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We would like to acknowledge the following for reviewing this guide and for their invaluable suggestions:

From Bureau of Medicine (BUMED):

CAPT Janee Przybyl

From Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS):

LCDR Sue Hite and LCDR Neil Carlson

From Navy Environmental Health Center (NEHC):

Ms. Mary Kay Solera, Ms. Sally Vickers and Ms. Diana Settles

From Navy Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP):

CDR Al Siewertsen, Ms. Pam Beward and Ms. Andrea Andrasi

From the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS):

COL Jeannette E. South-Paul

Our thanks go to the following individuals whose photographs appear in this guide: HM2 Jeanette Miller, HN Ellen Tate, HM1 (FMF) Rico Renteria, HM1 (SW/AW) Michael Mitchell, HM2 (FMF) Keith Avery, J02 Cerise Fenton, Dr. Jeffrey Bennett, and Dawn Schultz. Also, many thanks to HM1 (FMF) Otis B. Brown, the USUHS Brigade, and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) for allowing us to take pictures during the Navy PRTs and the MWR sponsored events. We also want to acknowledge Mr. Gene Jillson from Defense Visual Information Center for providing us with the Navy images that appear throughout this guide.

Cover photo from Defense Visual Information Center's "U.S. Forces in Haiti" CD ROM, image file number IMG0342.PCD.

Disclaimer: The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as reflecting those of the Department of the Navy, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), or the Department of Defense.


The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas.


As documented in enclosure (1) of OPNAV6110.1E, it is the responsibility of each service member to:

  • Maintain a lifestyle that promotes optimal health and physical readiness.
  • Develop a regular, year-round, fitness program of aerobic, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance exercises using resource information and the assistance of the Command Fitness Coordinator (CFC) and recreational services departments.

This guide has been prepared to assist you, the Navy's Health Promotion Staff, in your efforts to promote the health and physical readiness of all Navy personnel. A comprehensive overview of basic nutrition and physical fitness programs that address aerobic conditioning and strength training are provided. The importance of combining sound nutritional and physical fitness practices for gaining and maintaining physical readiness are emphasized. Navy-specific issues such as maintaining physical fitness during deployments, whether aboard a ship and/or in extreme environmental conditions are discussed. Women's issues, such as nutrition and exercise during pregnancy and lactation, and age-related changes in performance are also addressed. Additionally, resources used to prepare this manual, including websites for various Naval Commands and Civilian organizations involved in health promotion, are provided in Appendix D.

We encourage you to use this manual to educate fellow military personnel about the performance and health-related benefits of good dietary practices and regular exercise. A concise, companion manual entitled "Peak Performance Through Nutrition and Exercise" outlines the information provided in this guide and has been prepared for your students. We hope that the ideas presented in Chapter 17 (Adopting Healthy Habits) will be useful and that you are successful in your efforts to promote physical readiness and optimal health in Navy personnel.

Tamara L. Bennett, M.S., ACSM certified Health and Fitness Instructor Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D., M.P.H., LN

Department of Military and Emergency Medicine Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine

September 1999

Table of Contents (Click on page numbers to view sections.)

1 Energy Balance and Body Composition 1

Energy Balance 1

Components of Energy Expenditure 3

Body Composition 5

Fat Distribution 6

2 Overview of Nutrition 7

Energy Providing Nutrients 7

Micronutrients 12

Water 17

3 Eating for Optimal Health and Fitness 19

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 19

The Food Guide Pyramid 20

Food Labels 22

Selecting Nutrient-Dense Foods 23

Vegetarian Diets 23

Eating Out 24

Snacking 26

Nutrition Throughout Life 26

4 Overview of Physical Fitness 28

What is Physical Fitness? 29

FITT Principle 29

The Physical Activity Pyramid 30

Fuel Used During Exercise 31

Exercise Sequence 32

Training and Detraining 34

5 Cardiorespiratory Training 35

Cardiorespiratory Physiology 35

Benefits of Aerobic Exercise 36

Aerobic Exercise Guidelines 37

Intensity of Exercise 37

Type of Exercise 40

Training Design and Progression 43

Walking and Running Gear 45

Walking 47

Running 48

Swimming 52

7 Strength Training 55

Strength versus Endurance 55

Benefits of Strength Training 56

Muscle Fiber Types 57

Determinants of Muscle Size 57

Strength Training Guidelines 58

Equipment 63

Types of Workouts 64

8 Calisthenics 66

Muscle Balance 66

Calisthenic Guidelines 66

9 Flexibility 72

Benefits of Stretching 72

Physiology of Stretching 73

Flexibility Exercises 74

10 Training in Confined Spaces 77

Aerobic Conditioning 78

Strength Training 78

Workout Design 84

Morale During Deployment 85

11 Nutrition for Exercise 86

Carbohydrate Needs 86

Protein Needs 88

Vitamin and Mineral Needs 90

Fluid Needs 90

Nutrition for Exercise Recovery 91

12 Deployment and Altered Climates 92

General Nutrition Issues 93

Hot Environments 94

Cold Environments 95

Altitude 98

13 Training and Overuse Injuries 100

Injuries: Treatment and Prevention 100

When to Seek Medical Care 103

Return to Duty 103

Overtraining Syndrome 104

14 Supplements and Performance 105

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements 105

Nutritional Ergogenic Agents 107

Ergolytic Agents 111

15 Training Issues for Women 112

Pregnancy and Lactation 112

Female Athlete Triad 114

16 Age and Performance 117

Changes in Metabolism and Body Composition 117

Nutritional Needs 118

Countering Age-Associated Changes in Fitness 119

17 Adopting Healthy Habits 122

Setting "SMART" Goals 122

Reaching Goals 124

Maintaining Healthy Habits 125

Appendix A: Ideas for Healthy Food Choices 127

Appendix B: Sample Workout 130

Appendix C: Strength Exercises 133

Appendix D: Resources 139

Glossary 143

Index 147

List of Figures (Click on page numbers to view figures.)



Energy Balance: Intake vs. Output




Symptoms of Dehydration




Food Guide Pyramid




How to Read a Food Label




Food Guide Pyramid for Vegetarians




The Fitness Continuum




The Physical Activity Pyramid




Energy Use During Exercise




Recommended Exercise Sequence




Measuring Heart Rate at the Wrist




Target Heart Rate Zones




Three Traits of a Good Running Form




Factors that Affect Muscle Size




Exercises for Various Muscle Groups




Range of Motion of the Abdominals




Anchoring Elastic Tubing




CHO Loading for Endurance Events



11-2. Components of Muscle




The Female Athlete Triad


List of Tables (Click on page numbers to view tables.)

Table 1-1. Table 1-2. Table 1-3. Table 2-1. Table 2-2. Table 2-3. Table 3-1. Table 3-2.

Table 4-1. Table 5-1. Table 5-2. Table 5-3. Table 6-1. Table 6-2. Table 6-3. Table 6-4. Table 7-1. Table 7-2. Table 8-1. Table 9-1. Table 9-2. Table 10-1. Table 10-2. Table 12-1.

Estimate Your Activity Factor 4

Classifications for BMI Ratios 5

Standards for Waist-to-Hip Ratios 6

Determining Your Protein Factor 10

Requirements and Functions of Vitamins 15

Requirements and Functions of Minerals 16

Portion Sizes Equivalent to a Serving 21

Suggested Servings Based on Total

Daily Caloric Intake 21

Training vs. Detraining 34

Relationship Between Measures of Intensity 40

Examples of Aerobic Exercise 41

Various Training Strategies 42

Outline of a Walking Program 47

Beginning a Jogging Program 50

An Intermediate Running Program 51

Swim Program to Build Your Distance 53

Strength Requirements in Navy Jobs 56

Free Weights vs. Resistance Machines 64

Calisthenic Exercises Arranged by Muscle Group 68

Static Stretches Dynamic Stretches

Exercises to Perform in Confined Spaces

Circuit Training Workout

Substances that Can Cause Dehydration

74 76 80 84 95

Table 12-2. Suggested Additional Intakes of Micronutrients

During Cold Weather Training 97

Table 13-1. Injuries, Treatments, and Prevention 101

Table 13-2. Symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome 104

Table 14-1. Claims and Risks of Ergogenic Agents 107

Table 14-2. Ergolytic Agents and Performance 111

Table 15-1. Nutrition and Exercise Guidelines for Pregnancy 113

Table 17-1. Some General Nutrition and

Fitness-Related Goals 124

Table 17-2. Steps and Actions To Take To Reach Your

SMART Goals 125

Table A-1. Healthier Food Selections 127

Table B-1. Sample Workout 130

Table C-1. Examples of Common Training Mistakes 138

List of Worksheets (Click on page numbers to view worksheets.)

Worksheet 1-1. Calculate Your BMR 3

Worksheet 1-2. Calculate Your Estimated Energy

Requirement (EER) 4

Worksheet 1-3. Calculate Your BMI 5

Worksheet 1-4. Calculate Your Waist-to-Hip Ratio 6

Worksheet 2-1. Calculate Your CHO Requirements 9

Worksheet 2-2. Calculate Your Protein Requirements 10

Worksheet 2-3. Determine Your Maximum Fat Limit 12

Worksheet 2-4. Calculate Your Daily Water Requirement 17

Worksheet 2-5. Calculate Your Water Loss Limit 18

Worksheet 5-1. Determine Your Target Heart Rate 39

Worksheet 11-1. Calculate Your Daily CHO Needs 87

Worksheet 11-2. Calculate Your Protein Needs 89

Worksheet 12-1. Calculate Your Energy Requirements for a Hot Environment 95

Worksheet 12-2. Calculate Your Energy Requirements for a Cold Environment 96

Worksheet 12-3. Calculate Your Energy Requirements at Altitude 99

Worksheet A-1. Nutrition Tracking Guide 129

Worksheet B-1. Aerobic Exercise Log 131

Worksheet B-2. Strength Exercise Log 132

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