Table of Contents

Eat Stop Eat

Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

Get Instant Access

Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Conventions Used in This Book 2

What You Don't Have to Read 2

Foolish Assumptions 3

How This Book Is Organized 3

Part I: The Basic Facts about Nutrition 3

Part II: What You Get from Food 4

Part III: Healthy Eating 4

Part IV: Food Processing 4

Part V: Food and Medicine 5

Part VI: The Part of Tens 5

Icons Used in This Book 5

Where to Go from Here 6

Part I: The Basic Facts about Nutrition 7

Chapter 1: What's Nutrition, Anyway? 9

Nutrition Equals Life 9

First principles: Energy and nutrients 10

What's an essential nutrient? 12

Protecting the nutrients in your food 12

Other interesting substances in food 13

You are what you eat 13

Your nutritional status 14

Fitting food into the medicine chest 15

Finding Nutrition Facts 16

Nutritional people 16

Can you trust this study? 17

Chapter 2: Digestion: The 24-Hour Food Factory 19

Introducing the Digestive System 19

The digestive organs 20

Digestion: A two-part process 21

Understanding How Your Body Digests Food 21

The eyes and nose 21

The mouth 22

The stomach 22

The small intestine 24

The large intestine 26

Chapter 3: Calories: The Energizers 29

Counting the Calories in Food 29

Empty calories 30

Every calorie counts 32

How Many Calories Do You Need? 32

Resting energy expenditure (REE) 33

Energy for work 35

Enjoying the extras 37

How Much Should You Weigh? 37

Studying weight charts 37

Another way to rate your weight: Calculating your BMI 38

How reliable are the numbers? Considering confounding variables 41

Facing the numbers when they don't fit your body 42

How many calories do you really need? 43

The last word on calories 44

Chapter 4: How Much Nutrition Do You Need? 45

RDAs: Guidelines for Good Nutrition 45

The essentials 46

Recommendations for carbohydrates, fats, dietary fiber, and alcohol 46

Different people, different needs 47

Als: The Nutritional Numbers Formerly Known as ESADDIs 48

DRI: A Newer Nutrition Guide 48

No Sale Ever Is Final 54

Chapter 5: A Supplemental Story 55

Introducing Dietary Supplements 55

Examining Why People Use Dietary Supplements 56

When food isn't enough 57

Using supplements as insurance 58

Supplement Safety: An Iffy Proposition 59

Choosing the Most Effective Supplements 61

Choosing a well-known brand 62

Checking the ingredient list 62

Looking for the expiration date 62

Checking the storage requirements 62

Choosing a sensible dose 64

Avoiding hype 64

Good Reasons for Getting Nutrients from Food

Rather Than Supplements 64

Cost 65

Unexpected bonuses 65

Safety 65

Part JJ: What You Get from Food 67

Chapter 6: Powerful Protein 69

Looking Inside and Out: Where Your Body Puts Protein 69

Putting Protein to Work: How Your Body Uses Protein 70

Packing Back the Protein: What Happens to the Proteins You Eat 70

Examining Protein Types: Not All Proteins Are Created Equal 72

Essential and nonessential proteins 72

High-quality and low-quality proteins 73

Complete proteins and incomplete proteins 75

Deciding How Much Protein You Need 77

Calculating the correct amount 77

Dodging protein deficiency 77

Boosting your protein intake: Special considerations 78

Avoiding protein overload 78

Chapter 7: The Lowdown on Fat and Cholesterol 81

Finding the Facts about Fat Stuff 81

Understanding how your body uses fat 82

Pulling energy from fat 82

Focusing on the fats in food 83

Getting the right amount of fat 84

Essential fatty acids 84

Finding fat in all kinds of foods 85

Defining fatty acids and their relationship to dietary fat 86

Considering Cholesterol and You 90

Cholesterol and heart disease 91

Living with lipoproteins 92

Diet and cholesterol 94

Chapter 8: Carbohydrates: A Complex Story 97

Checking Out Carbohydrates 97

Carbohydrates and energy: a biochemical love story 100

How glucose becomes energy 101

How pasta ends up on your hips when too many carbs pass your lips 101

Other ways your body uses carbohydrates 102

Finding the carbohydrates you need 102

Some problems with carbohydrates 103

Who needs extra carbohydrates? 104

Dietary Fiber: The Non-Nutrient in Carbohydrate Foods 105

The two kinds of dietary fiber 106

Getting fiber from food 107

How much fiber do you need? 108

Chapter 9: Alcohol: Another Form of Grape and Grain 113

Revealing the Many Faces of Alcohol 113

Examining How Alcohol Beverages Are Made 114

Fermented alcohol products 114

Distilled alcohol products 115

The foods used to make beverage alcohol 115

How Much Alcohol Is in That Bottle? 116

Moving Alcohol through Your Body 117

Flowing down the hatch from mouth to stomach 117

Stopping for a short visit at the energy factory 118

Taking time out for air 118

Rising to the surface 118

Encountering curves in the road 119

Alcohol and Health 119

Moderate drinking: Some benefits, some risks 119

The physical risks of alcohol abuse 120

Alcoholism: An addiction disease 121

Who should not drink 122

Heeding Advice from the Sages: Moderation 124

Chapter 10: Vigorous Vitamins 125

Taking a Look at the Vitamins Your Body Needs 125

Fat-soluble vitamins 126

Water-soluble vitamins 130

Get Your Vitamins Here 135

Too Much or Too Little: Avoiding Two Ways to Go Wrong with

Vitamins 141

Vitamin deficiencies 141

Big trouble: Vitamin megadoses 142

Exceeding the RDAs: Taking Extra Vitamins as Needed 144

I'm taking medication 145

I'm a smoker 145

I never eat animals 146

I'm a couch potato who plans to start working out 146

I'm pregnant 146

I'm breast-feeding 147

I'm approaching menopause 147

I have very light skin or very dark skin 148

Chapter 11: Mighty Minerals 149

Taking Inventory of the Minerals You Need 149

Introducing the major minerals 150

Introducing the trace elements 154

Getting the Minerals You Need 158

Overdoses and Underdoses: Too Much and Too Little 161

Avoiding mineral deficiency 161

Knowing how much is too much 163

Exceeding the RDAs: People who need extra minerals 164

You're a strict vegetarian 164

You live inland, away from the ocean 165

You're a man 166

You're a woman 166

You're pregnant 166

You're breast-feeding 167

Chapter 12: Phabulous Phytochemicals 169

Phytochemicals Are Everywhere 169

Perusing the Different Kinds of Phytochemicals 170

Antioxidants 171

Hormonelike compounds 171

Sulfur compounds 172

Dietary fiber 173

Phorecasting the Phuture of Phytochemicals 173

Chapter 13: Water Works 175

Investigating the Many Ways Your Body Uses Water 175

Maintaining the Right Amount of Water in Your Body 176

A balancing act: The role of electrolytes 176

Dehydrating without enough water and electrolytes 178

Getting the Water You Need 179

Taking in Extra Water and Electrolytes As Needed 180

You're sick to your stomach 182

You're exercising or working hard in a hot environment 182

You're on a high-protein diet 183

You're taking certain medications 183

You have high blood pressure 183

Part HI: Healthy Eating 185

Chapter 14: Why You Eat When You Eat 187

Understanding the Difference between Hunger and Appetite 187

Refueling: The Cycle of Hunger and Satiety 188

Recognizing hunger 188

Knowing when you're full 190

Beating the four-hour hungries 191

Maintaining a healthy appetite 191

Responding to Your Environment on a Gut Level 192

Baby, it's cold outside 192

Exercising more than your mouth 192

Nursing your appetite back to health 193

Taking medicine, changing your appetite 193

When Your Appetite Goes Haywire: Eating Disorders 194

Eating too much 194

Bingeing, purging, and starving: Unhealthy relationships to food 195

Chapter 15: Why You Like the Foods You Like 197

Tackling Taste: How Your Brain and Tongue Work Together 197

The four (maybe five) basic flavors 198

Your health and your taste buds 199

Tricking your taste buds 200

Determining Deliciousness 200

Listening to your body 200

Loving the food you're with: Geography and taste 201

Taking offense to tastes 202

Changing the Menu: Adapting to Exotic Foods 204

Learning to like unusual foods 204

Stirring the stew: The culinary benefits of immigration 205

Chapter 16: What Is a Healthful Diet? 209

What Are Dietary Guidelines for Americans? 209

Controlling Your Weight 211

Getting the most nutritious calories 211

Managing your weight 211

Being physically active 212

Making Smart Food Choices 214

Picking the perfect plants 214

Figuring out fats 215

Counting on carbs 216

Limiting salt, balancing potassium 216

Moderating alcohol consumption 218

Keeping Food Safe to Eat 219

Okay, Now Relax 219

Chapter 17: Making Wise Food Choices 221

Playing with Blocks: Basics of the Food Pyramids 221

The original USDA Food Guide Pyramid 222

The brand new 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid 224

Building your own pyramid 225

Understanding the Nutrition Facts Labels 228

Just the facts, ma'am 229

Relying on labels: Health claims 232

How high is high? How low is low? 233

Listing what's inside 235

Choosing Foods with MyPyramid and the Nutrition Facts Label 235

The Final Word on Diagrams and Stats 236

Chapter 18: Eating Smart When Eating Out 237

Interpreting a Restaurant Menu 237

Pinpointing portions 237

Asking for proof 238

Making Smart Menu Choices 239

Starting simple 239

Elevating appetizers to entrees 240

Skipping the fat on the bread 240

Going naked: Undressed veggies 240

Minimizing the main dish 241

Sidelining sauces 242

Satisfying your sweet tooth 242

Discovering the Healthful Side of Fast Food 242

Choosing wisely at the drive-through 242

Finding fast-food ingredient guides 244

Part IV: Food Processing 247

Chapter 19: What Is Food Processing? 249

Preserving Food: Five Methods of Processing 249

Temperature control 251

Removing the water 251

Controlling the air flow 252

Chemical warfare 252

Irradiation 253

Making Food Better and Better for You 253

Intensifying flavor and aroma 253

Adding nutrients 254

Combining benefits 255

Faking It: Alternative Foods 255

Alternative foods No. 1: Fake fats 255

Alternative foods No. 2: Substitute sweeteners 256

A Last Word: Follow That Bird 258

Chapter 20: Cooking and Nutrition 261

What's Cooking? 261

Cooking with electromagnetic waves 262

Cooking away contaminants 264

Making Changes: How Cooking Affects Food 267

Cook me tender: Changing texture 268

Enhancing flavor and aroma 270

Altering the palette: Food color 271

Choosing Cookware: How Pots and Pans Affect Food 272

Aluminum 273

Copper 273

Ceramics 273

Enamelware 274

Glass 274

Iron 274

Nonstick 275

Stainless steel 275

Plastic and paper 276

Protecting the Nutrients in Cooked Foods 277

Maintaining minerals 277

Those volatile vitamins 277

Chapter 21: What Happens When Food Is Frozen,

Canned, Dried, or Zapped 279

Cold Comfort: Chilling and Freezing 279

How freezing affects the texture of food 282

Refreezing frozen food 283

Canned Food: Keeping Out Contaminants 283

Dried Food: No Life without Water 285

How drying affects food's nutritional value 285

When dried fruit may be hazardous to your health 286

Irradiation: A Hot Topic 286

Chapter 22: Better Eating through Chemistry 289

Exploring the Nature (and Science) of Food Additives 289

Adding nutrients 290

Adding colors and flavors 291

Adding preservatives 292

Naming some other additives in food 293

Determining the Safety of Food Additives 293

Defining toxins 294

Explaining carcinogens 294

Listing allergens 295

Looking Beyond Additives: Foods Nature Never Made 297

Part V: Food and Medicine 299

Chapter 23: When Food Gives You Hives 301

Finding Out More about Food Allergies 301

Understanding how an allergic reaction occurs 302

Investigating two kinds of allergic reactions 303

It's all in the family: Inheriting food allergies 304

Considering Foods Most Likely to Cause Allergic Reactions 304

Testing, Testing: Identifying Food Allergies 306

Coping with Food Allergies 306

Recognizing Other Body Reactions to Food 307

Chapter 24: Food and Mood 309

How Chemicals Alter Mood 309

How Food Affects Mood 311

Alcohol 312

Anandamide 312

Caffeine 312

Tryptophan and glucose 314

Phenylethylamine (PEA) 315

Using Food to Manage Mood 315

Chapter 25: Food and Drug Interactions 317

How a Food and Drug Interaction Happens 317

Food Fights: Drugs versus Nutrients versus Drugs 319

Avoiding Adverse Food and Drug Interactions 321

Using Food to Improve a Drug's Performance 322

Chapter 26: Using Food as Medicine 325

Defining Food as Medicine 325

Examining Diets with Absolutely, Positively Beneficial Medical

Effects 326

Using Food to Prevent Disease 327

Battling deficiency diseases 328

Fighting off cancer with food 328

DASHing to healthy blood pressure 329

Conquering the common cold 330

Eating for a Better Body (and Brain) 332

Delivering Meds with Dinner 333

The Last Word on Food versus Medicine 334

Part VJ: The Part of Tens 335

Chapter 27: Ten Nutrition Web Sites 337

U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database 337

USDA Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) 338

U.S. Food and Drug Administration 339

American Dietetic Association 340

The American Heart Association 340

The American Cancer Society 341

The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network 341

International Food Information Council (IFIC) 342

American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) and the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) 342

Tufts University Nutrition Navigator 343

Chapter 28: Ten (Well, Okay, Twelve) Superstar Foods 345

Alcohol 345

Beans 346

Berries 347

Bison 347

Breast Milk 348

Chocolate 348

Coffee 349

Fish 349

Nuts 350

White Tea 351

Whole Grains 352

Yogurt 352

Chapter 29: Ten Easy Ways to Cut Calories 355

Switching to Low-Fat or No-Fat Dairy Products 355

Substituting Sugar Substitutes 356

Serving Stew Instead of Steak 356

Choosing Low-Fat Desserts 356

Peeling the Poultry 356

Not Oiling the Salad 357

Making One-Slice Sandwiches 357

Eliminating the High-Fat Ingredient 357

Seasoning the Veggies instead of Drowning Them in Butter 358

Washing the Chopped Meat 358

Index 359

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Lose 10 Pounds Naturally

Lose 10 Pounds Naturally

Studies show obesity may soon overtake tobacco as the leading cause of death in America. Are you ready to drop those extra pounds you've been carrying around? Awesome. Let's start off with a couple positive don't. You don't need to jump on a diet craze and you don't need to start exercising for hours each day.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment