Cure Gout Naturally
Several pu-erh tea consumers have claimed that drinking pu-erh tea, especially aged pu-erh tea, can attenuate the pain of gout at the bone joint . The mechanism of this interesting clinical effect of pu-erh tea may come from the inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the uric acid-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) . The inhibitory effects of six tea polyphenols, namely, theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallic acid, and propyl gallate, on XO have been investigated 11 These six antioxidant compounds reduce oxidative stress in HL-60 cells . Theaflavins and EGCG inhibit XO to produce uric acid and also act as scavengers of superoxide TF3 acts as a competitive inhibitor and is the most potent inhibitor of XO among these compounds . It has been shown that pu-erh tea contains different levels of theaflavins, thearubigins, and higher polymerized catechins Therefore, pu-erh tea is expected to inhibit the XO...
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found an incidence of endstage renal disease of 0.23 100 person years, with rates of 0.29 for patients with type 1 diabetes and 0.27 for patients with type 2 diabetes (90). Factors such as African American race, gout, and hypertension more than doubled the risk of endstage renal disease (90). In a study by Klein et al., analyzing 891 patients with type 1 diabetes, the 10-year cumulative incidence of renal failure or serum creatinine 2.0 mg dl was 14.9 percent (90). The risk of renal failure almost doubled for every 1 percent increase in HbA1c (36). Hypertension almost tripled the risk (90).
The molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy that directly powers muscle contraction. Logic would have us believe that if we provide the building blocks of ATP in supplements, muscle cells would have more ATP available and exercise performance would be enhanced. The adenosine in ATP can be made from the molecule inosine. However, adenosine concentrations in the cells seem to be tightly controlled and supplemented inosine is not efficiently converted to adeno-sine. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the processes necessary to break down the excessive inosine may generate free radicals. In addition, inosine is broken down to uric acid, which is involved in the formation of certain types of kidney stones and gout if not proficiently removed from the blood
Other direct or indirect effects of alcohol abuse include impaired drug metabolism and elevated blood uric acid levels. The latter can lead to gout and kidney stones. Barbiturates, which are sedative drugs (pen-tothal, pentobarbital, seconal), are metabolized and inactivated by one of the same mechanisms that metabolizes alcohol. Since the metabolism of alcohol is given higher priority than the inactivation of barbiturates, these drugs stay active longer and build up in the body. Barbiturates depress the CNS, breathing, and heart activity. Therefore, combining barbiturates with alcohol can be a lethal combination.
Anthocyanin pigments, the water-soluble, reddish pigments found in fruits such as strawberries, cherries, cranberries, raspberries, blueberries, grapes, and black currants, are reported to be antioxidants and are very effective in scavenging free radicals, inhibiting LDL cholesterol oxidation and platelet aggregation, and protecting against cardiovascular disease.54-56 A variety of anthocyanins and flavonoids have been identified in tart cherries, which possess very strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These compounds could account for antiallergenic, antiviral, anticancer, and cardio-protective activities.57 It has been suggested that the composition of tart cherries may protect against various chronic diseases and reduce arthritic- and gout-related pain.57
In terms of nutritional requirement, it appears that protein supplementation by increasing daily protein intake to a level higher than 12-15 en will be too high for most athletes. Since a higher daily energy intake in endurance athletes will result in higher protein intake, as well, the value of protein supplementation for endurance sport can be questioned. Based on the observed relationship between energy consumption and protein consumption, athletes expending and eating 5000 kcal day will ingest twice as much protein as people not involved in exercise and expending ingesting only 2500 kcal day. Protein intake for any endurance athlete will thus be sufficient as long as the diet is well composed and contains a variety of protein sources such as lean meat, fish, dairy products, eggs and vegetable protein. Supplementation may be warranted for athletes who compete in weight classes and combine intensive training with weight reduction programmes. Also vegetarian athletes, who consume low...
Nephrolithiasis is a disorder in which small stones - usually formed from calcium and ox-alate - precipitate in the kidney. If they pass into the ureter they cause irritation, spasm, and may block the flow of urine. The pain of a kidney stone is intense it typically starts suddenly in the lower back and radiates down and around toward the groin. In general, the more calcium and oxalate in the urine, the greater the chances of developing kidney stones. Uric acid in the urine can be the seed around which calcium oxalate stones develop. The risk of kidney stones can be strongly influenced by dietary factors.5
A number of other compounds that are not nutrients but are formed in the body as normal metabolites also provide protection against radical damage. Such compounds include uric acid (the end-product of the metabolism of the purines) and the coenzyme ubiquinone (section 126.96.36.199). The latter is sometimes marketed as vitamin Q, but it can be synthesized in the body, and there is no evidence that it is a dietary essential or
Hendriks et al. (1997a) determined the endogenous content of several urinary nitrogen fractions in adult cats fed a protein-free diet and by regression to zero dietary nitrogen intake, and found undetermined nitrogen (total N-urea N-creatinine N-ammonia N) fractions of 57.6 and 38.0 mg kg-1 day-1, respectively. The undetermined nitrogen fraction would have contained free amino acids, mucus, sloughed cells, enzymes, creatine, metabolites of purine metabolism (uric acid, allantoin, xanthine, hypoxanthine), etc.
Additionally, free radicals may result from energy depletion in skeletal muscle during which ATP is broken down to ADP 2 AMP 2 hypoxanthine, which finally leads to the formation of xanthine and uric acid in red blood cells and endothelial cells, resulting in the liberation of free radicals. This is the xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway. Also the autooxidation of catecholamines as well as the production of nitric oxide, substances that are increased during exercise, lead to free radical production.
Because diet electrolytes can influence water balance and renal function, it is often assumed that electrolyte excess or deficiency may be predisposing factors in urolithiasis or gout. Because salts of uric acid are very insoluble, then the excretion of precipitated urate salts could serve as a water conservation mechanism, especially when cations are excreted during salt loading or when water is in short supply. When roosters are given saline water (1 NaCl) and fed high protein diets, uric acid excretion rates are doubled compared to birds offered the high protein diet along with non-saline drinking water. Because uric acid colloids are negatively charged, they attract cations such as Na, and so when these are in excess, there is an increased excretion via urates, presumably at the expense of conventional NH4 compounds. There is some evidence of an imbalance of Na+K Cl levels influencing kidney function. When excess Na+K relative to Cl is fed, a small percentage of the birds develop...
The claims for Bass have been various. Doctors in its town of origin, Burton-on-Trent, are said to have recommended it as a laxative. Writing in The Times, Dr Mapother recommended Bass as a cure for gout. It is claimed that Bass cured Edward VII, when Prince of Wales, of typhoid. Perhaps this stimulated the music-hall song that ran
Antioxidant properties of wine have also been observed in vivo. For example, in nine healthy subjects who drank 300 mL of red wine, 18 and 11 increases in serum antioxidant capacity was observed after 1 h and 2 h, respectively, but less than the 22 and 29 increases seen at these times in subjects who took 1000 mg ascorbic acid (Whitehead et al., 1995). Lesser increases in serum antioxidant capacity were observed if the subjects drank white wine, or apple, grape, or orange juice. Plasma antioxidant potential also increased about 20 over baseline 2 h or 4 h after normal subjects consumed red wine or ate 1g kg of black grapes, respectively (Durak et al., 1999), in agreement with the observation that the presence of ethanol enhances absorption of polyphenols (Ozturk et al., 1999). Others observed that drinking red wine with meals or consumption of red wine polyphenols (1 or 2 g d) increased total plasma antioxidants by 11 to 15 , respectively, in comparison to a 7 increase by vitamin E...
ROS relate to fat metabolism in the wound The longer-chain PuFAs are known to be more susceptible to oxidation than LC-SFA or MuFA. This susceptibility to oxidation has often led investigators to hypothesize that these fats, although essential and beneficial for many disease states, could lead to increased lipid peroxidation in tissues. An examination of the literature will find that some in vivo studies do associate dietary PuFA with increased oxidative stress.90 However, there are also many studies that indicate that dietary PuFA, especially the rn-3 fatty acids, actually decrease oxidative stress.91-94 Additional research is necessary to determine if PuFA content of cellular phospholipids and WAT at the time of wounding, or whether PuFAs supplied in the diet (oral, parenteral, enteral) are a significant factor, beneficial or otherwise, in wound oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress is known to be one of the factors capable of inducing apoptosis in cells,95-97 it could...
Glycine is regarded as a good source of non-specific nitrogen (Allen and Baker, 1974) but there are no indications of its requirements for mammalian species (Heger et al., 1987 Roth et al., 1994a). A positive effect of glycine addition to diets with a high concentration of essential amino acids observed in kittens (Taylor et al., 1996) probably resulted from the ability of glycine to alleviate the toxic effects associated with excessive intake of sulphur amino acids (Benevenga and Steele, 1984). In poultry, glycine has been classified as a semi-essential amino acid by some authors (Graber and Baker, 1973 NRC, 1994). An increased demand for glycine supply in poultry is associated with the synthesis of uric acid as the primary end product of protein catabolism in avian species that may consume a considerable amount of glycine, particularly when fed high-protein diets.
Nucleic acids may be considered as biogenic substances and are repeatedly blamed for major limitations in the use of algae and other microorganisms as sources of food.35 Because uric acid is produced in humans and other mammals when purines are metabolized and since high levels of this metabolite may result in pathological conditions such as gout while also representing a risk factor for coronary heart disease, the high content of nucleic acid in microbial cells used as food or feed is a constant source of concern.41 Gout and hyperuricemia usually occur after the age of 30 and are more frequently found in men.42 Gout affects about 3 out of 1000 people43 and is characterized by deposits of monosodium urate crystals in tissues.44 The normal plasma uric acid concentration in men is 5.1 0.9 mg 100 mL-1 and that in women is about 1 mg less. Most authorities agree that 6.0 mg of uric acid per 100 mL plasma is the lower limit for the high-risk population.35 Thus the daily intake of nucleic...
The beetroot in this juice will help your liver play its role in detoxification. You can have this juice as part of breakfast, between meals or as a pre-dinner drink. You can add your extra fibre option to this juice if you like. If you suffer from gout, take the leaves off the celery.
Because of molybdenum's widespread availability in the human diet, a deficiency is somewhat unlikely. However, people receiving intravenous (IV) feedings for several months are at risk. In contrast, molybdenum is fairly nontoxic. Molybdenum is involved in the breakdown of purines to a waste product called uric acid. Uric acid is removed from the body in urine, and theoretically there is a greater risk for developing kidney stones formed by excessive uric acid. Excessive uric acid production may also increase the risk of developing gout, which is characterized by recurrent inflammation of joint regions and deposition of uric acid in those areas.
A diet heavy in cooked starch over many decades can cause arteriosclerosis, hardening of the blood vessels, ossification of the tissues and joints, skin thickening, and premature aging. As professor Arnold Ehret pointed out, the reason a cooked-meat eater might live longer than a starch-eating vegetarian is because the first produces less obstructions than the starchy overeater but the meat-eater's later diseases are always more dangerous because of the accumulated poisons, pus and uric acid found in the meats.
In another study, rats were fed C3G (2 g kg diet) for 14 d (Tsuda et al., 1998). There was no difference between the control animals and the experimental group for weight gain, food intake, liver weight, and serum triglycerides, phospholipids, and antioxidants (a-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and uric acid). Free and total cholesterol was lower in the C3G-fed rats. Serum was subjected to ex vivo oxidation by two methods 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and CuSO4. Initially, the serum TBARS from the C3G rats were slightly but significantly lower than that of the control group, but the differences became more pronounced with time in both reaction systems. C3G did not appear to have an antioxi-dant effect in rat liver.
In the metabolism of fats, sugars, and starches, the waste which is left behind is carbon dioxide and water. This however is not the case with protein, which leaves as its end-products uric acid and urea, which, if retained in the system, are very harmful. Thus not only is protein not well utilized for bodily health, but it is also a potential danger to the health of the liver and kidneys, and because of this, is the greatest factor in acidifying the entire membranous tract.
The concept that a pivotal role for arginine is the generation of proline (Basch et ai, 1997), polyamines (Wu et al., 1998) and NO (Lacasse et al., 1996) for optimal lactational performance. Remnants of the urea cycle may also be found in birds and reptiles, despite their reliance on uric acid as the major route of disposal of waste N. Thus arginase is found in the liver and kidney of birds, with higher activity in the latter organ. Avian kidney arginase is sensitive to dietary arginine status and antagonisms caused by lysine and certain other analogues (Chapter 7).
Toxin A (OA) is by far the most significant for poultry. OA is produced by a number of molds, with Aspergillus and Penicillium species being most commonly involved. OA is toxic at 2 ppm and as with tricothecenes, it has an adverse effect on protein synthesis. However, OA also affects kidney function and so the classical signs are swollen kidneys and associated increased water intake with wet excreta. Secondary visceral gout, which appears as urate deposits over the viscera, is common with OA toxicity, due essentially to failure of uric acid clearance by the kidney tubules. OA toxicity is compounded by the presence of aflatoxin, DON and T2 toxicosis, and also made worse by feeding diets high in vanadium (usually as a contaminant of phosphates or limestone). There are no effective preventative measures, although birds sometimes respond to diet manipulation in the form of increasing crude protein levels. There are also reports of beneficial response to increasing diet vitamin C levels,...
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