Dysphagia

Dysphagia is an impairment of swallowing involving any structures of the upper gastrointestinal tract from the lips to the lower esophageal sphinc-ter.28 Dysphagia in children is generally classified as either oral dysphagia (abnormal preparatory or oral phase) or pharyngeal dysphagia (abnormal pharyngeal phase).

Oral dysphagia is seen most commonly in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Infants with oral dysphagia often have an impaired oral preparatory phase. These children typically demonstrate poor lingual and labial co-ordination, resulting in anterior substance loss and a poor labial seal for sucking or removing food from a spoon. Other abnormal patterns include jaw thrust and tongue thrust on presentation of food. Oral dysphagia may also involve the oral phase of swallowing. Children with impaired oral phase function often have difficulty in co-ordinating the

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