## Figure Recommended Maximum Fat And Saturated Fat Intake

 If Your Total Daily Kcalories Are: 1200 40 13 1500 50 17 1800 60 20 2000 67 22 2200 73 24 2400 80 27 2600 86 29 2800 93 31 3000 100 33

weight. To explain these two concepts, let's look at an example. In a supermarket, you find sliced turkey breast that is advertised as being "96 percent fat-free." What this means is that if you weighed out a 3-ounce serving, 96 percent of the weight would be lean, or without fat. In other words, only 4 percent of its weight is actually fat. The statement "96 percent fat-free" does not tell you anything about how many calories come from fat.

Now, if you look at the Nutrition Facts on the label, you read that a 3-ounce serving contains 3 grams of fat, 27 calories from fat, and 140 total calories. The label also states that the percentage of calories from fat in a serving is 19 percent. To find out the percentage of calories from fat in any serving of food, simply divide the number of calories from fat by the number of total calories and then multiply the answer by 100, as follows.

X 100 = Percentage of calories from fat

Total calories

27 calories from fat 140 calories

X 100 = 19 percent

This percentage has become more important as many recommendations on fat consumption target 30 to 35 percent or less of total kcalories as a desirable daily total from fat. This does not mean, however, that every food you eat needs to derive only 35 percent of its kcalories from fat. If this were the case, you could not even have a teaspoon of margarine because all of its kcalories come from fat. It is your total fat intake over a few days that is important, not the percentage of fat in just one food or just one meal.

### mini-summary

1. There is no RDA or AI for fat (except for infants), saturated fat, cholesterol, or trans fatty acids.
2. The AMDR for fat is 20 to 35 percent of kcalories for adults.
3. An AI is set for the essential fatty acids.
4. It is recommended that you keep your intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fatty acids as low as possible while eating a nutritionally adequate diet.
5. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005) and the American Heart Association's Dietary Guidelines both recommend a diet for healthy Americans that:
• Provides less than 10 percent of total kcalories from saturated fat
• Provides less than 300 milligrams per day of cholesterol
• Replaces most saturated fats with sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acid, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils

6. To find out the percentage of calories from fat in any serving of food, simply divide the number of calories from fat by the number of total calories and then multiply the answer by 100.

INGREDIENT FOCUS: MILK, DAIRY PRODUCTS, AND EGGS HI

INGREDIENT FOCUS

CHEF'S TIPS

MILK, DAIRY PRODUCTS, AND EGGS Nutrition

### Milk is an excellent source of:

• High-quality protein
• Carbohydrates
• Riboflavin
• Vitamins A and D (if fortified)
• Calcium and other minerals, such as phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc

Cheese is made from various types of milk, with cow's and goat's being the most popular. In many parts of the world cheese is produced from different kinds of milk: sheep, reindeer, yak, buffalo, camel, and donkey. Cheese is produced when bacteria or rennet (or both) is added to milk and the milk then curdles. The liquid, known as the whey, is separated from the solid, known as the curd, which is the cheese. It is thought that cheese was discovered by accident thousands of years ago in the Far East.

Cheese is an excellent source of nutrients such as protein and calcium. However, because most cheeses are prepared from whole milk or cream, they are also high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Ounce for ounce, meat, poultry, and most cheeses have about the same amount of cholesterol. But cheeses tend to have much more saturated fat.

Determining which cheeses are high or low in saturated fat and cholesterol can be confusing, because there are so many different kinds on the market: partskim, low-fat, processed, and so on. Not all reduced-fat or part-skim cheeses are low in fat; they are only lower in fat than similar natural cheeses. For instance, one reduced-fat cheddar gets 56 percent of its kcalories from fat—considerably less than the 71 percent of regular cheddar but not super-lean, either. The trick is to read the label. Figure 4-14 is a guide to fat in cheeses.

Eggs are very nutritious and full of high-quality protein, as well as varying amounts of many vitamins and minerals. The concern with overconsumption of eggs stems from the fact that they are very high in cholesterol—215 milligrams per egg (compare that to the suggested maximum of 300 milligrams daily). One egg also contributes 5 grams of fat, of which 2 grams are saturated fat.

• When cooking with milk, remember a very important rule: Use moderate heat and heat the milk slowly (but not too long) to avoid curdling—a grainy appearance with a lumpy texture. From a scientific point of view, milk curdles when the casein (protein in milk) separates out of the milk.
• Add other food products to hot milk products slowly, stirring with either a spoon or a wire whisk, if preparing a sauce, to avoid lumps. Be especially careful when adding foods high in acid—milk has a tendency to curdle if not beaten quickly.

muni

Chapter 4 Lipids: Fats and Oils

 figure 4-14 FAT IN CHEESE+ Lowfat Medium Fat High Fat Very High Fat 0-3 g fat/oz. 4-5 g fat/oz. 6-8 g fat/oz. 9-10 g fat/oz. natural cheeses *Cottage cheese (1/4 cup) *Mozzarella, part-skim Blue cheese Cheddar dry curd *Ricotta (1/4 c), part-skim *Brick Colby Cottage cheese (1/4 cup) String cheese, part-skim Brie *Cream cheese low-fat 1% Camembert (1 oz. = 2 Tbsp.) Cottage cheese (1/4 cup) Edam Fontina low-fat 2% Feta *Gruyère Cottage cheese (1/4 cup) Gjetost Longhorn Creamed 4% Gouda *Monterey Jack Sapsago *Light cream cheese (1 oz. = 2 Tbsp.) Muenster Roquefort

Look for special low-fat brands of mozzarella, ricotta, cheddar, and Monterey jack.

Look for reduced-fat brands of cheddar, colby, Monterey jack, muenster, and Swiss.

Look for special low-fat brands of mozzarella, ricotta, cheddar, and Monterey jack.

modified cheeses

Pasteurized process, imitation, and substitute cheeses with 3 g fat/oz or less.

Look for reduced-fat brands of cheddar, colby, Monterey jack, muenster, and Swiss.

Pasteurized process, imitation, and substitute cheeses with 4-5 g fat/oz.

Limburger

Mozzarella, whole-milk Parmesan (1 oz. = 3 Tbsp.) *Port du Salut Provolone

*Ricotta (1/4 cup), whole-milk Romano (1 oz. = 3 Tbsp.) *Swiss

Tilsit, whole milk

Pasteurized process Swiss cheese Pasteurized process Swiss cheese food Pasteurized process American cheese Pasteurized process

American cheese food American cheese food cold pack Imitation and substitute cheeses with 6-8 g fat/oz.

Some pasteurized process cheeses are found in this category— check the labels.

tCheck the labels for fat and sodium content. 1 serving = 1 oz. unless otherwise stated. *These cheeses contain 160 mg or less of sodium per 1 oz.

Source: Reprinted by permission of the American Heart Association, Alameda County Chapter, 11200 Golf Links Road, Oakland, CA

94605.

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### INGREDIENT FOCUS: MILK, DAIRY PRODUCTS, AND EGGS Bl

• There are several ways to use cheese in balanced cooking.
• Use a regular cheese with a strong flavor, and use less of it than called for in the recipe.
• Use less cheese.
• Substitute low-fat cheeses for regular ones.
• Use a mixture of half regular cheese and half low-fat cheese.
• Use low heat. It is best to use as low a heat as possible when cooking with cheese. Cheese has a tendency to toughen when subjected to high heat due to its high protein content. Avoid boiling at all costs.
• Use short cooking times. Most recipes require the addition of cheese at the end of the recipe to avoid overcooking. Remember to stir often to enhance the blend of flavors and establish a good, smooth consistency.
• Grate the cheese. The best way to add cheese to a recipe is to grate it. Grating will break the cheese into small, thin pieces that will melt and blend quickly and evenly into the end product. Grating creates an image of more cheese when it is melted on top of a product (au gratin).
• Low-fat cheeses are available on the market and have come a long way in flavor and texture. If moderation is your goal and not total elimination, be sure to add an extremely aged and flavorful cheese into your preparation at the end, when your customers will taste it on their first bite.
• To make "whipped cream," drain plain nonfat yogurt in cheesecloth to remove as much liquid as possible. Fold whipped egg whites into the yogurt and add a little honey for flavor. Use frozen pasteurized egg whites to avoid any food safety (salmonella) problems. The other option is to use a dollop of real whipped cream without adding sugar.
• To make an excellent omelet without cholesterol, whip egg whites until they foam. Add a touch of white wine, freshly ground mustard, and chives. Spray a nonstick pan with oil and add the eggs. Cook like a traditional omelet. When the omelet is close to done, put the pan under the broiler to finish. The omelet will puff up. Stuff the omelet, if desired, with vegetables, a shaving of flavorful cheese, or even some fresh fruit filling, and then fold it over and serve. For another interesting appetizer or a dinner or breakfast entrée, you can make a mixture of egg whites, herbs, and cracked black pepper and pour it over a vegetable-oil-sprayed crème brulée dish filled with mushrooms or other cooked vegetables and a little cheese for a very nice omelet alternative.
• For color and flavor, serve an omelet with spicy salsa poured on a portion of it, or serve it with salsa, black bean relish, and blue corn tortilla chips to create more breakfast options.

Chapter 4 Lipids: Fats and Oils

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