A number of classification systems have been proposed over the years. The abbreviated list in Table 2.1 describes the most commonly encountered anatomical variants (Figure 2.1). The

Table 2.1 Classification of esophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) anomalies and frequency6

Type of lesion

Frequency (%)

EA and distal TEF


Isolated EA


H-type fistula


Distal and proximal TEF


Proximal TEF


Picture Type Tef
Figure 2.1 Common anatomical variants of esophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) anomalies. (a) EA with distal TEF; (b) isolated EA with no TEF; (c) H-type TEF; (d) proximal and distal TEF; (e) EA with proximal TEF.

Spitz classification6 (Table 2.2), incorporating birth weight and presence of major congenital heart disease status, may be useful in predicting survival.

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