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Isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla Seringe in 1916; displays a lagging onset of sweetness with licorice aftertaste; not well studied; possible market for hard candies, chewing gums, and oral hygiene products Both sodium and calcium salts of saccharin used; passes through body unchanged; excreted in urine; originally a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) additive; subsequently, saccharin was classed as a carcinogen based on experiments with rats; however, recent experiments indicate that saccharin causes cancer in rats, but not in mice and humans A sugar alcohol or polyol; occurs naturally in many fruits commercially prepared by the hydrogenation of glucose; many unique properties besides sweetness; on the FDA list of GRAS food additives; the most widely used sugar alcohol; slow intestinal absorption; consumption of large amounts may cause diarrhea Derived from extract of Perilla namkinensis; clean taste;

needs research; used as sweetening agent in Japan Isolated from the leaves of the wild shrub Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni; used by the people of Paraguay to sweeten drinks; limited evidence suggests nontoxic to humans; rebaudioside A is isolated from the same plant and is said to taste superior to stevioside; its chemical structure is very similar to stevioside, and it is 190 times sweeter than sugar The chemical combination of the sugars fructose and glucose; one of the oldest sweetening agents; most popular and most available sweetening agent; occurs naturally in many fruits; commercially extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets Stable to heat

Source of sweetness of the tropical fruit from the plant Thaumatococcus daniellii; enjoyed by inhabitants of western Africa; doubtful commercial applications A sugar alcohol or polyhydric alcohol (polyol); occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables; produced in the body; commercial production from plant parts (oat hulls, corncobs, and birch wood chips) containing xylans — long chains of the sugar xylose; possible diarrhea; one British study suggests xylitol causes cancer in animals

Source: Ensminger, A.H. et al., Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994, pp. 2082-2087.

of antibodies. Because they are able to agglutinate red blood cells, they are also known as hemaglutinins. The binding of bean lectin on rat intestinal mucosal cells has been demonstrated in vitro, and it has been suggested that this action is responsible for the oral toxicity of the lectins. Such bindings may disturb the intestines' absorptive capacity for nutrients and other essential compounds. The lectins, being proteins, can easily be inactivated by moist heat. Germination decreases the hemaglutinating activity in varieties of peas and species of beans.

Type B antinutritives are substances interfering with the absorption or metabolic utilization of minerals and are also known as antiminerals. Although they are toxic per se, the amounts present in foods seldom cause acute intoxication under normal food consumption. However, they may harm the organism under suboptimum nutriture. The most important type B antinutritives are phytic acid, oxalates, and glucosinolates.

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