Appendix

Table of Measures 358

General References 359

Selected Websites 359

Figure Sources 360

Index 361

Abbreviations

11-ß-OHSD

11-p-hydroxysteroid

dehydrogenase

5HT

5-hydroxytryptamine

5-methyl-THF

5-methyl-tetrahydro-

or H3C-PteGLU

folic acid

AA

Amino acids

AAS

Amino acid score

ACAT

Acyl-CoA cholesterol

acyl-transferase

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

ADH

Alcohol dehydroge-

nase

ADI

Acceptable Daily

Intake

ADP

Adenosine diphos-

phate

AGE

Advanced glycylation

end products

AHEI

Harvard School of

Public Health Alterna-

tive Healthy Eating

Index

AI

Adequate Intake

ALDH

Aldehyde dehydroge-

nase

AMD

Age-related macular

degeneration

AMDR

Acceptable Macro-

nutrient Distribution

Range

AMP

Adenosine mono-

phosphate

AMR

Advanced meat

recovery

AN

Anorexia nervosa

ANF

Atrial natriuretic

factor

APHIS

Animal and Plant

Health Inspection

Service

ARAT

Acyl-CoA-retinol

acyl-transferase

AREDS

Age-related eye

disease study

Arg

Arginine

As

Arsenic

As2O3

Arsenic trioxide

Asp

Aspartic acid

ATP

Adenosine triphos

phate

AUC

Area under the curve

B

Boron

BCCA

Branched chain amino

acids

BIA

Bioelectrical imped-

ance

BMI

Body mass index

BMR

Basal metabolic rate

BN

Bulimia nervosa

BRFSS

Behavioral Risk Factor

Surveillance System

(CDC)

BSE

Bovine spongiform

encephalopathy

BV

Biological value

Ca

Calcium

CaBP

Calcium-binding

protein

CAD

Coronary artery

disease

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CCO

Cytochrome C oxidase

CDC

Centers for Disease

Control

CE

Cholesterol esters

CETP

Cholesterol ester

transfer protein

CH3-Pte

Methyl tetrahydrofolic

acid

CIBD

Chronic inflammatory

bowel disease

CJD

Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease

CLA

Conjugated linoleic

acid

CM

Chylomicrons

Co

Cobalt

CoA

Coenzyme A

Cp

Ceruloplasmin

XIV

Abbreviations

Cr

Chromium

FDC

Follicular dendritic cell

CRALBP

Cellular retinal-

FD&C

Federal Food, Drug,

binding protein

and Cosmetic (Act)

CRBP

Cellular retinol-

Fe

Iron

binding protein

FEMA

Federal Emergency

CRF

Corticotropin releas-

Management Agency

ing factor

FFA

Free fatty acids

CRIP

Cysteine-rich intesti-

FMN

Flavin mono-

nal protein

nucleotide

Cu

Copper

G6P

Glucose-6-phosphate

CuSOD

CuZn-Superoxide

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

dismutase

Gal

Galactose

CVD

Cardiovascular

GI

Glycemic index

disease

GL

Glycemic load

CWD

Chronic wasting

GLC

Glucose

disease

GlcNAc

N-acetyl-glucosamine

Cys

Cysteine

Gln

Glutamine

DBP

Vitamin D-binding

GLP-1

Glucagon-like

protein

peptide 1

DFE

Dietary folate equiva-

GLU

Glutamate

lents

GLU

Glucoronic acid

DLW

Doubly labeled water

Gly

Glycine

technique

GM

Genetic modification

DM

Diabetes mellitus

GMP

Good manufacturing

DRI

Dietary Reference

practices

Intakes

GR

Glutathione reductase

DT

Delirium tremens

GRAS

Generally Recognized

EAR

Estimated Average

As Safe

Requirement

GSH-Px

Glutathione per-

ECW

Extracellular water

oxidase

EDRF

Endothelium-derived

GST

Glutathione-S-trans-

relaxing factor

ferase

EER

Estimated energy

GTF

Glucose tolerance

requirement

factor

ER

Endoplasmic reticu-

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

lum

h3bo3

Boric acid

F

Fluorine

H3C-Pte-GLU

Methyl-tetrahydro-

F-

Fluoride

folate

FA

Fatty acids

H4-Pte-GLU

Tetrahydrofolic acid

FABP

Fatty acid binding

Hb

Hemoglobin

protein

HCA

Hydroxy citrate

FAD

Flavin adenine dinu-

HDL

High-density lipo-

cleotide

proteins

FAE

Fetal alcohol effects

HEI

USDA Healthy Eating

FAS

Fetal alcohol

Index

syndrome

HFCS

High fructose corn

FC

Free cholesterol

syrup

His

Histidine

Mn

HMB

Hydroxymethyl

MnSOD

butyrate

Mo

HMG

Hydroxymethylglu-

MoO4-

taryl

MSG

HUS

Hemolytic uremic

syndrome

NA

I

Iodine

NAD+

I-

Iodide

ICW

Intracellular water

NADP

IDDM

Insulin-dependent

diabetes mellitus

IDL

Intermediate-density

NADPH

lipoproteins

IF

Intrinsic factor

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

NE

IM

Intramuscular

Neo-DHC

IP

Inositol phosphate

N-HDL

IPP

Isopentenyl diphos-

phate

Ni

IRS

Insulin receptor sub-

NIDDM

strate

IU

International units

NMN

IUPAC

International

chemical nomen-

NO

clature

NO3

K

Potassium

NO-R

kcal

Kilocalories

NOS

LCAT

Lecithin cholesterol

NPU

acyl-transferase

NPY

LDL

Low-density lipo-

nvCJD

proteins

Li

Lithium

OP

LNAA

Long-chain neutral

P

amino acids

PAF

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

Lys

Lysine

PAH

MAO

Monoamine oxidases

MCL

Maximum contami-

PAI

nant level

MCT

Medium-chain tri-

PAL

glycerides

Pb

MEOS

Microsomal ethanol

PDCAAS

oxidation system

Met

Methionine

MGP

Matrix Gla-proteins

PEM

MJ

Mega joule

Manganese Manganese-SOD Molybdenum Molybdate Monosodium glutamate

Nicotinic acid Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Dihydro-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate Nicotinamide Neohesperidine DHC Nascent high-density lipoproteins Nickel

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Nicotinic acid mono-nucleotide Nitrogen monoxide Nitrate

S-Nitrosocysteine NO synthase Net protein utilization Neuropeptide Y new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Organophosphate Phosphate Platelet activation factor

Phenylalanine hydro-xylase

Plasminogen activator inhibitor

Physical activity level Lead

Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores

Protein energy malnutrition

PER

Protein efficiency ratio

PG

Polygalacturonase

Phe

Phenylalanine

PI

Phosphatidyl inositol

PKC

Protein kinase C

PKU

Phenylketonuria

PL

Phospholipids

PL

Pyridoxal

PM

Pyridoxamine

PMN

Polymorphonuclear

leukocytes

PP

Pellagra preventive

PPS

Pentose phosphate

shunt

Prot-SH

Sulfur-containing pro-

teins

PRPP

Phospho ribosyl-1-

diphosphate

PRPP

5-Phosphoribosyl-1-

diphosphate

Pte

Pteridine

PTP

Phospholipid transfer

protein

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty

acids

R

Retinol

RA

Retinoic acid

RAR

Retinoic acid recep-

tors

rBGH

Recombinant human

growth hormone

RBP

Retinol-binding pro-

tein

RDA

Recommended Die

tary Allowances (U.S.)

RDA

Recommended Daily

Amounts (UK)

RDI

Reference Daily

Intake (U.S.)

RDI

Recommended Daily

Intakes (Australia)

RE

Retinol Equivalents

RE

Esterified Retinol

RE

Retinyl ester

REM

Remnants

RFBPs

Riboflavin-binding

proteins

RfD

Reference dose

RME

Receptor-mediated

endocytosis

RNI

Reference Nutrient

Intake (UK)

ROS

Reactive oxygen spe-

cies

RPE

Retinal pigment epi

thelium

R-PteGLUn

Non-methylated pter-

oyl polyglutamate

SAD

Seasonal affective dis-

order

SD

Standard deviations

Se

Selenium

SeO3

Selenite

SeO4-

Selenate

Ser

Serine

Si

Silicon

Sia

Sialic acid

SiO2

Silicon oxide

SiO4-

Silicate

Sn

Tin

SO2

Sulfur dioxide

so3-

Sulfite

so4-

Sulfate

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SR material

Specified risk material

SRM

Specified risk material

TBG

Thyroxine-binding

globulin

TDP

Thiamin diphosphate

TEF

Thermic effect of food

TfR

Transferrin receptors

TG

Triglycerides

TG

Triacyl glycerole

THFA

Tetrahydrofolate

Thr

Threonine

TSE

Transmissible spongi-

form encephalopathy

TTP

Thiamin triphosphate

TTR

Transthyretin

UCP1

Uncoupling protein 1

UDP-

Uridine phosphate

UL

Tolerable Upper In

take Level

USP

United States Pharma-

vo4-

copeia

X5P

UWL

Unstirred water layer

XO

V

Vanadium

YOPI

vCJD

Variant Creutzfeldt-

Jakob disease

VLDL

Very low density lipo-

Zn

VO2+

proteins

aTE

Vanadyl

Xylulose-5-phosphate Xanthine oxidase Young, old, pregnant, and immunocompro-mised Zinc a-Tocopherol equivalents

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