHO snacks to help meet your kcal requirements. Keep fat intakes under 30% of your total daily kcals since high-fat diets may cause stomach upset. Keep protein intakes at 10% of your total daily kcals and avoid protein and amino acid supplements because high-protein intakes increase water losses.

Worksheet 12-2. Calculate Your Energy Requirements for a Cold Environment

Your Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) =_kcal/day.

(from Worksheet 1-2)

A 25% increase in energy requirements equals:

Your total energy requirement equals:

e.g., If your EER is 3,000 kcals/day then in a cold environment your energy needs would increase by 3,000 kcals x 0.25 = 750 kcals/day. Your total daily energy requirement would be 3,000 kcals + 750 kcals = 3,750 kcals/day.

Vitamin and Mineral Needs

In addition to increased energy requirements, increased intakes of many of the vitamins and minerals may be useful for maintaining performance when working for prolonged periods in the cold. Vitamin and mineral recommendations have been developed to account for possible increased requirements based on intake data from field studies, urinary excretion of nutrients, and other measures of "nutrient status". Table 12-2 presents the suggested additional amount of some nutrients that may be needed when working in the cold. See Chapter 2, Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 for a list of food sources for these nutrients. In most cases, if you meet your energy requirements by eating all ration components, you should be meeting your vitamin and mineral needs.

Table 12-2. Suggested Additional Intakes of Micronutrients During Cold Weather Training

Nutrient

Suggested Increase*

Nutrient

Suggested Increase

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

3 mg

Folic Acid

200 ^g

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

2 mg

Vitamin B12

1 ^g

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

5 mg

Magnesium

200 mg

Pantothenic Acid

5 mg

Zinc

5 mg

Adapted from Reynolds RD. (1995) Effects of Cold and Altitude on Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. In: Marriot BM (Ed). Nutrient Requirements for Work in Cold and High Altitude Environments. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. *Amounts in addition to the RDA (see Chapter 2).

Adapted from Reynolds RD. (1995) Effects of Cold and Altitude on Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. In: Marriot BM (Ed). Nutrient Requirements for Work in Cold and High Altitude Environments. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. *Amounts in addition to the RDA (see Chapter 2).

Tips for Maintaining Performance in a Cold Environment

  • Check weather conditions, dress appropriately, and avoid profuse sweating.
  • Allow for a longer warm-up.
  • Replenish CHO and electrolyte losses.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and try to avoid substances that cause dehydration (see page 93 and Table 12-1).
  • Be aware of the signs of cold injury (see Chapter 13).
  • Eat snow only after melting and purifying it.

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