Phenylethylaminesa Mazindol Substance P Glucagon Serotonin Leptin Fluoxetine

"Satietin" (a blood-borne factor) Histidine (precursor of histamine) Pain

Amino acid imbalance in diet Tryptophan (precursor of serotonin) Cholecystokinin (CCK) Calcitonin Somatostatin Anorectin High-fat diet

Thyrotropin releasing hormone

Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)


Bombesin cyclo-His-Pro

High-protein diets

High blood glucose

Enterostatin a These are drugs, and all except for the drug phenylpropanolamine are controlled substances. Many have serious side effects. They are structurally related to the catecholamines. Most are active as short-term appetite suppressants and act through their effects on the central nervous system, particularly through the b-adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors. This group includes amphetamine, methamphetamine, phenmetrazine, phentermine, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, and phenylpropanolamine. Phenylpropanolamine-induced anorexia is not reversed by the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. b All of these drugs are controlled substances and their use must be carefully monitored. This group includes amitripty-line, buspirone, chlordiazepoxide, chlorpromazine, cisplatin, clozapine, ergotamine, fluphenazine, impramine, iprindole, and others that block 5-HT receptors.

Source: Berdanier, C.D., Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000, p. 122.

the initiation of eating and satiety or the signal to stop eating. Not all of these signals are known, but Table 1.3 provides a list of the ones that have been studied.1

Several data sets that may not be available on the Web can be found in this chapter. Table 1.4 provides the tocopherol values for a wide variety of foods.2 Table 1.5 provides information on the tagatose content of food.3 Tagatose is a food additive used to reduce the amount of sugar in a food. It has a sweet taste, yet does not have the same energy value as sucrose. Other sugar substitutes are also used in the preparation of reduced-energy foods; however, data on their quantitative occurrence is not as readily available because of the proprietary interests of food producers. A list of sweeteners added to foods is provided in Table 1.6.4 Following this table is a list of the types of food additives that change the properties of food (Table 1.7; see Reference 4, pp. 11-18). This table describes compounds that increase the shelf life of a class of foods or additives that change

Appetite Antidote

Appetite Antidote

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