Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these...

Worldwide Production Of Spirulina And Its Current

Arthrospira (Spirulina) is currently grown commercially in several countries. The major producers of Spirulina are the DIC group of companies, Earthrise Nutritionals in California, USA Hainan DIC Marketing in Hainan Island, China and Siam Algae Company in Bangkok, Thailand. Together these facilities produce about 1000 metric tons of Spirulina annually. The other major producer is Cyanotech Corporation of Hawaii with an annual production of 300 tons of Spirulina. There are also many producers...

Heavy Metal Regulatory Standards

Health Canada Spirulinad UN (WHO FAO) JECFAe 10 mcg person day 4.1 mcg person day 0.5 mcg person day No data 0.3 mcg kg d (chronic) < 0.14 mcg kg bw d 2 mcg kg bw d No legislation in force (UK 1 ppm in food) (chronic) < 0.29 mcg kg bw d 0.23 mcg kg d (methyl Hg) 0.1 mcg kg d (methyl Hg in pregnancy) 0.71 mcg kg d (total Hg) 0.23 mcg kg d (methyl Hg) a California Proposition 65 Safe Harbor Levels. b United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) www.fda.gov The Cd and Pb values are...

Drying and Packaging

Proper and quick drying is an essential step of high-quality Spirulina production. Various types of drying systems are used in the industry for drying Spirulina. For economic reasons, the dryer of choice in large-scale Spirulina production facilities is the spray dryer. Freeze drying would give better overall product quality, but the cost is rather prohibitive. Spirulina droplets are sprayed into the drying chamber just long enough to flash evaporate the water. The powder is exposed to heat for...

Farooq Sm And Spirulina

Ram rez-Moreno, L. and Olvera-Ram rez, R., Uso tradicional y actual de Spirulina sp. Arthrospira sp. , Interciencia, 31, 657, 2006. 2. S nchez, M. et al., Spirulina Arthrospira an edible microorganism. A review. Univer. Scient., 8, 7, 2003. 3. Khan, A., Bhadouria, P., and Bise, P.S., Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina, Curr. Pharm. Biotech., 6, 373, 2005. 4. Belay, A., Current knowledge on potential health benefits of Spirulina, J. Appl. Phycol., 5, 235, 1993. 5. Belay, A.,...

Regulatory Status Of Spirulina Gras Generally Recognized as Safe Status

Cyanotech Corporation of Hawaii and Earthrise Nutritionals LLC of California are the only Spirulina producers in the world that have determined their Spirulina as GRAS through scientific procedures and FDA review. GRAS is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201 s and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance...

Biogenic Toxic Substances Toxins

The term toxin usually refers to a substance that is highly poisonous to other living organisms, and that comes from a protein or conjugated protein produced by plants, animals, fungi, and pathogenic bacteria.36'37 At least 12 different species of Cyanobacteria have been shown to produce different toxins38 affecting the nervous, hepatic, and dermatologic systems, although the mechanism of action is still unknown.39 Some Spirulina samples have been tested for aflatoxin, ochratoxin A,...

Spirulina Production Nature To Nurture

Most of the information that is used to grow Spirulina in outdoor culture is derived from observations made on natural blooms of these algae in natural lakes. Of special significance is their adaptation to highly alkaline up to 400 meq l and very high pH up to 11 of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This harsh chemical environment essentially prohibits the growth of other algae. It is therefore not uncommon to find almost unialgal populations of Arthrospira in these lakes. The...

Largescale Commercial Production Of Spirulina

Mass Culture Spirulina Outdoors

Although the development of the technology of outdoor mass production of Spirulina dates back to the 1970s, it is very recently that its production and utilization has expanded beyond a few countries or producers. This is because of the many constraints that had to be surmounted. These relate to some environmental, physical, chemical, and biological problems encountered in commercial production of algae. It is not within the scope of this chapter to provide details of these constraints. The...

References

In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Ostereiich nd der Scheweiz, Vol. 14, pp. 916-931, Akad Verlag, Leipzig. 2. Gomont, M. 1892 Monographie des Oscillatoriees. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique . Series 7, 15 91-264. 3. Guglielmi, G., Rippka, R. and Tandaeau De Marsac, N. 1993 Main properties that justify the different taxonomic position of Spirulina. spp. and Arthrospira spp. among cyanobacteria. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco, 12 13-23. 4....