Nutritional Adequacy of Vegetarian Diets

Vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate when varied and adequate in kcalo-ries (except for vegan diets, which need supplementation with vitamin B ). Most vegetarians get enough protein, and their diets are typically lower in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. As discussed in Chapter 5, most plant proteins are considered incomplete, but this doesn't mean they are low in quality. When plant proteins are eaten with other foods, the food combinations usually result in complete protein. For...

El Vitamin B

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. Functions. Vitamin B6 has many roles. 1. Vitamin B6 is part of a coenzyme involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In its coenzyme form, it is particularly crucial to protein metabolism. 2. Hemoglobin within red blood cells carries oxygen to the tissues. Your body needs vitamin B6 to make hemoglobin. A vitamin B6 deficiency can result in a form of anemia that is...

Figure Food Label Health Claims The A List

Calcium and reduced risk of osteoporosis Regular exercise and a healthy diet with enough calcium helps teen and young adult white and Asian women maintain good bone health and may reduce their high risk of osteoporosis later in life. Development of cancer depends on many factors. A diet low in total fat may reduce the risk of some cancers. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and reduced risk of coronary heart disease While many factors affect heart disease, diets low in saturated fat and...

HOT topic Organic Foods

Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of U.S. agriculture. The number of organic farmers is increasing by about 12 percent per year. The Organic Foods Production Act (2000) offers a national definition for the term organic, as well as the methods, practices, and substances that can be used in producing and handling organic crops and livestock. Common organic foods include fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Meat, poultry, and eggs can also be organic. This Hot Topic uses a...

Responding To Special Guest Requests

Here are some examples of what your customers are asking for. What do you have that's low-carb I'm on the Atkins diet. What menu items are low in fat What selections are there that are vegetarian So on and on The days of foodservice establishments serving plain steamed vegetables as a healthy alternative are long gone. Unless you have a customer with a very restricted diet, you will have to be much more creative to accommodate these special requests. Whole grains, carbohydrates with fiber,...

Recipe Modification

You can modify recipes for many reasons, for example, to reduce the amount of kcalories, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, or sugar. You may also modify a recipe to get more of a nutrient, such as fiber or vitamin A. Whether modifying a recipe to get more or less, there are four basic ways to go about it. 1. Change add healthy preparation techniques. 2. Change add healthy cooking techniques. 3. Change an ingredient by reducing it, eliminating it, or replacing it (see Figure 9-1 for...

Figure Serving Sizes For Mypyramid

1 2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables 11 2 ounces natural cheese such as cheddar cheese *See Appendix C for an expanded list. 52 Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus refined grain products are white flour, white bread, white rice, and degermed corn-meal. Most refined grains are enriched. This means that certain B vitamins and iron are added back after processing. Fiber is not added back to enriched...

Nutrition And Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus gets its name from the ancient Greek word for a siphon (tube), because early physicians noted that diabetics tend to be unusually thirsty and to urinate a lot, as if a tube quickly drained out everything they drank. Mellitus is from the Latin version of the ancient Greek word for honey it was used because doctors in centuries past diagnosed the disease by the sweet taste of the patient's urine. The number of people diagnosed with diabetes has almost doubled since 1990. In...

Herbs and Spices

Herbs and spices are key flavoring ingredients in nutritional menu planning and execution and are the backbone of most menu items, lending themselves to cultural and regional food styles. Good sound nutritional cooking can be virtually equal to classical cooking in terms of technique, creative seasoning, flavor blending, and presentation. It's helpful when one is moderating fat, cholesterol, and sugars to enhance recipes with an abundance of seasonings such as cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, vanilla...

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Hypoglycemia is not seen often in healthy people. Regular, well-balanced meals with reasonable amounts of refined sugars and sweets, as well as protein, fiber, and fat, can moderate swings in blood glucose levels. 16. Extensive research has failed to show that high sugar intake causes hyperactivity or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. 17. A low glycemic response is preferable to a high glycemic response. Eating mainly foods with a low glycemic response is definitely...

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals (Figure 7-1) represent an exciting area for research because our understanding of many trace minerals is still emerging. Like vitamins, minerals can be toxic at high doses. Unlike vitamins, many trace minerals are toxic at levels only several times higher than the recommended levels. Also, trace minerals are highly interactive with each other. For example, taking extra zinc can cause a copper deficiency. figure 7-7 SUMMARY OF MAJOR MINERALS Building bones and teeth Blood clotting...

Ill

Once the chart is done, ask yourself the following questions Which food has the least most fat Which food has the least most saturated fat Which food has the least most cholesterol Following are ingredient listings from four products made with fat substitutes. Using Hot Topic Fat Substitutes on page 184 as a guide, identify the fat substitutes in these foods. Creme-Filled Chocolate Cupcakes 0 grams fat per cupcake Sugar, water, corn syrup, bleached flour, egg...

Usda

Department of Agriculture. As for nutrition, some studies show that organic foods may be higher in vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols (substances in plants that have antioxidant activity) compared with conventionally grown foods. However, there is no solid body of research yet. The nutrient composition of any food grown in soil will vary due to many factors, such as variations in the soil quality, the amount of sunshine, and the amount of rain. Vitamins in plants are...

Aromatic Vegetables

Figure 8-4 shows examples of aromatic vegetables. Onions and their cousins garlic, scallions, leeks, shallots, and chives are a special category of flavorings that add strong and distinctive flavors and aromas to both cooked and uncooked foods. These bulbous plants of the lily family arrive in the kitchen whole and fresh rather FIGURE 8-4 Aromatic vegetables. Top row leek, scallions, chives, onion. Bottom row garlic, shallots. FIGURE 8-4 Aromatic vegetables. Top row leek, scallions, chives,...

Figure Tips For Making Wise Choices From The Milk Group

Choose fat-free or low-fat milk. If you usually drink whole milk, switch gradually to fat-free milk to lower saturated fat and calories. Try reduced-fat (2 percent), then low-fat (1 percent), and finally fat-free (skim) milk. If you drink cappuccinos or lattes, ask for them with fat-free (skim) milk. Add fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water to oatmeal and hot cereals. Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (such as cream of...

Gauging Customers Needs And Wants

Most foodservice operators who have implemented healthy menu options successfully have done so by reviewing eating trends, examining what other operators are doing, and keeping abreast of their customers' requests for healthy foods. To determine customer wants, foodservice operators could interview the waitstaff about customer requests, for example, for light foods such as broiled meat, poultry, or fish dishes prepared without salt sauces and gravies removed or served on the side butter...

A good stock is cleartranslucent and free of solid matter

A good stock is pleasant to the senses of smell and taste. A good stock is flavorful, but the flavor is neutral. The flavor of the main ingredient, though predominant, is not overpowering. No single flavor builder is identifiable over the flavor of the main ingredient. Here are some very important guidelines to observe in making stock. Use good raw bones bones that smell pleasant and fresh. Wash chicken and fish bones. Remove excess fat from the bones. Fat will produce grease in the stock,...

Food Facts The Facts About Lowcarb Foods

Low-carb diets have been around for quite some time and have recently enjoyed some popularity. In response to this interest, food manufacturers have been happy to put over a thousand new low-carb foods on the shelves. Shoppers can choose low-carb pasta, bagels, breads, breakfast cereals, cookies, tortilla chips, soda, ice cream, ketchup, beer, and more during their trips to the supermarket. This Food Facts will look at how these low-carb offerings are different from the foods they replace and...

Sauce Alternatives Vegetable Pures Coulis Salsas Relishes Chutneys Compotes and Mojos

Alternatives to classic sauces, many of which are high in fat, take many forms. Pur eing of vegetables or starchy foods is commonly done as a means to thicken soups, stews, sauces, and other foods without any fat or to create a simple sauce. Sauces made with vegetables are light and low in fat and kcalories. With the ad COULIS A sauce made of a pur e of vegetables or fruits. dition of herbs and spices, they make a colorful, tasty complement to entr es and side dishes. For example, you can pur e...

Is a part of phospholipids a class of lipids that help transport other lipids in the blood and also

OXALIC ACID An organic acid found in spinach and other leafy green vegetables that can decrease the absorption of certain minerals, such as calcium. PHYTIC ACID A binder found in wheat bran and whole grains that can decrease the absorption of certain nutrients, such as calcium and iron. The major sources of calcium are milk and milk products. Not all milk products are as rich in calcium as milk is (see Figure 7-2). As a matter of fact, butter, cream, and cream cheese contain little calcium....

Minisummary

Dietary recommendations have been published for the healthy American public for almost 100 years. 2. The Dietary Guidelines include key recommendations as detailed on pages 38 to 40 for each of these areas adequate nutrients within kcalorie needs, weight management, physical activity, foods groups to encourage, fat, carbohydrates, sodium and potassium, alcoholic beverages, and food safety. 3. MyPyramid has replaced the original Food Guide Pyramid. It translates the principles of the 2005...

Checkout Quiz

Our understanding of many trace minerals is still emerging. a. True b. False 2. Two cups of yogurt contain about as much calcium as 1 cup of milk. a. True b. False 3. Sodium and potassium are involved in muscle contraction and transmission of nerve impulses. 4. Canned soft drinks are high in sodium. a. True b. False 5. Iodine is needed to maintain a normal metabolic rate. a. True b. False 6. Few minerals are toxic in excess. a. True b. False 7. Nearly all foods contain water. a. True b. False...

Figure Protein Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol And Fiber In Animal And Plant Foods

Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, Source U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2004. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, vegetables and fruits. Protein-rich animal foods are usually higher in fat and saturated fat, and always higher in cholesterol, than plant foods (plant foods...

The Problem Of Underweight

A person is considered underweight if he or she has a BMI below 18.5. Although anyone who has seriously dieted may think an underweight person is problemfree, this is hardly the case. Underweight persons who have trouble gaining weight have very real concerns. Just as some people cannot seem to lose weight, other people have trouble putting on a few extra pounds. The cause could be genetics, metabolism, or environment. However, some thin people, if they were to gain weight, would feel...

Drugs

Weight-loss drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for long-term use may be used by people with a BMI of 30 or more or people with a BMI of 27 or more who also have diseases such as diabetes or other risk factors. Drugs are used only as part of a program that includes an eating plan, physical activity, and behavior therapy. Because of the tendency to regain weight after weight loss, the use of long-term medication to aid in the treatment of obesity may be indicated for some people....

Functions Of Protein

After reviewing all the jobs proteins perform, you will have a greater appreciation of this nutrient. In brief, protein is part of most body structures builds and maintains the body is a part of many enzymes, hormones, and antibodies transports substances around the body maintains fluid and acid-base balance can provide energy for the body and helps in blood clotting (Figure 5-5). Now let's take a look at each function separately. Proteins function as part of the body's structure. For example,...

Specialty Fruits Vegetables

Long Stemmed Bulb Green Vegetable

CRABAPPLES are tiny apples with a strong, pleasing flavor for cooking and use in jellies and jams. They are too tart to eat out of hand. They can be yellow, ed or green. DAIKON Japanese White Radish is a large, tapered white radish about 8-10 inches long. It has a crisp texture and a flavor similar to an ordinary radish, but sharper and hotter. iNNEL Anise has broad leaf stalks which overlap at the base of the stem and form a firm, rounded, white bulb. The leaves are green and featherlike and...

Healthy Menu Options

Various personnel are normally involved in the development and implementation phase of new menu items foodservice operators, directors, and managers chefs and cooking staff and nutrition experts such as registered dietitians. Chefs and the cooking staff are valuable resources in modifying recipes or creating new ones and may be given much of this responsibility. Nutrition experts are needed to provide accurate nutrient analysis data as well as suggestions for modifying dishes. In larger...

Food Facts Sports Drinks

Atopic of great interest to athletes is whether sports drinks such as Gatorade and Exceed are needed during an event or workout. Sports drinks contain a dilute mixture of carbohydrate and electrolytes. Most contain 50 to 100 kcalories per cup, about 3.3 teaspoons of carbohydrate per cup, and small amounts of sodium and potassium. Sports drinks are purposely made to be weak solutions so that they can empty faster from the stomach, and the nutrients they contain are therefore available to the...

Nutritionlabeling Laws

Foods prepared and served in restaurants or other foodservice operations are exempt from the mandatory nutrition labels found on packaged foods. However, restaurants are not exempt from Food and Drug Administration FDA rules concerning nutrient claims and health claims discussed in Chapter 2 that are used on menus, table tents, posters, or signs. In addition, restaurants must have nutrition information available on request for any menu item using nutrient or health claims. Nutrient content...

Figure Tips For Making Wise Choices From The Meat And Bean Group

The leanest beef cuts include round steaks and rounds round eye, top round, bottom round, round tip , top loin, top sirloin, and chuck shoulder and arm roasts. The leanest pork choices include pork loin, tenderloin, and center loin. Choose extra-lean ground beef. The label should say at least 90 percent lean. You may be able to find ground beef that is 93 percent or 95 percent lean. Buy skinless chicken parts or take off the skin before cooking. Boneless skinless chicken breasts and turkey...

El Choline and Vitaminlike Substances

Choline can be made in the body in small amounts. It is needed to make the neu-rotransmitter acetylcholine and the phospholipid lecithin, the major component of cell membranes. Lecithin is also a required component of VLDL, the lipopro-tein that carries triglycerides and other lipids made in the liver to the body cells. Without enough lecithin, fat and cholesterol accumulate in the liver. Choline is considered a conditionally essential nutrient, because when the diet contains no choline, the...

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Millet And Quinoa Mung Bean Soup

Figure 3-14 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUES Note that infants from 1 to 6 months have an AI of 60 g of carbohydrate per day and infants from 7 to 12 months have an AI of 95 g of carbohydrate per day. There is no AI for fiber for infants from 0 to 12 months old due to insufficient scientific evidence. Source Adapted with permission from the Dietary References Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein, and Amino Acids Macronutrients . 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences....

El Menu Planning to Lower Cancer Risk

Use the following guidelines to plan menus to lower cancer risk. 1. Offer lower-fat menu items, such as those based on plant foods. See pages 437 and 438 for menu-planning ideas for vegetarians using plant foods. 2. Avoid salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite-cured foods. These foods, which are also high in fat, include anchovies, bacon, corned beef, dried chipped beef, herring, pastrami, processed lunch meats such as bologna and hot dogs, sausage such as salami and pepperoni, and smoked meats and...