Common Name

Maple tree Sweetflag Quackgrass Waterplantain Garlic mustard

Wild garlic Pigweed Serviceberry Hog peanut Ground nut

Common burdock

Giant reed

Milkweed Pawpaw Wild oat

Wintercress/Yellow rocket Birches

Mustard, black or yellow Bromegrass Shepherd's purse Bittercress

Hornbeam

Hickory

Chestnut

Sandbur

Lambsquarter

Oxeye daisy

Chicory

Thistles

Wandering Jew

Hawthorn

Wild chervil

Nutgrass

Acer (many varieties) Acorns calamus

Agropyron repens L. (has many other names) Alisma spp. Alitalia petiolata

Allium vineale L. Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Amphicaipaea bracteata Apios americana Medik

Arctium minus

Arundo donax L.

Asclepias syriaca L. Asimina triloba L. Arena fatua L.

Barbarea spp. (B. vcma; B. vulgaris) Betula spp. (Betulacea) Brassica nigra Bromus japonicus Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamme bulbosa

Catpus caroliniana Caiya spp. Castanea spp. Cenchrus spp. Chenopodium album L. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Cichorium intybus L. Cirsium spp. Commelina communis Crataegus spp. Ciyototaenia canadensis Cyperus spp.

Sap can be collected and reduced by evaporation into syrup

Rootstocks or stems are edible with a sweet taste. Young shoots can be used as salad

Rootstocks can be chewed or scorched to use as coffee substitute; seeds can be used for breadstuffs and for beer Root is starchy and edible; should be dried to reduce acrid taste. Three varieties of this plant can be toxic. Leaf, stem, flower, and fruit are spicy and hot. If cooked, some of this spiciness is lost. Several plants that resemble this one are not edible

LTsed as an herbal seasoning; there are similar plants that are not garlic in aroma; they can be toxic Leaves from a young plant can be eaten raw as salad or boiled as is spinach Berries are rich and sweet; pits and leaves contain cyanide; also called shadbush or juneberry Fleshy seedpods found underground are edible

Root can be eaten raw or cooked. Seeds can also be used. Europeans use the term ground nut to refer to peanuts. This is not the same plant

Young leaves can be eaten as salad; roots are carrot-like in shape and can be cooked (boiled) and eaten. A little baking soda added to the cooking water improves tenderness and flavor. Scorched roots can be used as a coffee substitute Young shoots and rootstalks are sometimes sweet enough to be used as a substitute for sugar cane. Infusions of the root stocks can have some herbal properties — local weak anesthetic and in some instances either a hypotensive agent or hypertensive agent(depends on dose)

Young shoots, flower buds boiled with at least two changes of water. The plant contains cardiac glycosides and can be toxic The aromatic fruits are quite tasty. Seeds and bark have pesticide properties and should be handled with caution Seeds are similar to cultivated oats. LTseful when dried and ground as a cereal. Seeds can be scorched and used as a coffee substitute

Young leaves and stems can be used as a salad

Spring sap can be reduced to a syrup; bark can be boiled for tea

Seeds used to prepare mustard; leaves can be boiled for consumption, as can young stalks Seeds can be dried, ground, and used as cereal

Seeds are used as a spicy pot herb. Tender young shoots can be eaten raw. Has a peppery taste

Roots can be ground for a horseradish substitute; leaves and stems can be added to salad. The roots of some species (C. bulbosa)

can be toxic Nuts are edible Nuts are edible

Nuts are edible but are covered by a prickly coat. Roasting improves flavor and texture Seeds and burrs can be used as cereal grains

Leaves can be eaten raw or cooked as spinach. The Mexican version (Mexicantea, C. ambrosioides) is toxic Leaves and flowers can be eaten raw or cooked Leaves are good salad ingredients The taproot is chewy but tasty

Leaves can be used as potherbs; flowering shoots can be eaten raw

Berries are edible; thorns can be a problem when gathering the berries. Some species contain heart stimulants

Roots can be boiled, with a taste like parsnips; young leaves and stems can be eaten as salad; has an herb use in stews and soups

Tubers can be eaten or ground up to make a beverage called "chufa" or "horchata"

Queen Anne's lace, also called wild carrot Crabgrass Persimmon Barnyard grass Russian olive American burnweed Redstem filaree Wild strawberry Catchweed bedstraw Wintergreen Huckleberry Honey locust

Jerusalem artichoke Daylily Foxtail barley Touch-me-not Burning bush Prickly lettuce Virginia peppergrass Bugleweed Common mallow Black medic Mulberry Watercress American lotus Yellow water lily Fragrant water lily Evening primrose Wood sorrel Perilla mint Common reed

Ground cherry (Chinese lanterns) Pokeweed Plantain Mayapple Japanese knotweed Purslane Healall Wild cherry

Daucus carota L.

Digitaria snaguinaìis L. Diospyros virginiana L. Echinochloa crus-ga!!i L. Eiaegnus angustifolia L. Erechtites hieracifoiia Erodium cicutarium Fragaria virginiana Galium aparine Gaultheria procumbens L. Gayìussacia boccata Gleditsia triacanthos

Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocallis fulva L. Hordeum jubatum Impatients spp. Kochia scoparla Lactuca scariola L. Lepidium virginicum Lycorise spp. Malva neglecta Medicago lupulina Mortis spp.

Nasturtium officinale R. Nelumbo lutea Nuphar luteum L. Nymphaea odorata Oenothera biennis L. O.xalis spp. Penila frutescens L. Phragmites communis

Physalis heterophylla

Phytolacca americana L. Plantago major L. Podophyllum peltatum Polygonum cuspidatum Portulaca oleracea L. Prunella vulgaris L. Primus serotino

Root can be eaten after boiling; however, because it looks like poisonous hemlock, one should be cautious

Seeds can be dried and ground for use as a cereal

Fruits when ripe are very sweet

Seeds can be dried and used as cereal

Fruits are edible though astringent

Leaves can be eaten raw as salad or cooked

Tender leaves are eaten as salad; can also be used as potherb

Fruits are small but delicious

Young shoots are good potherbs; leaves and stems can be steamed and eaten as vegetable Berries, foliage, and bark can be used to make tea. Berries can be eaten raw Berries can be eaten raw or cooked

The pulp around the seeds can be used as a sweetener. (Tender green pods can also be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.) The tree is similar in appearance to the Kentucky coffee tree, and the pods of this tree cannot be eaten The tubers are crisp and can be used in place of Chinese chestnuts in salads; can also be cooked and mashed Flower buds can be used in salads. Tubers can be cooked and eaten. Can cause diarrhea in sensitive people Seeds can be dried and used as cereal

Leaves can be used for an herbal tea; leaves can be eaten as salad; pods are also edible Young shoots can be used as a potherb; seeds can be dried and used as cereal Young leaves can be used as salad, but may have a bitter taste Has a pungent mustard-like taste; used as a potherb Roots can be eaten raw or cooked

Boiled leaves have a slimy consistency much like okra. Flower buds can be pickled; leaves can be used as a thickener for soup

Sprouts can be added to salads for texture; leaves can be used as a potherb

Berries can be eaten out of hand

Leaves can be eaten raw or used as a potherb

Entire plant is edible

Tubers when cooked are a starch substitute

Flower buds and young leaves can be boiled and eaten; seeds can be dried and used as cereal Seeds are a source of g linolenic acid; tap roots can be eaten raw or cooked Leaves can be eaten cooked or raw; seed pods can also be eaten Leaves can be eaten cooked or raw

Young shoots are edible. Plant is similar to the poisonous Arundo, so the forager should be very careful to correctly identify the plant

Berries can be eaten cooked or raw

Young shoots can be used as a potherb; berries and roots may be poisonous Leaves can be used in salads

Fruits are edible raw or cooked; rest of the plant may be poisonous Young sprouts can be cooked and eaten like asparagus Young leaves can be used as a potherb or salad ingredient Boiled and used as a potherb Fruits are edible

TABLE 1.13

(Continued)

Common Name

Scientific Name

Use

Kudzu

Pueraria lobata

Roots and leaves are edible

Rock chestnut oak

Quercus primis L.

Nuts (acorns) are edible

Sumac

Rhus glabra L.

Berries are edible as are the roots; however, some people are allergic to all parts of the plant and will develop skin rash

Multiflora rose

Rosa multifora

The hips are edible in small quantities

Raspberry, blackberry

Rubus spp.

Fruits are eaten raw or used to make juice or jam

Red sorrel

Rumex acetosella L.

Leaves can be eaten as salad or cooked in water. The leaves contain a lot of oxalic acid, so small quantities would be preferred

Arrowhead

Sagittaria latifolia Willd

Roots can be eaten raw or cooked. Plants resemble the poisonous Jack-in-the-pulpit plant, so gatherers should beware

Elderberry

Sambucus canadensis

Fruits can be eaten raw or cooked

Hardstem bulrush

Scrpus acutus Muhl

Roots can be boiled and eaten

Foxtail grass

Setaria spp.

Seed grains can be dried and used as cereal

Tumble mustard

Sisymbrium altissimum L.

All parts of the plant are edible but have a strong mustard flavor; better used as a potherb

Roundleaf cabriar

Smilax rotundiflora L.

Young tender shoots can be eaten raw. Young leaves can be eaten as salad; roots can be used for tea

Sowthistle

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Leaves are prickly and bitter but can be used as a potherb

Johnson grass

Sorghum halepense L.

Young shoots can be eaten raw; seeds can be dried and used as cereal; mature stalks can be ground and the liquid extracted for

use as syrup

Chickweed

Stellaria media L.

Leaves can be eaten raw or cooked

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

All parts of the plant are edible

Stinkweed

Thlaspi arvense L.

All parts of the plant are edible after cooking

Western salsify

Tragopogon dubius Scopoli

Roots can be eaten after boiling; leaves, flowers, and stems can be eaten raw

Red clover

Trifolium pratense L.

Flowers can be boiled to make a broth; powdered leaves and flowers can be used as seasoning

Coltsfoot

Tussilago farfara L.

Can be used as a potherb in small amounts

Cattail

Typha spp.

Roots, stalks, and spears are edible

Stinging nettle

Urtica dioica L.

Can be eaten cooked or used as a potherb

Bell wort

Uvularia perf oliata L.

Young shoots can be cooked and eaten; leaves are bitter

Blueberry, gooseberry

Vaccinium stamineun

Berries can be eaten raw or used to make juice, jam. or jelly

Violet

Viola papilionacea Purish

Flowers are edible

Wild grapes

Vitis spp.

Fruits can be eaten raw or cooked

Spanish bayonnet

Yucca filimentosa L.

Flower buds can be eaten raw

Notes

  1. Persons using this list should be aware that individuals may differ in their responses to these plants. For some consumers, allergic reactions may be elicited. For others, there may be chemicals in the plants that J elicit an undesirable physiological effect. Still other plants, especially the water plants, may harbor parasites that may be injurious. The serious forager should consult a plant taxonomist to be sure that the plant gathered is an edible plant. There are many similar plants that may in fact be poisonous, while others are safe to consume. §~
  2. Weeds are plants that grow in places where we humans do not want them to grow. As such, we may not recognize them as food. The aforementioned plants contain edible portions. Not all parts of these plants tt may be useful as human food. Some varieties, in fact, may contain toxic chemicals that, if consumed in large quantities, may cause problems. A number of the plants have been identified based on their use by S, Native Americans. These plants can have many different names as common names. ^

Source: Duke. J.A.. Handbook of Edible Weeds, CRC Press. Boca Raton. FL. 1992.

Common and Scientific Name

Baneberry and Actaea sp.

Buckeye (Horsechestnut) and Aesculus sp.

Perennial growing to 3 ft (1 m) tall from a thick root; compound leaves; small, white flowers; white or red berries with several seeds borne in short, terminal clusters

Shrub or tree; deciduous, opposite, palmately, divided leaves with five to nine leaflets on a long stalk; red. yellow, or white flowers; two- to three-valved. capsule fruit; with thick, leathery husk enclosing one to six brown shiny seeds

All parts, but Native woodlands of North primarily America from Canada south roots and to Georgia. Alabama, berries Louisiana. Oklahoma, and the northern Rockies; red-fruited western baneberry from Alaska to central California. Arizona. Montana, and South Dakota Leaves. Various species throughout twigs. the LTnited States and Canada;

flowers. some cultivated as ornamentals, and seeds others grow wild

Buttercup and Annual or perennial herb growing Entire plant

high; leaves alternate entire to compound, and largely basal; yellow flowers borne singly or in clusters on ends of seed stalks; small fruits, single-seeded pods Castor bean and Shrub-like herb 4 - 12 ft (1.2 - Entire plant. Ricinus communis 3.7 m) tall; simple, alternate. especially long-stalked leaves with 5 - the seeds

11 long lobes, which are toothed on margins; fruits oval, green, or red. and covered with spines; three elliptical, glossy, black, white, or mottled seeds per capsule

Widely distributed in woods, meadows, pastures, and along streams throughout temperate and cold locations

Cultivated as an ornamental or oilseed crop primarily in the southern part of the LTnited States and Hawaii

Attributed to a glycoside or essential oil, which causes severe inflammation of the digestive tract

Acute stomach cramps, headache, increased pulse, vomiting, delirium, dizziness, and circulatory failure

As few as six berries can cause symptoms persisting for hours. Treatment may be a gastric lavage or vomiting Bright red berries attract children

Toxic parts contain the glycoside, esculin

Nervous twitching of muscles, weakness, lack of coordination, dilated pupils, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, paralysis, and stupor

The alkaloid protoanemonin, which can injure the digestive system and ulcerate the skin

Burning sensation of the mouth, nervousness, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, weak pulse, depression, and convulsions

By making a "tea" from the leaves and twigs or by eating the seeds, children have been poisoned Honey collected from the buckeye flower may also cause poisoning. Roots, branches, and fruits have been used to stupefy fish in ponds. Treatment usually is a gastric lavage or vomiting Sap and leaves may cause dermatitis. Cows poisoned by buttercups produce bitter milk or milk with a reddish color

Seeds, pressed cake, and leaves poisonous when chewed; contain the phytotoxin, ricin

Burning of the mouth and throat, nausea, vomiting, severe stomach pains, bloody diarrhea, excessive thirst, prostration, dullness of vision, and convulsions; kidney failure and death 1 to 12 days later

Fatal dose for a child is one to three seeds, and for an adult two to eight seeds

The oil extracted from the seeds is an important commercial product. It is not poisonous and it is used as a medicine (castor oil), for soap, and as a lubricant

Continued

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Responses

  • rena
    Can the leaves and plants of ground nuts be eaten by chickens?
    8 years ago

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