Dietary Requirements for Vitamin A

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has made new recommendations of vitamin A intake by life stage and gender group (Table 2) (246). These Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets in apparently healthy people and include Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and Adequate Intake (AI) (246). The RDA is defined as "the dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group." The EAR is defined as "a nutrient intake that is estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group." AI is defined as "a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate—used when an RDA cannot be determined" (246).

Table 2

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A (pg RAE/d)

Table 2

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A (pg RAE/d)

Age and gender category

AI

EAR

RDA

Infants, 0-6 mo

400

-

-

Infants, 7-12 mo

500

-

-

Children, 1-3 yr

-

210

300

Children, 4-8 yr

-

275

400

Boys, 9-13 yr

-

445

600

Girls, 9-13 yr

-

420

600

Boys, 14-18 yr

-

630

900

Girls, 14-18 yr

-

485

700

Adult men >19 yr

-

625

900

Adult women >19 yr

-

500

700

Pregnant women, 14-18 yr

-

530

750

Pregnant women >19 yr

-

550

770

Lactating women, 14-18 yr

-

885

1200

Lactating women >19 yr

-

900

1300

AI, Adequate Intake; EAR, Estimated Average Requirement; RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowance. Data from ref. 246.

AI, Adequate Intake; EAR, Estimated Average Requirement; RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowance. Data from ref. 246.

Table 3

World Health Organization Classification of Xerophthalmia

XN Night blindness X1A Conjunctival xerosis X1B Bitot spot X2 Corneal xerosis

X3A Corneal ulceration/keratomalacia involving less than one-third of corneal surface X3B Corneal ulceration/keratomalacia involving one-third or more of corneal surface XS Corneal scar XF Xerophthalmic fundus

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