1 hart E B, steenbock H, waddell J and elvenhjem c A (1928), 'Iron Nutrition. VII. Copper is a supplement to iron for hemoglobin building in the rat', J Biol Chem 77, 797-812

2 mills e s (1930), 'The treatment of idiopathic (hypochromic) anemia with iron and copper', Can Med Assoc J 22, 175-8

3 uauy r, olivares m and Gonzalez m (1998), 'Essentiality of copper in humans', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 952s-9s

4 johnson m a, fischer j g and kays s e (1992), 'Is Copper an Antioxidant Nutrient?', Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 32(1), 1-31

5 zaitseva v n, zaitseva i, papiz m and lindley p f (1999), 'An X-ray crystallo-graphic study of the azide inhibitor and organic substrates to ceruloplasmin, a muli-copper oxidase in the plasma', Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 4(5), 579-87

6 turnlund j (1999), 'Copper', in: Shils M, Olson J, Shike M and Ross A (eds) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9 ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 241-52

7 prigge s t, kolkehar a s, eipper b a, mains r e and amzel l m (1997), 'Amidation of bioactive peptides: the structure of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxy-genase', Science 278(5341), 1300-5

8 mathews c k and van holde k e (1990), Biochemistry. Redwood City, California: Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company

9 bryan s e, vizard d l, beary d a, la biche r a and hardy k l (1981), 'Partitioning of zinc and copper within subnuclear nucleoprotein particles', Nucleic Acids Res 9(21), 5811-23

10 agarwal k, sharma a and talukder g (1989), 'Effects of copper on mammalian cell components', Chemico-Biological Interactions 69(1), 1-16

11 linder m c (2001), 'Copper and genomic stability in mammals', Mutation Research 475, 141-52

12 department of health (1991), Dietary Reference Value for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK. London: Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Safety

13 pennington j a and young b e (1991), 'Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982-1989', J Am Diet Assoc 91, 179-83

14 kehoe c a, turley e, bonham m p, o'connor j m, mckeown a, faughnan m s, coulter j s, gilmore w s, Howard a n and strain j j (2000), 'Response of putative indices of copper status to copper supplementation in human subjects', British Journal of Nutrition 84(2), 151-6

15 kiely m (2001), IUNA North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey: Food and Nutrient Intakes, Anthropometry, Attitudinal Data and Physical Activity Patterns. Dublin: Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance ma j and betts n m (2000), 'Zinc and copper intakes and their major food sources for older adults in the 1994-96 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals (CSFII)', Journal of Nutrition 130(11), 2838-43

food and nutrition board (2001), Copper. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 7.1-7.27

castiLLo-DurÁN c and uauy r (1988), 'Copper deficiency impairs growth of infants recovering from malnutrition', Am J Clin Nutr 47, 710-14

castiLLo-Durán c, Fisberg m, vaienzueia a, egaña j and uauy r (1983), 'Controlled trial of copper supplementation during the recovery from marasmus', Am J Clin Nutr 37(6), 898-903

beshgetoor d and hambidge m (1998), 'Clinical conditions altering copper metabolism in humans', Am J Clin Nutr 67, 107s-21s internationaL programme on chemicaL safety (1998), Environmental Health Criteria 200: Copper. Geneva: World Health Organization thomas b (ed.) (1994), Manual of Dietetic Practice, 2 ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications olivares m and uauy r (1996), 'Copper as an essential nutrient', Am J Clin Nutr 63(5), 791S-796

spiegeL j e and wiLLenbucher r f (1999), 'Rapid development of severe copper deficiency in a patient with Crohn's disease receiving parenteral nutrition', Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 23(3), 169-72

fuhrman m p, herrmann v, masidonski p and eby c (2000), 'Pancytopenia after removal of copper from total parenteral nutrition', Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition 24(6), 361-6

goyens p, brasseur d and caDraneL s (1985), 'Copper deficiency in infants with active celiac disease', J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 4(4), 677-80 percivaL s, bowser e and wagner m (1995), 'Reduced copper-enzyme activities in blood-cells of children with cystic fibrosis', Am J Clin Nutr 62(3), 633-8 schLeper b and stuerenburg h j (2001), 'Copper deficiency-associated myelopathy in a 46-year-old woman', J Neurol 248, 705-6

roDeriguez a, soto g, torres s, venegas g and castiLLo-DurÁn c (1985), 'Zinc and copper in hair and plasma of children with chronic diarrhea', Acta Paediatr Scan 74(5), 770-4

castiLLo-durÁn c, venegas g, viLLaLobos j c, gatica L and roderiguez a (1998), 'Trace mineral balance in acute diarrhea of infants. Association to etiological agents and lactose content of formula', Nutrition Research 18(5), 799-808 mercer j b (2001), 'The molecular basis of copper-transport diseases', Trends in Molecular Medicine 7(2), 64-9

hopkins r g and faiLLa m k (1997), 'Copper deficiency reduces interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and IL-2 mRNA in human T-lymphocytes', J Nutr 127, 257-62 kLevay l m (2000), 'Cardiovascular disease from copper deficiency - a history', The Journal of Nutrition 130, 489s-92s

Lukaski h c, kLevay l m and miLne d b (1988), 'Effects of dietary copper on human autonomic cardiovascular function', European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 58(1-2), 74-80

kLevay L m (2000), 'Dietary copper and risk of coronary heart disease', Am J Clin Nutr 71(5), 1213-14

saari j t (2000), 'Copper deficiency and cardiovascular disease: Role of peroxidation, glycation and nitration', Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 78(10), 848

strain j j (1994), 'Newer aspects of micronutrients in chronic disease: copper', Proc Nut Soc 53, 583-9

38 bremner i (1998), 'Manifestations of copper excess', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 1069s-73s

39 FltzgeraLd d j (1998), 'Safety guidelines for copper in water', Am J Clin Nutr 76(suppl), 1098s-102s

40 Lyie w h, payton j e and hui m (1976), 'Haemodialysis and copper fever', Lancet 1, 1324-5

41 araya m, mcgoLdrick m c and kLevay L m (2001), 'Determination of an acute no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for copper in water', Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 34(2), 137-45

42 pratt w, omdahL j and sorenson j (1985), 'Lack of effects of copper gluconate supplementation', Am J Clin Nutr 42(4), 681-2

43 o' neiLL n c and tanner m s (1989), 'Uptake of copper from brass vessel by bovine milk and its relevance to Indian childhood cirrhosis', J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9(2), 167-72

44 sethi s, grover s and khodaskar m b (1993), 'Role of copper in Indian childhood cirrhosis', Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 13(1), 3-5

45 muLLer-hocker j, meyer u, wiebecke b, hubner g, eiFe r, keiiner m and schrAMeL p (1988), 'Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis', Pathol Res Pract 183, 39-45

46 muLLer t, Feichtinger h, berger h and muLLer w (1996), 'Endemic Tyrolean infantile cirrhosis: An ecogenetic disorder', Lancet 347(9005), 877-80

47 Loudianos g and gitLin j d (2000), 'Wilson's Disease', Seminars in Wilson's Disease 20(3), 353-64

48 Livingstone m b e, prentice a m, strain j j, coward w a, bLack a e, barker m e, mckenna p g and whitehead r g (1990), 'Accuracy of weighed dietary records in studies of diet and health', Br Med J 300, 708-12

49 pang y, macintosh d l and ryan b p (2001), 'A longitudinal investigation of aggregate oral intake of copper', J Nutr 131(8), 2171-6

50 turniund j r (1988), 'Copper nutriture, bioavailability and the influence of dietary factors', J Am Diet Assoc 88(3), 303-10

51 turnLund j, scott k, peiFFer g, jang a m, keyes w r, keen c L and sakanashi t m (1997), 'Copper status of young men consuming a low-copper diet', Am J Clin Nutr 65(1), 72-8

52 konig j s and eimadFa i (2000), 'Plasma copper concentration as a marker of copper itake from food', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 44(3), 129-34

53 miine d b (1998), 'Copper intake and assessment of copper status', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 1041s-5s

54 miLne d b and johnson p e (1993), 'Assessment of copper status - effect of age and gender on reference ranges in healthy adults', Clinical Chemistry 39(5), 883-7

55 cousins r j (1985), 'Absorption, transport and hepatic metabolism of copper and zinc: Special reference to metallothionein and ceruloplasmin', Physiol Rev 65, 238-309

56 miLne d and nieLsen F (1996), 'Effects of a diet low in copper on copper-status indicators in postmenopausal women', Am J Clin Nutr 63(3), 358-64

57 Lukaski h, hoverson b, gaiiagher s and boionchuk w (1990), 'Physical training and copper, iron, and zinc status of swimmers', Am J Clin Nutr 51(6), 10939

58 kehoe c a, Faughnan m s, giLmore w s, couLter j s, howard a n and strain j j (2000), 'Plasma diamine oxidase activity is greater in copper-adequate than in copper-marginal or copper-deficient rats', J Nutr 130, 30-3

59 strain j (2000), 'Defining optimal copper status in humans: concepts and problems', in: Roussel (ed.) Trace Elements in Man and Animals 10. New York: Plenum Publishers, 923-8

under m c, wooten l, cerveza p, cotton s, schuLze r and LomeLi n (1998), 'Copper Transport', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 965s-71s turnLund j r (1998), 'Human whole-body copper metabolism', Am J Clin Nutr 67, 960S-4S

Levenson c (1998), 'Mechanisms of copper conservation in organs', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 978s-81s gaRRow j s, james wpt and raiph a (eds) (2000), Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 10 ed. London, Churchill Livingstone wapnir r a (1998), 'Copper absorption and bioavailability', Am J Clin Nutr 67, 1054S-60S

boobis s (1999), Review of Copper. Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, London: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food turniund j, swanson c and king j (1983), 'Copper absorption and retention in pregnant women fed diets based on animal and plant protein', J Nutr 113, 2346-52 hunt j r and van der pool r a (2001), 'Apparent copper absorption from a vegetarian diet', Am J Clin Nutr 74(6), 803-7

price n o, bunce g e and engei r w (1970), 'Copper, manganese and zinc balance in preadolescent girls', Am J Clin Nutr 23(3), 258-60

Langhendmes j p, hurreiL r f, furniss d e, hischenhuber c, Finot p a, bernard a, battisti o, bertrand j m and senterre j (1992), 'Maillard reaction products and lysinoalanine: urinary excretion and the effects on kidney function of preterm infants fed heat-processed milk formula', J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14(1), 62-70 andieux c and sacquet e (1984), 'Effect of Maillard's reaction products on apparent mineral absorption in different parts of the digestive tract. The role of microflora', Reprod Nutr Dev 25, 379-86

baker d h and czarnecki-mauiden g l (1987), 'Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities', J Nutr 117, 1003-10

kies c, chuang j h and fox h m (1983), 'Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements', FASEB Journal 3, A360 (abstr)

strain j j and Lynch s m (1990), 'Excess dietary methionine decreases indexes of copper status in the rat', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 34(2), 93-7

wapnir r a and baLkman c (1991), 'Inhibition of copper absorption by zinc - effect of histidine', Biological Trace Element Research 29(3), 193-202

wan q, yang b s and kato n (1996), 'Feeding of excessive cystine and cysteine enhances defects of dietary copper deficiency in rats by differential mechanisms involving altered iron status', Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 42(3),


Fischer p w, giroux a and L'abbe m r (1981), 'The effect of dietary zinc on intestinal copper absorption', Am J Clin Nutr 34(9), 1670-5

brewer g, yuzbasiyan-gurkan v, Lee d-y and appeiman h (1989), 'Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc. VI. Initial treatment studies', J Lab Clin Med 114, 633 vuipe c d and pacKMan s (1995), 'Cellular Copper Transport', Annu Rev Nutr 15, 768-73

miine d b, davis c d and nieisen f h (2001), 'Low dietary zinc alters indices of copper function and status in postmenopausal women', Nutrition 17, 701-8 johnson m a, smith m m and edmonds j t (1998), 'Copper, iron, zinc and manganese in dietary supplements, infant formulas, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals', Am J Clin Nutr 67(suppl), 1035s-40s wapnir r, devas g and soians c (1993), 'Inhibition of intestinal copper absorption by divalent cations and low-molecular-weight ligands in the rat', Biol Trace Elem Res 36, 291-305

haschke f, ziegier e e, edwards b b and foman s j (1986), 'Effect of iron fortification of infant formula on trace mineral absorption', J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 5, 768-73

83 LONNERDAL B, Kelleher s L, lien E L (2001), 'Extent of thermal processing of infant formula affects copper status in infant rhesus monkeys', Am J Clin Nutr 73(5), 914-19

84 aaseth j and norseth t (1986), in: Friberg L, Nordberg G F and Vouk V B (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals. 2 ed. Amsterdam, London: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press

85 BREWER G j, DICK R D, YUZBASIYAN-GURKAN V, TANKANOW R, YOUNG A B and KLUIN K j (1991), 'Initial Therapy of patients with Wilson's Disease with tetrathiomolyb-date', Arch Neurol 48, 42-7

86 WAPNIR R and sia M (1996), 'Copper intestinal absorption in the rat: effect of free fatty acids and triglycerides', Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 211, 381-6

87 LUKAsKI H C, KLEVAY L M, BOLONCHUK W W, MAHALKO J R, MILNE D B, JOHNsON L k and sandstead h h (1982), 'Influence of dietary lipids on iron, zinc and copper retention in trained athletes', Federation Proceedings 41(3), 275

88 VAN CAMPEN D R and gross e (1968), 'Influence of ascorbic acid on the absorption of copper by rats', J Nutr 95, 617-22

89 finley e b and cerklewski f l (1983), 'Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper status in young adult men', Am J Clin Nutr 37(4), 553-6

90 JACOB R A, skala j H, OMAYE s T and TURNLUND J R (1987), 'Effect of varying ascorbic acid intakes on copper absorption and caeruloplasmin levels in young men', J Nutr 117(12), 2109-15

91 sable-amplis r, sicart r and reynier b (1987), 'Apparent retention of copper, zinc and iron in hamsters: influence of a fruit-enriched diet', Nutr Rep Int 35, 811-18

92 fairweather-tait s j (1992), 'Bioavailability of trace elements', Food Chemistry 43, 213-17

93 HARVEY P W, hunsaker h a and allen kgd (1981), 'Dietary L-histidine induced hypercholesterolemia and hypocupremia in the rat', J Nutr 111(4), 639-47

94 fields m, ferretti r j, smith j c, jr and reiser s (1984), 'The interaction of type of dietary carbohydrates with copper deficiency', Am J Clin Nutr 39(2), 289-95

95 reiser s, ferretti r j, fields m and smith j j (1983), 'Role of dietary fructose in the enhancement of mortality and biochemical changes associated with copper deficiency in rats', Am J Clin Nutr 38, 214-22

96 schoenemann H M, failla m l and steele n c (1990), 'Consequences of severe copper deficiency are independent of dietary carbohydrate in young pigs', Am J Clin Nutr 52, 147-54

97 holbrook j t, smith j c, jr and reiser s (1989), 'Dietary fructose or starch: effects on copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, and magnesium balances in humans', Am J Clin Nutr 49(6), 1290-4

98 WAPNIR R and devas g (1995), 'Copper deficiency: interaction with high-fructose and high-fat diets in rats', Am J Clin Nutr 61(1), 105-10

99 Harris z l and gitlin j d (1996), 'Genetic and molecular basis for copper toxicity', Am J Clin Nutr 63(5), 836S-41S

100 WINGE D R and mehra r k (1990), 'Host defenses against copper toxicity', Int Rev Exp Pathol 31, 47-83

101 Harris e d (2000), 'Cellular copper transport and metabolism', Annual Review of Nutrition 20, 291-310

102 floris g, medda r, padiglia a and musci g (2000), 'The physiopathological significance of ceruloplasmin - a possible therapeutic approach', Biochemical Pharmacology 60(12), 1735-41

103 eisenstein r s (2000), 'Discovery of the caeruloplasmin homologue hephaestin: New insight into the copper/iron connection', Nut Rev 58(1), 22-6

104 leverton R M and binkley e s (1944), 'The copper metabolism and requirement of young women', J Nutr 27, 480-6

oLivares m and uauy r (1996), 'Limits of metabolic tolerance to copper and biological basis for present recommendations and regulations', Am J Clin Nutr 63(5), 846s fairweather-tait s j, fox t e, harvey l j, teucher b and dainty j (2001), 'Methods for analysis of trace-element absorption', in: Lowe N, Jackson M (eds) Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 60-80

abrams s a and muiier h (1999), 'Using stable isotopes to assess mineral absorption and utilization by children', Am J Clin Nutr 70, 955-64 johnson p e and canFieLD w k (1989), 'Stable zinc and copper absorption in free-living infants fed breast milk or formula', Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 2, 285

turniunD j (2001), 'Copper status and metabolism studies with metabolic tracers', in: Lowe N, Jackson M, (eds) Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 117-27

hansen m, isaksson m and sandstrom b (2001), 'Advances in Radioisotope

Methodology', in: Lowe N, Jackson M, (eds) Advances in Isotope Methods for the

Analysis of Trace Elements in Man. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 23-41

buckLey w t (1996), 'Application of compartmental modeling to determination of trace element requirements in humans', J Nutr 126(9s), 23112s-2319s harvey L j, majsak-newman g, dainty j r, wharf s g, reid m d, beattie j h and fairweather-tait s j (2002), 'Holmium as a faecal marker for copper absorption studies in adults', Clinical Science 102(2), 233-40

beattie j h, reid m d, harvey L j, dainty j r, majsak-newman g and fairweather-tait s j (2001), 'Selective extraction of blood plasma exchangeable copper for isotope studies of dietary copper absorption', Analyst 126, 2225-9 buckiey w t, vanDerpooi r a, godfrey d g and johnson p e (1996), 'Determination, stable isotope enrichment and kinetics of direct-reacting copper in blood plasma', Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7, 488-94

prohaska j r, baiiey w r and Lear p m (1995), 'Copper deficiency alters rat peptidyl-glycine a-amidating monooxygenase activity', J Nutr 125(6), 1447-54 prohaska j r and brokate b (2001), 'Dietary copper deficiency alters protein levels of rat dopamine b monooxygenase and tyrosine monooxygenase', Exp Biol Med 226(6), 199-207

rucker r b, rucker b r, mitcheiL a e, cui c t, ciegg m, kosonen t, uriu-aDams j y, tchapaRian e h, Fishman m and keen c l (1999), 'Activation of chick tendon lysyl oxidase in response to dietary copper', J Nutr 129, 2143-6 werman m j, bhathena s j and turniunD j r (1997), 'Dietary copper intake influences skin lysyl oxidase in young men', Nutritional Biochemistry 8, 201-4 Lukaski h c, c h and penianD j g (1996), 'Functional changes appropriate for determining mineral element requirements', J Nutr 126(9s), 2354s-62s tang z, gasperkova d, xu j, baiLLie r, Lee j h and cLArke s d (2000), 'Copper deficiency induces hepatic fatty acid synthase gene transcription in rats by increasing the nuclear content of mature sterol regulatory element binding protein-1', Journal of Nutrition 130(12), 2915-21

piscator m (1979), 'Copper' In Handbook on the toxicology of metals Eds. Friberg L, Nordberg G F and Vouk V B. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam 411-20

friberg L (1979), 'Molybdenum' In Handbook on the toxicology of metals, Eds. Friberg L, Nordberg G F and Vouk V B. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam 531-9

Get The Body Of Your Dreams

Get The Body Of Your Dreams

Everybody wants to lose weight. This is one fact that is supported by the countless weight loss programs on the market along with the numerous weight loss products, ranging from snack bars, powdered juices, shakes and even slimming soaps and lotions.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment