Listed in retinal activity equivalents

(RAE). For instance, 1 mg retinol, 1.15 mg retinyl acetate, or 6 mg p-caro-tene are 1 mg RAE. One mg RAE ^3000 IU vitamin A.

According to international chemical nomenclature (IUPAC), vitamin A and its derivatives (A) are jointly called retinoids. The definition of this term has caused substantial confusion since it fails to differentiate between natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives. In view of the biological/medical aspects involved, the following distinction is made: the term vitamin A applies to all compounds that retain all effects of the vitamin (retinol, retinyl ester). Distinguished from those are the retinoids, which show only some of the effects of the vitamin in the body (no influence on spermatogenesis and visual cycle). This definition applies to synthetic, exoge-nously supplied retinoic acid and its derivatives. Retinoic acid no longer has the same effects as retinol since it is the end product of an irreversible metabolic pathway and can therefore not be re-metabolized to retinol.

A. Chemistry

Vitamin Visual Cycle

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