Nutrition Facts

Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 1 cup (228 g)

Servings Per Container 2

Amount Per Serving

Calories 250 Calories from Fat 110

% Daily Value*

Total Fat 12g

18%

Saturated Fat 3g

15%

Trans Fat 3g

Cholesterol 30mg

10%

Sodium 470mg

20%

Total Carbohydrates 31g

10%

Dietary Fiber 0g

0%

Sugars 5g

Protein 5g

Vitamin C 2%

Calcium 20%

Iron 4%

are provided in familiar units, such as cups or pieces, followed by the metric amount (the number of grams). A serving of applesauce would read "V2 cup (114 g)." The household measure is easier to understand, but the metric measure gives a more precise idea of the amount. For example, "114 g" means 114 grams, a measure of weight. There are approximately 28 grams in 1 ounce. The label helps you get familiar with metrics, too.

Serving sizes are designed to reflect the amounts people actually eat. Compare the serving size, including how many servings there are in the food package, to how much you actually eat. The size of the serving on the food package influences all the nutrient amounts listed on the top part of the label. In the sample label, one serving of macaroni and cheese equals 1 cup. If you ate the whole package, you would eat 2 cups, and that doubles the kcalo-ries and other nutrient numbers.

If you check the serving size of different brands of macaroni and cheese, you'll see that the sizes are similar. That means you don't need to be a math whiz to compare two foods. Likewise, it's easy to see the kcalo-rie and nutrient differences between similar servings of canned fruit packed in syrup and the same fruit in natural juices.

Vitamin A 4%

Vitamin C 2%

Calcium 20%

Iron 4%

*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.

Calories 2,000 2,500

Total Fat less than 65g

Sat. Fat less than

Cholesterol less than

Sodium less than

Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber

20g 25g

300 mg 300 mg 2,400 mg 2,400 mg

300 g 375 g

25g 30g

FIGURE 2-22 Nutrition Facts label.

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture.

  1. The next stop on the Nutrition Facts panel is the kcalories per serving category, which lists the total kcalories in one serving as well as the kcalories from fat. In the example, there are 250 kcalories in one serving of this macaroni and cheese. How many kcalories from fat are there in one serving? Answer: 110 kcalories, which means almost half the food's kcalories come from fat. If you ate the whole package, you would consume 500 kcalories, and 220 would come from fat.
  2. Nutrients are listed next. Information about some nutrients is required: total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron. Information about additional nutrients may be given voluntarily, but it is required in two cases: if a claim is made about the nutrients on the label or if the nutrients are added to the food. For example, fortified breakfast cereals must give Nutrition Facts for any added vitamins and minerals.

The nutrients listed first (total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium) are the ones Americans generally eat in adequate amounts or eat too much of. Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or

■ DAILY VALUE A set of nutrient-intake values developed by the Food and Drug Administration that are used as a reference for expressing nutrient content on nutrition labels.

sodium may increase your risk for certain chronic diseases, such as heart disease, some cancers, and high blood pressure. Americans often don't get enough of some of the other nutrients listed: fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron. Eating enough of these nutrients can improve your health and help reduce the risk of some diseases and conditions. For example, a diet high in dietary fiber promotes healthy bowel function. You can use the food label to help limit those nutrients you want to cut back on and also increase those nutrients you want to consume in greater amounts.

Nutrient amounts are listed in two ways: in metric amounts (in grams) and as a percentage of the Daily Value. Developed by the Food and Drug Administration, Daily Values are recommended levels of intake specially developed for food labels (Figure 2-23). DRIs can't be used on nutrition labels because they are set for specific age and gender categories, and you can't have several nutrition labels on one food for males and females in various age groups.

The table at the bottom of the food label shows the Daily Values for certain nutrients at both the 2000- and 2500-calorie levels. For example, if you eat a 2000-calorie diet, you should get less than 65 grams of fat from all the foods you eat in a day. If you consume 2500 kcalories per day, the amounts of cholesterol and sodium you eat in a day are not different from those eaten by others eating 2000 kcalories per day. This table is found only on larger packages and does not change from product to product.

The percentage of the Daily Value (%DV) is based on a 2000-kcalorie diet. Therefore, the Daily Value may be a little high, a little low, or right on target for you. The percentage of the Daily Value shows you how much of the Daily Value is in one serving of food. For example, in Figure 2-22, the %DV for total fat is

figure 2-23 SELECTED DAILY VALUES |

Nutrient Carbohydrate

Daily Value

300 grams

Fiber

25 grams

Fat

65 grams

Saturated fat

20 grams

Cholesterol

300 milligrams

Sodium

2400 milligrams

Potassium

3500 milligrams

Vitamin A

1500 micrograms RAE

Vitamin C

60 milligrams

Folate

400 micrograms

Calcium

1000 milligrams

Iron

18 milligrams

Source: Food and Drug Administration.

18 percent and for dietary fiber it is 0 percent. When one serving of macaroni and cheese contains 18 percent of the DV for Total Fat, that means you have 82 percent of your fat allowance left for all the other foods you eat that day.

When you are looking at the %DV on a food label, use this guide.

  • Foods that contain 5 percent or less of the Daily Value for a nutrient are generally considered low in that nutrient.
  • Foods that contain 10 to 19 percent of the Daily Value for a nutrient are generally considered good sources of that nutrient.
  • Foods that contain 20 percent or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient are generally considered high in that nutrient. For example, one cup of macaroni and cheese contains 18 percent of the Daily Value for fat, which is just below 20 percent. Therefore, the macaroni and cheese is pretty high in fat, particularly if you eat 11/2 to 2 cups.

You can use the %DV to help you make dietary trade-offs with other foods throughout the day. You don't have to give up a favorite food to eat a healthy diet. When a food you like is high in fat, balance it by eating foods that are low in fat at other times of the day.

The values listed for total carbohydrate include all carbohydrates, including dietary fiber and sugars listed below it. The sugar values include naturally present sugars, such as lactose in milk and fructose in fruits, as well as those added to the food, such as table sugar and corn syrup. The label can claim no sugar added but still include naturally occurring sugars. An example is fruit juice.

The values listed for total fat refer to all the fat in the food. Only total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat information is required on the label, because high intakes are linked to high blood cholesterol, which is linked to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Trans fat is a specific type of fat that forms when liquid oils are made into sold fats such as margarine and shortening. Trans fat behaves like saturated fat in raising low-density lipoprotein ("bad") cholesterol. Listing the amount of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats in the food is voluntary.

Note that trans fat, sugars, and protein do not list a %DV on the Nutrition Facts label.

  • Experts could not provide a reference value for trans fat or any other information that the FDA believes is enough to establish a Daily Value or %DV. Health experts do recommend that you keep your intake of trans fat (and saturated fat and cholesterol) as low as possible.
  • A %DV is required to be listed if a claim is made for protein, such as "high in protein," or if the food is meant for use by infants and children under 4 years old. Current scientific evidence indicates that protein intake is not a public health concern for adults and children over 4 years of age.
  • No daily reference value has been established for sugars because no recommendations have been made for the total amount to eat in a day.

74 ■■■■■■■^■■■■■■■■■■■l

Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus

Calorie-free

Less than 5 kcalories

Low-calorie

Reduced or fewer calories

Light

Calorie-free

Less than 5 kcalories

Low-calorie

40 kcalories or less

Reduced or fewer calories

At least 25 percent fewer kcalories than the comparison food

Light

One-third fewer kcalories than the comparison food

Sugar-free

No added sugar

Sugar-free

Less than 0.5 gram sugars

Reduced sugar or less sugar At least 25 percent less sugars than the comparison food

No added sugar

No sugars added during processing or packing, including ingredients that contain sugars, such as juice and dry fruit

High-fiber

Good source of fiber

More or added fiber

High-fiber

5 grams or more

Good source of fiber

More or added fiber

At least 2.5 grams more than the comparison food fat and cholesterol

Fat-free (nonfat or no-fat)

Less than 0.5 gram fat

Percent fat-free

Low fat

The amount of fat in 100 grams; may be used only if the product meets the definition of low-fat or fat-free 3 grams or less of fat

Light

50 percent or less of the fat than in the comparison food

Reduced or less fat

At least 25 percent less fat than the comparison food

Saturated fat-free

Less than 0.5

gram saturated fat and less than 0.5

gram trans fat

1 gram or less saturated fat and less than 0.5 gram trans fat

Reduced or less saturated fat At least 25 percent less saturated fat than the comparison food

Trans fat-free

Less than 0.5

gram of trans fat and less than 0.5

gram of saturated fat

Cholesterol-free

Less than 2 milligrams cholesterol and 2 grams or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined

Low-cholesterol

20 milligrams cholesterol or less and 2 grams or less saturated fat

Reduced or less cholesterol 25 percent or less cholesterol than the comparison food and 2 grams or less saturated fat

Lean Less than 10 grams of fat, 4.5 grams of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and 95 milligrams of cholesterol per 100 grams of meat, poultry, and seafood Extra-lean Less than 5 grams of fat, 2 grams of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and

95 milligrams of cholesterol per 100 grams of meat, poultry, and seafood

Sodium-free, salt-free

Very low sodium

Low-sodium

Reduced or less sodium

Sodium-free, salt-free

Less than 5 milligrams sodium

Very low sodium

35 milligrams or less sodium

Low-sodium

140 milligrams or less sodium

Reduced or less sodium

At least 25 percent less sodium than the comparison food sugar fiber figure 2-24 (Continued)

Nutrient (Content Claim)

Definition (per Serving)

sodium

Light in sodium

50 percent less sodium than the comparison food

Light (for sodium-reduced

If food is "low-calorie" and "low-fat" and sodium is reduced by at least

products)

50 percent

general claims

High, rich in, excellent

Provides 20 percent or more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient

source of

Good source

Provides 10 to 19 percent of the Daily Value for a given nutrient

More

Provides at least 10 percent or more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient than the comparison food

Fresh

Raw, unprocessed, or minimally processed, with no added preservatives

Healthy

Low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium and contains at least 10 percent of the Daily Value for one of the following: vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, fiber

Source: Food and Drug Administration.

To limit nutrients that have no %DV, such as trans fats and sugars, compare the labels of similar products and choose the food with the lowest amount.

The Daily Value for calcium is 1000 milligrams (mg). Experts advise adolescents, especially girls, to consume 1300 mg and postmenopausal women to consume 1200 mg of calcium daily. The daily target for teenagers should therefore be 130%DV, and the daily target for postmenopausal women should be 120%DV.

  • NUTRIENT CONTENT CLAIMS Claims on food labels about the nutrient composition of a food, regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.
  • HEALTH CLAIMS Claims on food labels that state certain foods or food substances—as part of an overall healthy diet—may reduce the risk of certain diseases.
Low Carb Diets Explained

Low Carb Diets Explained

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