The proposed minimum information about a dietary protein miadp standard

Standardization of genomic and proteomic data has already become an accepted practice in many fields of research and is increasingly required by journals as a prerequisite for manuscript review. For example MIAME (Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment) has been developed to facilitate the reporting and indexing of the vast and complex data sets of transcriptome experiments (Brazma et al., 2001). The MIAME standard is now required for publication of microarray experiments in many key journals. The journals also require that authors provide accession or identifier numbers to databases that identify specific molecular structures e.g. the protein sequence database, UniProt (The UniProt Consortium, 2007) and protein structure database, Protein Data Bank (PDB) (Berman et al., 2000). It is not unreasonable, therefore, to propose the development of a dietary protein database that contains all the key data about dietary proteins that have been used in investigational studies. To this end, we propose that a standard for dietary protein data be established, i.e. a Minimum Information About a Dietary Protein (MIADP). In keeping with the intent and spirit of the MIAME standard, every effort should be made to find a middle ground between overburdening researchers and journals or

Schematic Representation of Minimum Information About a Dietary Protein (MIADP)

Protein Source

Basic Processing Information

Basic Processing Information

FIGURE 2.5 Schematic representation of the major components for a proposed standard to provide the minimum information about a dietary protein (MIADP) for all dietary intervention trials evaluating proteins.

FIGURE 2.5 Schematic representation of the major components for a proposed standard to provide the minimum information about a dietary protein (MIADP) for all dietary intervention trials evaluating proteins.

comprising the proprietary information of companies while still reporting key data in sufficient detail to be useful and in a format that allows migration into electronic databases.

Based on the principles of the MIAME standard we propose the following MIADP standard as a starting point for dietary proteins used in research and commerce. The basics of the MIADP standard are illustrated in Figure 2.5 and include the following elements:

  1. Protein source: the plant, animal or fungal species and strain which is the source of the protein should be reported. Where appropriate, information should be given as to whether the source of protein is a genetically modified or specifically bred, natural strain of the species.
  2. Basic processing information: information about the processing methods used to prepare the protein product should be provided in sufficient detail to enable an appreciation of the final state of the protein in the product. Specific information to be provided could include: a) protein extraction method (starting material, organic/aqueous extraction, membrane and/or chemical separation methods, etc.); b) enzymatic treatments or degree of hydrolysis; c) additives during processing (e.g. lecithin, calcium); and d) drying methods should be described (e.g. spray drying).
  3. Gross protein characterization: the protein product must be characterized by clearly defined attributes that allow other researchers to compare the different protein products used in dietary interventions. We propose that the following attributes be reported: a) physical characterization (e.g. particle size, protein surface hydrophobicity (8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS) fluorescence), surface charge


(zeta potential), percent degree of hydrolysis, etc.); b) proximate analysis (lipid, carbohydrate, ash and moisture content); c) amino acid composition (including modified amino acids); d) molecular weight profiling by SDS-PAGE and/or size exclusion chromatography (SEC); e) quantitative analysis of phytochemicals likely to be associated with the protein of interest (e.g. isoflavones, saponins, phytate and sterols); and f) measurements of functionality such as solubility and viscosity.

  1. Food formulation composition: protein ingredients can be delivered in a variety of food forms and matrices. The same ingredient delivered in different food forms may be subject to additional protein physical and chemical modifications and may exhibit different digestibility and bioavailability in the intestine when combined in different matrices once consumed. Therefore, information about the preparation and detailed nutrient composition of the final food form/matrix should be provided.
  2. Fine protein characterization: in cases where a refined and/or purified protein (e.g. soy 7S protein) is used in dietary intervention studies, additional information about the protein product may be warranted such as protein sequence and higher order structural information.
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