Esophageal atresia is commonly associated with maternal polyhydramnios. The diagnosis may be made in the antenatal period, particularly if there is no tacheoesophageal fistula. In the postnatal period, symptoms include excessive salivation, feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, and cyanotic episodes. Cases of esophageal atresia (with the exception of the rare esophageal atresia with double fistula) can be confirmed by failure of passage of a nasogastric tube into the stomach. Cases of tacheoesophageal fistula in the absence of esophageal atresia (i.e. H-type fistula) may present later, usually with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress or pneumonia.
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