Introduction

Frying, especially deep fat frying, has become the most popular food preparation technology during the last five decades. The reason is that the preparation is easy even for less experienced cooks, the procedure is rapid, and the finished product is highly palatable. In the frying procedure, fat is the medium of heat transfer. Two main frying methods exist, namely shallow frying and deep frying.

In case of shallow frying, the layer of frying oil is about 1-10mm thick in a pan and the fried food is only partially immersed; it has to be turned during the process to obtain an evenly cooked product. The frying takes about 5-10min, and frying oil is used for greasing the food as it is cooking. The oil is not reused.

In case of deep frying, the layer of frying oil is 20-200mm thick or greater and the fried material is immersed in oil or floats on the surface. The frying again takes about 5-10min, depending on the dimensions of the food being fried and on the temperature. After frying, the food is removed and the frying oil is used again for the next frying. The duration of use depends mainly on the frying medium, the technical equipment and on the food.

The increasing consumption of fried foods contributes to a high intake of fats and oils. Because consumers wish to reduce their consumption of fats and oils pans are offered on the market that do not require any fat. When these are used the heat transfer medium is not oil and therefore the process should not be regarded as frying but as roasting. During frying, fat or oil is preheated to temperatures of 150-180°C. In contact with oil, fried food is heated rapidly in the surface layers to the temperature of the frying oil. The temperature reaches only 80-100°C in inner layers.

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