Poison Toxin Sources

Fluorine (F) Ingestion of excessive (fluorosis) quantities of fluorine through either the food or water, or a combination of these Except in certain industrial exposures, the intake of fluoride inhaled from the air is only a small fraction of the total fluoride intake in humans Pesticides containing fluorides, including those used to control insects, weeds, and rodents Although water is the principal source of fluoride in an average human diet in the United States, fluoride is frequently contained in toothpaste, tooth powder, chewing gums, mouthwashes, vitamin supplements, and mineral supplements Lead (Pb) Consuming food or medicinal products (including health food products) contaminated with lead Inhaling the poison as a dust by workers in such industries as painting, lead mining, and refining Inhaling airborne lead discharged into the air from auto exhaust fumes

Acute fluoride poisoning: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, excessive salivation, thirst, perspiration, and painful spasms of the limbs Chronic fluoride poisoning: Abnormal teeth (especially mottled enamel) during the first 8 years of life and brittle bones. Other effects, predicted from animal studies, may include loss of body weight and altered structure and function of the thyroid gland and kidneys Water containing 3 to 10 ppm of fluoride may cause mottling of the teeth

An average daily intake of 20 to 80 mg of fluoride over a period of 10 to 20 years will result in crippling fluorosis

The water in parts of Arkansas, California, South Carolina, and Texas contains excess fluorine. Occasionally, throughout the LTnited States, high-fluorine phosphates are used in mineral mixtures

Develop rapidly in young children, but slowly in mature people Acute lead poisoning: Colic, cramps, diarrhea or constipation, leg cramps, and drowsiness The most severe form of lead poisoning, encountered in infants and in heavy drinkers of illicitly distilled whiskey is characterized by profound disturbances of the central nervous system and permanent damage to the brain; damage to the kidneys and shortened life span of the erthrocytes

Predominantly among children who may eat chips of lead-containing paints, peeled off from painted wood

Generally speaking, fluorosis is limited to high-fluorine areas Only a few instances of health effects in humans have been attributed to airborne fluoride, and they occurred in persons living in the vicinity of fluoride-emitting industries

Avoid the use of food and water containing excessive fluorine

Any damage may be permanent, but people who have not developed severe symptoms may be helped to some extent if the source of excess fluorine is eliminated High dietary levels of calcium and magnesium may reduce the absorption and utilization of fluoride

Fluorine is a cumulative poison The total fluoride in the human body averages 2.57 g Susceptibility to fluoride toxicity is increased by deficiencies of calcium, vitamin C, and protein Virtually all foods contain trace amounts of fluoride

The Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, estimates that (1) lead poisoning claims the lives of 200 children each year, and (2) 400,000 to 600,000 children have elevated lead levels in the blood Lead poisoning has been reduced significantly with the use of lead-free paint

Avoid inhaling or consuming lead

Acute lead poisoning: An emetic (induce vomiting), followed by drinking plenty of milk and Vi oz (14 g) of Epsom salts in half glass of water

Lead is a cumulative poison When incorporated in the soil, nearly all the lead is converted into forms that are not available to plants. Any lead taken up by plant roots tends to stay in the roots, rather than move up to the top of the plant

Consuming food crops contaminated by lead being deposited on the leaves and other edible portions of the plant by direct fallout Consuming food or water contaminated by contact with lead pipes or utensils Old houses in which the interiors were painted with leaded paints prior to 1945 — the chipped wall paint is sometimes eaten by children Such miscellaneous sources as illicitly distilled whiskey, improperly lead-glazed earthenware, old battery casings used as fuel, and toys containing lead

Chronic lead poisoning: Colic, constipation, lead palsy especially in the forearm and fingers, the symptoms of chronic nephritis, and sometimes mental depression, convulsions, and a blue line at the edge of the gums

Mercury (Hg)

Mercury is discharged into air and water from industrial operations and is used in herbicide and fungicide treatments Mercury poisoning has occurred where mercury from industrial plants has been discharged into water, then accumulated as methylmercury in fish and shellfish Accidental consumption of seed grains treated with fungicides that contain mercury, used for the control of fungus diseases of oats, wheat, barley, and flax

The toxic effects of organic and inorganic compounds of mercury are dissimilar The organic compounds of mercury, such as the various fungicides (1) affect the central nervous system and (2) are not corrosive The inorganic compounds of mercury include mainly mercuric chloride, a disinfectant; mercurous chloride (calomel), a cathartic; and elemental mercury

Commonly the toxic symptoms are corrosive gastrointestinal effects, such as vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and necrosis of the alimentary mucosa

Wherever mercury is produced in industrial operations or used in herbicide or fungicide treatments.

Chronic lead Lead poisoning can be O

o poisoning: Remove diagnosed positively by Q-

the source of lead. analyzing the blood tissue Q

Sometimes treated for lead content; clinical by administration signs of lead poisoning c fD

of magnesium or usually are manifested at 3

lead sulfate solution blood lead concentrations as a laxative and above 80 mg/100 g antidote on the lead in the digestive system, followed by potassium iodide, which cleanses the tracts Currently, treatment of lead poisoning makes use of chemicals that bind the metal in the body and help in its removal

Limited. But about 1200 cases of mercury poisoning identified in Japan in the 1950s were traced to the consumption of fish and shellfish from Japan's Minamata Bay contaminated with methylmer-cury. Some of the offspring of exposed mothers were born with birth defects, and many victims suffered central nervous system damage Another outbreak of mercury toxicity occurred in Iraq, where more than 6000 people were hospitalized after eating bread made from wheat that had been treated with methylmercury

Control mercury Mercury is a cumulative pollution from poison industrial Food and Drag operations Administration prohibits use of mercury-treated grain for food or feed Grain crops produced from mercury-treated seed and crops produced on soils treated with mercury herbicides have not been found to contain harmful concentrations of this element


Poison (Toxin) Sources

Baby Sleeping

Baby Sleeping

Everything You Need To Know About Baby Sleeping. Your baby is going to be sleeping a lot. During the first few months, your baby will sleep for most of theday. You may not get any real interaction, or reactions other than sleep and crying.

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