The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

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The most prevalent intestinal parasites associated with morbidity in children are the protozoa Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Entameoba histolytica, and the helminths Trichuris, Ascaris, hookworm and Strongyloides. Although most infected children remain asymptomatic, some children with high intensity of infection have manifestations of severe and persistent enteropathy, particularly with strongyloidiasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis and trichuriasis. In spite of reductions in overall child mortality rates over recent decades, intestinal parasites remain highly prevalent in children in the developing world with no evidence of decreases in either global prevalence or morbidity, despite effective treatment being available. Recent advances in molecular biology and immunology of parasites are improving diagnostic techniques and open the way for the development of vaccines to control them. New vaccines and mass chemotherapy programs appear to be more effective approaches in the control of intestinal parasites in the short-term than improvements in hygiene, sanitation and living standards.


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