101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Read more...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary


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I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

This ebook served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Regulating Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives

Based on the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act of 1938, the FDA must approve the use of all additives. The manufacturer bears the responsibility of proving that the additive is safe for its intended use. The Food Additives Amendment excluded additives and preservatives deemed safe for consumption prior to 1958, such as salt, sugar, spices, vitamins, vinegar, and monosodium glutamate. These substances are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and may be used in any food, though the FDA may remove additives from the GRAS list if safety concerns arise. The 1960 Color Additives Amendment to the FD&C Act required the FDA to approve synthetic coloring agents used in The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide World...

Food Additives That Can Kill The Taste That Kills

The subtitle of my first book on excitotoxic food additives was The Taste That Kills. Since publication of the book in 1997, a mountain of newer information has surfaced confirming the damaging effects of these additives. Because so many people have either read the book, seen me on a 700 Club broadcast, or heard me interviewed on syndicated radio programs, awareness of the problem has grown significantly. The food industry has responded with feeble attempts to defend the continuing practice of adding such dangerous additives to our food.

Five FDAApproved GRAS Artificial Sweeteners

Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame-K) was discovered in 1967 and approved for use in the United States in 1988. Its trade name is Sunette. Two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, this sweetener is stable when heated, making it suitable for cooking. However, when used in large amounts it has a bitter aftertaste. It is not broken down by the body, and it does not provide any calories. Over ninety scientific studies have been conducted by the FDA, and the World Health Organization's Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also endorsed Acesulfame K's safety. Saccharin was discovered in 1879 and approved for use in the United States in 1879. Its trade name is Sweet'n Low. Three hundred to five hundred times sweeter than table sugar, saccharin provides no energy, as it is not metabolized by human beings. It has a bitter and somewhat metallic aftertaste. The largest population study to date, involving nine thousand individuals, showed that saccharin does not increase the risk of...

Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, and control of blood glucose for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the appetite, but the bulk of evidence does not support this hypothesis. Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. There have been a number of health concerns related with these products, though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for artificial sweeteners involves a comprehensive analysis of scientific data to satisfy safety requirements. All generally recognized as safe (GRAS) sweeteners have undergone extensive safety testing and have been carefully reviewed by the FDA.

MSGAnother Flavor Enhancer

You probably know about monosodium glutamate, or more simply, MSG. Common in many types of ethnic cooking, MSG is a flavor enhancer. It blends well with salty or sour flavors . . . and brings out the flavor of many prepared foods, such as heat 'n' eat meals, sauces, and canned soups.

Food Labels Food Safety and Handling Tips

For your good health, some food labels offer guidance on food safety and handling. To reduce the risk of foodborne illness, raw and partially cooked meat and poultry products must be labeled with guidelines for safe handling. See the Safe Handling Instructions label. Each of the simple graphics a refrigerator, hand washing, fry pan, and meat thermometer represents a safe handling tip. Taking a few more moments with food labels teaches even more about the food inside the package. Net contents. Food labels tell you the total amount in the container, either in volume, count, or net weight. Net weight refers to the amount of food inside the container, including any liquid. Organic labeling. The Organic Foods Production Act and the National Organic Program ensure that the production, processing, and certification of organic foods are standardized. The term organic now has a legal label definition so you know what you're buying if you prefer organic foods. Foods may also bear the USDA...

Exploring the Nature and Science of Food Additives

What are food additives Here's a really simple definition Food additives are substances added to food. The list of common food additives includes i Flavors and flavor enhancers i Preservatives Food additives may be natural or synthetic. For example, vitamin C is a natural preservative. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) are synthetic preservatives. Many people think natural additives are safer than synthetic ingredients, probably because synthetic seems synonymous with chemical, a sort of scary word. Besides, synthetic additives often have names no one can pronounce, much less translate, which makes them even more forbidding. To ensure your safety, the natural and synthetic food additives used in the United States come only from the group of substances known as the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list.

Detoxification and Food Additives

If you have ever looked at the labels on processed foods, drinks, or soups you will see a long list of additives that resemble names seen only in a chemistry textbook, such things as allyl anthranilate and benzyl dimethyl carbinyl butrate. Remember, most of these compounds are foreign to the human body and must be detoxified or metabolized in some way. According to Ruth Winters' book, A Consumer's Dictionary of Food Additives, there is no toxicity information available on 46 percent of the chemicals added to foods and only 5 percent have had complete toxicity evaluation. Some food labels look more like labels from organic chemistry laboratories than what you would expect to find attached to foods. Yet we consume these processed foods as if safety has been assured.

Artificial Sweeteners Pending FDA Approval

Artificial sweeteners taste sweet like sugar without the added calories. They do not promote tooth decay, and they are an acceptable alternative diabetes inability to regulate level of for people with diabetes or those wishing to decrease their use of sucrose. sugar in the blood Artificial sweeteners, and their metabolic by-products and components, are not considered harmful to human beings at the levels normally used. When diet the total daily food intake, or the used in the context of a healthful diet, artificial sweeteners are generally safe Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1993-2003). Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization.

Hot topic Artificial Sweeteners And Reducedkcalorie Sweeteners

Tagatose Metabolism

The introduction of diet soda in the 1950s sparked the widespread use of artificial sweeteners, substitutes for sugar that provide no, or almost no, kcalories. If you drink diet soda, look at the food label and see which artificial sweeteners are present. As of 2005, five artificial sweeteners had been approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose, and neotame. Because artificial sweeteners are considered food additives, the FDA requires that they be tested for safety before going on the market. Besides offering no kcalo-ries, artificial sweeteners are beneficial because they do not cause tooth decay or force insulin levels to rise as do added sugars such as high-fructose corn syrup. The FDA uses the concept of an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for many food additives, including these artificial sweeteners. The ADI represents an intake level that, if maintained each day throughout a person's lifetime, would be considered safe...

Todays Food Labels

At the store, food labels are your best sources of consumer information. Food labels tell the basics. They identify the food, the amount inside the package, an ingredient list, nutrition labeling, and the manufacturer. If you need to eat fewer calories, less saturated or trans fat, more calcium, or more fiber, Nutrition Facts labels can help you. Nutrition information on labels helps you choose foods to meet recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyra-mid. The ingredient list, safety guidelines, preparation tips, and freshness dating food labels tell still more about food inside the package. Use food labels to compare the nutrients and ingredients in similar foods _______ Use Nutrition Facts including serving sizes on food labels to plan healthful

Flavoring agents

The chicken is not usually considered to have the ability to select feed based on flavor, or organoleptics per se. The chicken has only about 24 taste buds in comparison to 9,000 in humans and 25,000 in cattle. Relatively few studies have been conducted with flavoring agents for poultry, and for this reason, care must be taken in extrapolating data from other species. For example, sucrose octa-acetate solution is reported to be readily accepted by birds, but universally rejected by humans. There seems little scope for use of flavoring agents with broiler chickens and turkeys that already seem

A brief overview of dietary supplement ingredient regulation in the United States

For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no matter how they are presented, if intended to be used to supplement the diet, are reviewed by the Office of Special Nutritionals and related offices in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) at FDA. The DSHEA included a number of provisions that apply to dietary supplements alone. As a result of the DSHEA the pre-market safety evaluations that are required for new food ingredients or new uses of approved food ingredients do not apply to dietary supplements. The DSHEA authorized the FDA to establish good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines for dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients and the DSHEA provided guidelines for the display of literature used to market dietary supplement products (Box 1.1). When a manufacturer wishes to market a dietary...

What Is in My Food Besides Natural Components

Many if not most manufactured foods contain food additives used to improve taste, texture, appearance, shelf life, safety, or nutritional value of the product. Some of the general food additive categories include antioxidants, antimicrobials, coloring agents, emulsifiers, flavoring agents, sweeteners, pH controllers, leavening agents, texturizers, stabilizers, enzymes, and conditioners. All food additives were tested for safety and received approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process can take years.

Have You Ever Wondered

. . . if food additives are okay for everyone Except for those few with specific allergies who may react, food additives are safe at the plate. In fact, a primary use of additives is protecting food quality and safety. For someone with a sensitivity to an additive, the reaction should be similar whether the additive is natural or synthetic. The chemical makeup is quite similar. For specifics about rare cases of allergic responses, see Sensitive to Additives Maybe, Maybe Not in chapter 21. if people with gluten intolerance should avoid certain additives Yes they need to read food labels carefully to avoid additives with gluten. See Gluten Intolerance Often a Lifelong Condition in chapter 21. Today food additives are regulated more tightly than at any other time in history with safety as the primary goal. In 1958 the federal government passed the Food Additives Amendment, which gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsibility for approving additives used in food. The FDA...

Controversies Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances

Controversial issues in this area include the diagnosis of brain allergy, the diagnosis of environmental illness related to food allergy, and the diagnosis of yeast allergy. The connection of these problems to food allergies is not universally recognized. Some have also linked hyperactivity to food allergy or intolerance. Hyperactivity in children, in some instances, may be related to eating large amounts of food additives, but it is not accepted to be an allergic condition by the majority of the scientific community.

Generally Recognized as Safe GRAS

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a list of seven hundred food substances that were exempt from the then new requirement that manufacturers test food additives before putting them on the market. The Generally Recognized as Safe, or GRAS, list acknowledged that many additives had existing scientific evidence of long and safe use in food. Among the additives on the list are sugar, salt, spices, and vitamins. Manufacturers can petition for GRAS status for new additives if the substances meet the criteria cited above. GRAS list additives are continually reevaluated based on current scientific evidence. see also Artificial Sweeteners Biotechnology Food Safety Functional Foods.

What Are Fat Substitutes

In some cases, the FDA has approved fat-reduction ingredients as food additives. To be approved, food additives are tested extensively to assess their safety and level of use among different population groups. Examples of fat substitutes approved as food additives include carrageenan, olestra, and polydextrose. In other instances, fat-reduction ingredients are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). GRAS ingredients are made from common food components and are considered by experts to be safe. For example, many spices and flavoring agents, such as sugar and salt, are GRAS ingredients. Examples of GRAS fat substitutes include guar gum and maltodextrin.

Type II Diabetes and Insulin Resistance

Many theories have attempted to explain why we are now seeing such an explosion of type II diabetes, but none really meet all the observations associated with the condition.240 While children and teenagers are eating a lot of junk food and exercising little, the situation is not that different than when I was a teenager. What is different are the huge amounts of MSG and similar excitotoxic food additives children are consuming. The amounts of these additives has doubled every decade since their introduction in 1948.241

Does Food Cause Hyperactivity

The commonly held notion linking sugar or other food additives to hyperactive behavior or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has never been scientifically proven. Although the exact cause of ADHD isn't known, factors such as genetics and environmental influences have been suggested.

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

DSHEA established a new regulatory framework for supplement safety and for the labeling of dietary supplements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary supplements are regulated under food law, but with certain provisions that apply only to dietary supplements. For example, dietary supplements escape the stringent approval process that food additives and drugs must go through before being marketed to the public, unless the manufacturer of a dietary supplement makes a claim for therapeutic efficacy.

Control and Oversight

The primary agencies that monitor the safety of the U.S. food supply are the FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. When monitoring the food supply, the FDA focuses first on microbial food-borne illness, followed by natural toxins in food, and residues in food, including environmental contaminants, pesticides, and animal drugs. Nutritional composition and intentional food additives are monitored more closely as artificial food products enter the market. The FDA Food Code, which is published every two years, provides guidance for restaurants, grocery stores, and institutions such as nursing homes on how to prevent food-borne illness. Managers and supervisors of these institutions are now required to be certified

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Pollution and other environmental hazards. Cysteine and glutathione help protect against toxins and pollutants, including drugs, bacterial toxins, peroxidized fats, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.), air pollutants, automobile exhaust fumes, food additives, and pesticides.7 Cysteine helps protect the lungs of smokers from the toxic effects of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two of the many toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke. Cysteine can be important in cancer chemotherapy, reducing toxicity from agents such as cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin.

Have You Ever Wondered 108

If you want to moderate your MSG intake-or if you seem sensitive to it-see if you can order food without added MSG in Asian restaurants. If the menu says No MSG, it likely means no added MSG. MSG is likely in other ingredients, such as soy sauce glutamate itself is naturally in virtually all protein-containing foods. Check food labels to guide your food selection, too. Glutamate that naturally occurs in food won't be on the ingredient list, so you may want to consult a registered dietitian for guidance. To learn more, see MSG-Another Flavor Enhancer in chapter 7. For those who suffer from this disorder, foods and beverages containing aspartame carry a label warning stating Phenylketonurics Contains Phenylalanine. One of the most widely accepted food additives, aspartame is found in many products, including carbonated and powdered soft drinks, yogurt, pudding

Uses of Additives and Preservatives in Foods

Additives and preservatives are used to maintain product consistency and quality, improve or maintain nutritional value, maintain palatability and wholesomeness, provide leavening, control pH, enhance flavor, or provide color. Food additives may be classified as 4. Artificial flavors and flavor enhancers, the largest class of additives, function to make food taste better, or to give them a specific taste. Examples are salt, sugar, and vanilla, which are used to complement the flavor of certain foods. Synthetic flavoring agents, such as benzaldehyde for cherry or almond flavor, may be used to simulate natural flavors. Flavor enhancers, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) intensify the flavor of other compounds in a food.

Dr Christopher Calpai

The Food Additives Handbook reports that lead, cadmium, and arsenic are put into animal feed, as are other heavy metals. They are probably placed there intentionally to remove germs. In addition, aluminum is found in baking powder, table salt, and vanilla powder. It's used as an emulsifier, and as an anti-caking agent.

Healthy Trans Fats vs Unhealthy Trans Fats Revealed

I'm sure most of you have heard all of the ruckus in the news over the last few years about just how bad man-made trans fats are for your health. If you've been a reader of my newsletter and my Truth about Six Pack Abs e-book program, then you definitely know my opinion that these substances are some of the most evil food additives of all and are found in the vast majority of all processed foods and fast foods on the market today. In my opinion, man-made trans fats are right up there with smoking in terms of their degree of danger to your health. After all, they are one of THE MAIN factors for the explosion of heart disease since approximately the 1950's.

Regulations Related to Functional Foods

Functional foods are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD&C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. Functional foods may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods, or enhanced foods. Labeling claims that are used on functional foods are of two types (1) Structure and function claims, which describe effects on normal functioning of the body, but not claims that the food can treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure a disease

Treating a True Food Allergy

Although this list is not a substitute for consulting a registered dietitian, it can provide a pretty good idea of which food ingredients to avoid after you've been diagnosed with one of the following food allergies Some people are diagnosed with allergies to food additives such as sulfites (food preservatives), tartrazine (food colorings), and MSG (flavor enhancer) and therefore must check ingredient labels with extreme care and ask a lot of questions when dining out.

Safety issues Donohue Salminen Roberfroid et al

Although the European Union regulation on novel foods and novel food ingredients leaves room for interpretation, it is very likely that most prebiotics placed into the European market after this regulation comes into force will fall within its scope. They will, therefore, be subject to safety and nutritional evaluation on a case-by-case basis. Fructosyl-type ingredients, for which prebiotic properties are claimed, are already in the market. Fructosyl-type ingredients are natural components of a variety of fruits, vegetables and cereals, and consequently are consumed regularly (a few g d) as part of the current diet (Van Loo et al. 1995). They are classified as natural food ingredients and cleared as novel food ingredients. Similarly galactosyl prebiotics have been cleared as novel food ingredients by

Common Foods Associated with Food Allergy

An allergic reaction can be triggered by a very small amount of a food. Persons with food allergies need to read food labels carefully and ask restaurant workers about food ingredients, and the food industry needs to ensure that processed foods are appropriately prepared so that people are not exposed to food allergens unknowingly. This may happen when improperly cleaned food equipment is used to prepare multiple types of food.

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

The Breads, Cereals, Rice, and Pasta Group forms the base of the Pyramid, with the largest number of servings recommended (six to eleven servings recommended daily). The next layer up includes the Fruit Group (two to four servings) and the Vegetable Group (three to five servings). At the third level are the Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (two to three servings) and the Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group (two to three servings). At the tip of the Pyramid are Fats, Oils, and Sweets. These foods calorie unit of food energy and food ingredients should be used sparingly to avoid excess calories

Constraints on innovation

The principle of substantial equivalence was adopted into the EU Regulation on Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients.37 The Regulation excludes from its controls foods and food ingredients obtained through traditional propagating or breeding practices and which have a history of safe use. GM plants are considered as 'novel' under the terms of the Regulation. However, the detailed safety evaluation provisions of the Regulation do not apply to foods produced by genetic manipulation 'if on the basis of the scientific evidence available they are substantially equivalent to existing foods with regard to their composition, nutritional value, metabolism, intended use, and the level of undesirable substances present'. The Regulation regards food as 'novel' if the characteristics of the food differ from the conventional food regarding the accepted limits of natural variation of such characteristics. It is clear that most nutritionally enhanced plants would be caught under the definition of a...

Health Claims on the Label

Another bit of nutrition information might appear on food labels a health claim. Health claims link food or food components in your overall eating plan with a lowered risk for some chronic diseases. Since this information is optional, many foods that meet the criteria don't carry any health claim on their label.

Stocking the Vegetarian Kitchen

No matter where you shop, plan ahead. Shop with a list. Read food labels to find foods with ingredients that match your needs. The ingredient list helps identify animal-derived ingredients. Check the grocery aisle for shelf-stable foods such as boxed soy beverage. For your vegetarian kitchen, stock up on foods such as these

Have You Ever Wondered 110

You're allergic to eggs, you'd need to know that eggs are common ingredients in mayonnaise, many salad dressings, and ice cream. Food labels list the ingredients in the food inside the package. The chart Label Lingo Some Terms for Common Allergens in this chapter gives some ingredients to watch for on ingredient lists of food labels if you have a food allergy.

Recovery Electrolytes

Nutrition information from food labels and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott). Nutrition information from food labels and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott). Data from food labels, July 2007. Data from food labels, July 2007.

Dietary Sources Of Vitamin D

Daily values are reference numbers developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine specific nutrient content of food. The average DV for vitamin D ranges between 200 and 600 IU depending on age and physical activity, with the biological activity of 1 g of vitamin D being 40 IU. The DV of the food sources listed in Table 5.1 is based on a 2000-calorie diet. The DV denotes what is provided by one serving and is usually listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels.

Advantages and Disadvantages

An advantage of the food exchange system is that it provides a system in which a wide selection of foods can be included, thereby offering variety and versatility to the person with diabetes. Other advantages of the lists are (1) they provide a framework to group foods with similar carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calorie contents (2) they emphasize important management concepts, such as carbohydrate amounts, fat modification, calorie control, and awareness of high-sodium foods (3) by making food choices from each of the different lists a variety of healthful food choices can be assured and (4) they provide a system that allows individuals to be accountable for what they eat. Furthermore, with an understanding of the nutrient composition of the exchange lists, nutrient values from food labels can be used and a wider variety of foods can be incorporated accurately into a meal plan.

Gluten Free Labeling of Food Products

Finally, the United States is about to have a legal definition of the term gluten free on food labels. This ruling has been a long time When this book went to press, there were no specific FDA regulations in place regarding use of the term gluten free on food labels. Currently, if a product is labeled gluten free, it generally means that it does not contain any ingredients made from wheat, barley, or rye (and usually oats). However, under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004, the Food and Drug Administration must issue a rule regarding the definition and voluntary use of the term gluten free for labeling purposes by August 2008. A proposed rule has already been released.

Food Sources of Selenium

DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains very much of a specific nutrient. The DV for selenium is 10 micrograms (mcg). The percent DV ( DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. Even foods that provide lower percentages of the DV will contribute to a healthful diet. *DV Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains very much of a specific nutrient. The DV for selenium is 10 micrograms (mcg). The percent DV ( DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. Even foods that provide lower percentages of the DV will contribute to a healthful diet.

Making the Nutritional Guidelines Work for

You get a lot more flexibility both in meal timing and what you eat with intensive insulin therapy, in which you either take insulin injections before each meal, or with an insulin pump, which contains a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Before you give yourself an injection, you determine how much carbohydrate you plan to eat and calculate the amount of insulin accordingly. There are many resources for learning the carbohydrate level of foods, including food labels. A list of resources for carbohydrate counting and meal planning for diabetes may be found at the end of this chapter. In the following section, you'll find a carbohydrate counting list, which shows the carbohydrate content of various foods. While a carb counting list includes foods from the starch, fruit, and dairy group, it does not contain foods from the fat, vegetable, and protein groups. Keep in mind that each food in the carbohydrate counting list is 15 grams of carbohydrate within the stated portion...

Who Makes the Rules for Functional Foods

As the popularity of the term functional food has grown, the FDA has decided to get involved to make sure that every food package doesn't start making claims about its special qualities without adequate evidence. In 1990, the FDA approved the use of health claims on food labels so consumers could identify which foods had additional functions. Based on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, foods and their components can bear a health claim that describes the relationship between the food (or component) and a disease risk or illness if the science supports it.

Overview of Food Labeling

Food labels on products sold in the United States must have the product name (product identity statement) the manufacturer's name and address the net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count a list of ingredients and, in most cases, a Nutrition Facts statement. To insure consistent presentation of information so consumers can easily compare food products, each component of the label is defined by regulations in terms of placement, terminology, and type size. Regulation of food labeling falls

The Food Guide Pyramid

You must have noticed the food guide pyramid on food labels. The USDA and the DHHS designed this pyramid to be a flexible dietary guide for Americans. Each compartment contains a different food group and the recommended number of servings that should be consumed daily. The primary energy-providing nutrient (Chapter 2) found in each food group is written in parenthesis. See Figure 3-1. Although this Food Guide Pyramid is found on most food labels, many people are unsure how to use its information. The most common questions are about serving sizes and how many servings should be eaten. Often people overestimate the size of a serving, thereby eating more kcals than they anticipated. Table 3-1 gives an estimate of the amount of food per serving for each food group and Table 3-2 lists the number of servings required from each food group to meet the various total daily kcals shown in the left column. Look up the number of servings you need from each of the food groups to meet your Estimated...

Recommendations for Responsible Food Marketing

Consumers rely on product advertisements and food labels for nutritional education. The American Association of Advertising Agencies states that responsible food marketing strategies should (1) avoid vague, false, misleading, or exaggerated statements (2) avoid incomplete or distorted interpretations of claims made by professional or scientific authorities and (3) avoid unfair product comparisons. Advertisers must also consider the long-term consequences or potential for harm stemming from their claims. While these recommendations are important in developed countries, they become even more critical in international marketing campaigns. Medical College of Wisconsin. Health Claims on Food Labels What Do They Really Mean Available from

Nutrition for People with Lactose Intolerance

Although milk and foods made from milk are the only natural sources, lactose is often added to processed foods, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing. This is because dairy products can contribute to the required or desired flavor, color, and texture of many foods, in addition to increasing the nutritional value of processed foods. Some products that are labeled nondairy, such as powdered coffee creamer and whipped toppings, may include ingredients that are derived from milk, and therefore contain lactose. It is important to carefully read food labels, looking not only for milk and lactose among the contents, but also for such terms as whey, curds, milk by-products, dry milk solids, and nonfat dry milk powder, all of which contain lactose. see also African Americans, Diet of Africans, Diets of Asians, Diet of Carbohydrates.

What Foods Contain Trans Fatty Acids

United States and Canada, are required to list the trans fat levels in the Nutrition Facts on food labels. Because of this, snack-food manufacturers are choosing hydrogenated oils with lower trans fat content to produce snack foods. Furthermore, in 2006 New York City placed a ban on trans fat in restaurants, a public health initiative that is being followed by other cities.

Carbohydrate Rich Foods

In addition, I taught Eric how to make better selections based on the nutrition-facts panel on food labels. You, too, can use labels to guide your selections. The nutrition-facts panel lists the number of grams of carbohydrate, protein, and fat (and alcohol if present) per serving. The panel also lists, as I have listed here, the calories per gram Nutrient data from food labels and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott). Nutrient data from food labels and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott). Learning about the composition of your training diet is important. The Internet offers several options for calculating grams of carbohydrate, and this can be easier than gathering the information from food labels. Many of my clients are shocked at how easily fat creeps into their diets. For example, Pedro, a health-conscious fitness exerciser, simply...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

How are the DRIs used They are the basis for all nutritional plans used by health care facilities and providers, food services, food manufacturers, and others who plan diets. As you will learn below, the Food Guide Pyramid, the research-based food guide developed by the government, is based on the DRIs. In addition, the Daily Values, the information on food labels that helps you determine how a food contributes to your total nutrient intake, are based on the DRIs (see the Appendix Dietary Reference Intakes, page 421).

Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

Concerned that fresh produce might take a bite out of your pocketbook Buy seasonal fruits and vegetables, when they typically cost less. And stock up on canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, and dried fruits, when they're specially priced. Canned and frozen fruits and vegetables offer convenience, especially for housebound adults. If you or someone you're caring for needs a special diet, talk to a registered dietitian about buying these foods. Use the Nutrition Facts on food labels, too. Some canned vegetables and frozen vegetables with sauces contain added salt and added sugars. Plain, frozen vegetables and no-salt-added canned vegetables may be better choices for a low-sodium diet. Canned fruit in natural juices and frozen fruit without added sugars may be better choices for carb -controlled eating.

Relying on labels Health claims

On the other hand, health claims approved by the USDA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for inclusion on the new food labels are another matter entirely. If you see a statement suggesting that a particular food or nutrient plays a role in reducing your risk of a specific medical condition, you can be absolutely 100 percent sure that a real relationship exists between the food and the medical condition. You can also be sure that scientific evidence from well-designed studies supports the claim.

How Much Fiber Is Necessary

The recommended daily amount of fiber can be consumed by eating a diet high in fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. There are several ways to ensure one consumes enough fiber. First, it is important to read food labels. Although they do not distinguish between the two types of fiber, the labels of almost all foods will provide the amount of dietary fiber in each serving. Raw or slightly cooked vegetables will also provide an excellent source of fiber. However, overcooking vegetables may reduce the fiber content. Whole-grain cereals, whole-wheat bread, fresh or dried fruit, beans, rice, and salad are all good sources of fiber. The table presents the fiber content of various foods.

Relative glycaemic potency and glycaemicglucose equivalents

Control of postprandial glycaemia - the blood glucose response to food intake -is an increasingly important health issue. Diabetes mellitus, marked by an inability to control blood glucose levels, is increasing rapidly in many developed countries, in which an over-supply of high energy and highly digestible carbohydrate foods is coupled with predisposing factors, including physical inactivity, obesity, and inheritance.28 Many consumers need to be able to manage postprandial glycaemia by selecting foods and food combinations according to glycaemic impact, but food labels at present give them little assistance. Glycaemic carbohydrate components most commonly seen on food labels are 'carbohydrate', 'available carbohydrate', 'complex carbohydrate' (starch), and 'sugars'. One of the main reasons for distinguishing between sugars and complex carbohydrates is the once-held belief that sugars have a more acute impact on blood glucose levels than starch. However, some starches are so rapidly...

To Artificially Sweeten or

People often have to use artificial sweeteners because of a medical condition. For example, sugar substitutes can be great for diabetics, who can't tolerate real sugar because their bodies can't produce the hormone insulin. Insulin delivers the sugar from our blood to our cells, where we utilize it as energy. When your body doesn't have enough insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and doesn't get into the cells. This condition is known as high blood-sugar and can be extremely dangerous for people with diabetes. Because sugar substitutes do not contain any glucose (and therefore do not require insulin), they can be effective sweeteners for people with diabetes. A more popular reason for using artificial sweeteners is saving calories. However, this notion might not be as effective as you think. Although it is true that diet soft drinks and other artificially sweetened foods can save you a lot of sugar calories, several studies have shown that people who save calories with these diet...

What Are Disaccharides

May be part of our diet naturally in seeds or alcoholic beverages. Sucrose is derived from the sugar cane plant and the beet, and the sucrose-rich product is called sugar. Lactose is the primary carbohydrate found in milk and dairy products. Nutrition scientists often refer to monosacchar-ides and disaccharides as simple sugars because of their relatively small carbohydrate size and their sweet taste. Table 4.2 presents the relative sweetness of simple sugars and compares them with sugar alcohols and artificial sweeteners.

Use of and Abstention from Stimulants

A stimulant is a product, food, or drink that excites the nervous system and changes the natural physiology of the body, such as drugs and consumable products that contain caffeine, such as tea, coffee, or chocolate. The use of caffeine is prohibited or restricted by many religions because of its addictive properties and harmful physical effects. Many also restrict spices and certain condiments, such as pepper, pickles, or foods with preservatives, because they are injurious by nature and flavor the natural taste and effect of foods.

Food Use and Comments

Derived from hydrolysis of cornstarch employed in numerous foods, for example, baby foods, bakery products, toppings, meat products, beverages, condiments, and confections GRAS additive Derived from cornstarch major users of dextrose are confection, wine, and canning industries used to flavor meat products used in production of caramel variety of other uses

Caffeine What Sources How Much

The amount of caffeine in foods or beverages depends on several factors type of product, its preparation method, and portion size. Caffeine occurs naturally in some products, such as coffee and chocolate, and is added as a flavoring agent in some others, such as soft drinks.

Microbial Contaminants of Fresh Food

Of the duodenum, where mainly calcium and trace metals are absorbed. Phytates occur in a wide variety of foods, such as cereals (e.g., wheat, rye, maize, rice, and barley), legumes and vegetables (e.g., bean, soybean, lentil, pea, and vetch), nuts and seeds (e.g., walnut, hazelnut, almond, peanut, and cocoa bean), and spices and flavoring agents (e.g., caraway, coriander, cumin, mustard, and nutmeg). From several experiments in animals and humans it has been observed that phytates exert negative effects on the availability of calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and other trace essential elements. These effects may be minimized considerably, if not eliminated, by increased intake of essential minerals. In the case of calcium, intake of cholecalciferol must also be adequate, as the activity of phytates on calcium absorption is enhanced when this vitamin is inadequate or limiting. In many foodstuffs the phytic acid level can be reduced by phytase, an enzyme occurring in plants that catalyzes...

Common Foods Associated with Intolerance

Foods associated with intolerance include preserved foods, foods containing monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer), and specific foods such as milk, pickled herring, soy sauce, chili peppers, and nutmeg. Intolerance to lactose is a major problem for many populations. In the United States, lactose intolerance is common among those of African and Asian descent. The Native American population also has a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

Recognizing Other Body Reactions to Food

* A physical reaction to a specific chemical Your body may react to things such as the laxative substance in prunes or monosodium glutamate (MSG), the flavor enhancer commonly found in Asian food. Although some people are more sensitive than others to these chemicals, their reaction is a physical one that doesn't involve the immune system.

Magnitude of Food Borne Illness

Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic burden on communities and their health systems. In the United States, illness caused by the major pathogens alone are estimated to cost up to 37.1 billion annually in medical costs and lost productivity. The cost of food-borne illness in Australia is estimated at about 487 million to 1.9 billion per year. The re-emergence of cholera in Peru in 1991 resulted in the loss of 700 million in fish and fishery-product exports.

Bacterial infections

Enteric infections exact a heavy toll on human populations, particularly among children. Despite the explosion of knowledge on the pathogenesis of enteric diseases experienced during the past decade, the number of diarrheal episodes and childhood deaths reported worldwide remains of apocalyptic dimensions. In the next 15 s, a child somewhere in the world will die from diarrhea. Worldwide, it is estimated that 6-60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness occur annually, the vast majority being severe enough and affecting so many unprivileged populations to pose a serious global health burden. In overpopulated developing countries, poor sanitation and hygiene, unsafe water supplies and limited education contribute to the propagation of diarrheal diseases. In industrialized nations, diarrhea had been thought of as more of an inconvenience rather than a serious cause of illness, but recent attention to food contamination by pathogens such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli, in...

Enteric infections in HIVinfected children

C. parvum is a common cause of diarrhea in both HIV-infected and uninfected children, but in the immunocompromised child it results in prolonged disease and high fluid losses.84-86 It may be responsible for up to 25 of persistent diarrhea in HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa.59,72 Infection is usually through person-to-person contact, food contamination (e.g. unwashed raw vegetables or fruit) and contaminated water. Two distinct genotypes cause clinical disease in HIV-infected children human and bovine (calf) types.87 The clinical and epidemiological differ

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Our observations of the incidence of involuntary weight loss find a higher incidence in the elderly. It can, however, be found at any age. Some glucose or related sugar should be a part of the diet to minimize the burning of fat to make glucose, since glucose is needed for brain energy. Increasing protein intake alone will not help. Sugar substitutes, such as aspartame, further complicate this energy problem as they lead to an excessive intake of aspartic acid from aspartame, a neuronal excitor that can be toxic for the tired or hypoxic brain.80 The same is true for the use of glutamic acid as a flavor enhancer, commonly used as monosodium glutamate.

Inappropriate Advertisements

Implicit Food Advertisements

Food labels with conflicting information often confront consumers. For example, labels claiming no fat do not necessarily mean zero grams of fat. Food labeling standards define low-fat foods as those containing less than 0.5 gram of fat per serving. Therefore, consuming several servings may mean consuming one or two grams of fat, and people are often unaware of what amount of a food constitutes a serving. In addition, foods low in fat may be high in sugar, adding additional calories to one's daily caloric intake. Too often, consumers mistakenly translate a claim of no fat into one of no calories.

Food Facts The Facts About Lowcarb Foods

Substitute artificial sweeteners and or sugar replacers (also called polyols) for Claims such as low carb and 2 impact carbs are not yet defined by the Food and Drug Administration for food labels other than meat and poultry. To calculate net carbs, companies usually subtract the grams of fiber and sugar replacers from the total carbohydrates. For example, a low-carb bread has 7 grams of total carbohydrates, including 4 grams of fiber and 1 gram of sugar. By subtracting the grams of fiber (4 grams) from the total carbohydrates (7 grams), the product claims it has 3 grams of net carbs. What are artificial sweeteners Artificial sweeteners are substitutes for sugar that provide no or almost no kcalories or carbohydrates. Aspar-tame (brand name is Equal or Nutra-Sweet) and saccharin (brand name is Sweet'N Low) are examples of artificial sweeteners, the topic of this chapter's Hot Topic, which follows on page 139. Why do sugar replacers cause smaller increases in blood glucose and insulin...

Treating Aluminum Toxicity

As with all toxic metal exposures, the most important step is to remove the metal from your world. This means you must check all food labels as well as other sources of exposure such as antiperspirants, medications, aluminum cans and containers, aluminum cookware and utensils, tap water containing aluminum, and aluminum-containing plant sources such as tea, condiments, and herbs. The safest containers are made of glass. (Plastic containers are not particularly safe as they can release PVCs, cadmium, and estrogenic substances.)

Balancing Your Weight Gain Diet

I taught another client, Martin, how to read food labels to learn more about the composition of the foods he was eating. He was surprised to learn that he could get most of his protein requirement from one 6-ounce (175 g) can of tuna (40 grams of protein) at lunch, two chicken breasts at dinner (80 grams of protein), and 1 quart (1 L) of low-fat milk (40 grams of protein) throughout the day. He no longer felt compelled to eat egg-white omelets for breakfast and to buy expensive protein bars for snacks. Instead, he ate balanced carbohydrate-based meals, such as tuna on a hefty whole-grain sub roll and 16 ounces (480 ml) of low-fat chocolate milk at lunch, then chicken, two baked potatoes, a hefty salad, and more milk at dinner.

How Are the RDAs Determined

How Are Nutrition Recommendations Used on Food Labels By law food manufacturers must follow specific guidelines on their food labels with the purpose of informing consumers of the nutritional content of the food and to protect against misleading statements on food labels. Food labels contain the Nutrition Facts (Figure 3.2), which in most cases provide at least the following information Daily Values on food labels are designed to help people make better informed nutrition choices.

Vitamin and Minerals at a Glance

More recent research has linked diets rich in vitamin D to a reduced risk for certain cancers, diabetes, and overall death rates. Most of the research on vitamin D has occurred in the past five years, and it is thought that the current recommendation of 400 IU per day used on food labels as the daily value may be too low four to six times that amount may be optimal. While it's too early to recommend vitamin D as a preventive measure against disease, ensuring that you have foods that contain vitamin D in your diet is essential. Only a few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and only dairy products and a few 100 percent fruit juices are fortified

Adding colors and flavors

Colors, flavoring agents, and flavor enhancers make food look and taste better. Like other food additives, these three may be either natural or synthetic. Flavors and flavor enhancers Artificial flavoring agents reproduce natural flavors. For example, a teaspoon of fresh lemon juice in the batter lends cheesecake a certain je ne sais quoi (French for I don't know what a little something special), but artificial lemon flavoring works just as well. You can sweeten your morning coffee with natural sugar or with the artificial sweetener saccharin. (For more about substitute sweeteners, see Chapter 19.) Flavor enhancers are a slightly different kettle of fish. They intensify a food's natural flavor instead of adding a new one. The best-known flavor enhancer is monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is widely used in Asian foods. MSG may trigger headaches and other symptoms in people sensitive to the seasoning.

Pesticides and Other Chemicals in Our World

It has been observed that of the over sixty-five thousand chemicals in the EPA's registry, the vast majority have not been tested adequately for potentially toxic nervous-system effects, especially higher cortical functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, and executive functions of the brain. Because we come into contact with them every day, food additives and cosmetics ingredients pose a particular concern. When it comes to food additives, the vast majority have never been tested for long-term effects on the brain. Even those that have been tested for effects on body tissues have never been tested in combination with other toxins. For instance, what happens when you combine the two food additives, linalyl isovalerate and benzyl phenylacetate, in the body I don't know. Nobody knows. And that's the real problem.

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the premarket safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Controversies Surrounding the Use of Dietary Supplements

DSHEA supporters fear that increased regulation of dietary supplements will decrease access to beneficial products. National opinion surveys show that many supplement users feel so strongly about the potential health benefits of supplements that they would continue to use them even if the supplements were shown to be ineffective in clinical studies. Consumers value freedom of choice, and many view regulation as an attempt by the government and medical establishment to monopolize treatment options. Clearly, a balance needs to be reached between preserving freedom of choice and ensuring that dietary supplements are safe and effective. see also Alternative Medicines and Therapies Food Labels Health Claims Quackery Vitamins, Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Safety and Nutritional Value of Organic Foods

Organic foods are produced with ecologically based practices, such as biological pest management and composting. To be labeled organic, foods must have been produced on certified organic farms and conform to established labeling requirements. From a scientific viewpoint, organic foods are no safer or nutritious than conventionally produced foods. Most major health organizations maintain that the health benefits of consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains significantly outweigh any health risk from residual pesticide, herbicide, or fertilizer consumption. According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, there is no convincing evidence that eating foods containing trace amounts of chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and drugs used on farm animals increases the risk for cancer. Organic agriculture provides consumers with an additional choice when purchasing food, however, and also provides some assurance of where a food was produced and how...

Changing food supply for patients with ckd

As the new millennium dawned, renal dietitians were faced with new challenges. Food manufacturers increased their reliance on phosphorus-containing food additives to enhance shelf life, to further decrease cooking or preparation time, to improve food textures, and to improve flavor acceptability (52). The bioavailability of these additives is also higher than natural food sources of phosphorus. Unfortunately, there is no requirement that the phosphorus content of these products be listed on the food label. Therefore, patients with kidney disease must decipher the small print of the ingredient list to determine the suitability of a particular product. It is estimated that processed foods may contribute up to 1000 mg of phosphorus daily and this exceeds the dietary phosphorus recommendations for most patients with kidney disease. Renal dietitians continue to petition the Food and Drug Administration to make further changes in label requirements that will assist patients with CKD in...

Informed Choices About Eating

The first and most important aspect in eating a healthy diet is learning about food. Reading the nutritional information on foods is an important way to learn how many calories the food contains and the distribution of fats, carbohydrates, and other substances. The federal government has set strict definitions for 12 terms that are used frequently on food labels, including free, reduced, lean, less, light, extra lean, low, fewer, high, more, good source, and healthy. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also defined several health claims that can be used to describe food. High protein must have at least 10 g of protein per serving. Food described as being a good source of calcium must have at least 100 mg of calcium per serving. Food with more iron means that it has at least 10 more than the minimum daily requirement. Low fat food means it contains 3 g or less per serving. Reduced or fewer calorie foods must have at least 25 fewer calories per serving than a reference food....

New terminology

'New ingredients' may be regarded as adulterants in foods unless they are naturally occurring or GRAS (generally recognized as safe). An expert panel in the FDA grants GRAS status to food ingredients. Such components are classified as food additives. Food additives that are not GRAS are regarded as unapproved food additives, and their presence in food renders it adulterated (Anon., 2001).

Diet Eczema

A careful elimination diet (see pp.205) can identify food sensitivities that trigger eczema.17 The most common offending foods are milk, eggs, fish, cheese, nuts, and food additives. Cold-pressed nut and seed oils are high in beneficial EFAs important for skin health and should be consumed regularly. Disturbances in fatty acid metabolism in the skin can produce or aggravate eczema impaired production of omega-3 fatty acids and GLA can increase inflammation in the skin (see pp.89).18

Safety Check

Approval of additives, including those on the GRAS and prior-sanctioned lists, doesn't guarantee that they'll be used in food forever, nor does it infer absolute certainty of zero risk. However, based on the best available science, FDA approval reflects reasonable certainty of no harm to consumers when the additive is used as proposed. The FDA continues to review all categories of food additives, and it judges them by the latest scientific standards and consumer As another safety check, the Food Additives Amendment also has a section called the Delaney Clause, which states that no additive known to cause cancer in animals or humans can be put in food in any amount. One artificial sweetener called cyclamate was removed from the GRAS list for that reason. Tests showed that large amounts were linked to cancer in test animals. The safety of cyclamate is currently being reevaluated it is approved for use in some other countries. To monitor and investigate complaints of adverse reactions to...


Splenda Brand Sweetener (sucralose) has been subjected to one of the most extensive and thorough safety testing programs ever conducted on a new food additive. Over 50 regulatory agencies worldwide have permitted the use of Splenda Brand Sweetener, including the FDA, the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the Health Protection Branch of Health and Welfare Canada, and Australia's National Food Authority.


Traditional biotechnology uses techniques such as crossbreeding, fermentation, and enzymatic treatments to produce desired changes in plants, animals, and foods. Crossbreeding plants or animals involves the selective passage of desirable genes from one generation to another. Microbial fermentation is used in making wine and other alcoholic beverages, yogurt, and many cheeses and breads. Using enzymes as food additives is another traditional form of biotechnology. For example, papain, an enzyme obtained from papaya fruit, is used to tenderize meat and clarify beverages.

Diet Cancer

Cell division is normally carefully controlled, but in cancer a cell breaks free from normal regulation and begins dividing out of control. Many cancers begin when the DNA of the cell is damaged by a carcinogen. About one in three people will develop cancer during their lifetime. A major factor contributing to the high rates of cancer in the industrialized countries is the combination of increased exposure to carcinogens - enviromental chemicals, air pollution, food additives, cigarette smoke, radiation - together with a highly processed diet high in fat and low in protective micronutrients. Dietary factors, as initiators or promoters of cancer, are estimated to play a role in about 50 of all cases.1 With healthy dietary choices and prudent micronutrient supplementation, risk of cancer can be reduced significantly (see Fig. 5.20).2


Isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla Seringe in 1916 displays a lagging onset of sweetness with licorice aftertaste not well studied possible market for hard candies, chewing gums, and oral hygiene products Both sodium and calcium salts of saccharin used passes through body unchanged excreted in urine originally a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) additive subsequently, saccharin was classed as a carcinogen based on experiments with rats however, recent experiments indicate that saccharin causes cancer in rats, but not in mice and humans A sugar alcohol or polyol occurs naturally in many fruits commercially prepared by the hydrogenation of glucose many unique properties besides sweetness on the FDA list of GRAS food additives the most widely used sugar alcohol slow intestinal absorption consumption of large amounts may cause diarrhea Derived from extract of Perilla namkinensis clean taste


Several data sets that may not be available on the Web can be found in this chapter. Table 1.4 provides the tocopherol values for a wide variety of foods.2 Table 1.5 provides information on the tagatose content of food.3 Tagatose is a food additive used to reduce the amount of sugar in a food. It has a sweet taste, yet does not have the same energy value as sucrose. Other sugar substitutes are also used in the preparation of reduced-energy foods however, data on their quantitative occurrence is not as readily available because of the proprietary interests of food producers. A list of sweeteners added to foods is provided in Table 1.6.4 Following this table is a list of the types of food additives that change the properties of food (Table 1.7 see Reference 4, pp. 11-18). This table describes compounds that increase the shelf life of a class of foods or additives that change

What We Have Learned

The first book I wrote, Excitotoxins The Taste That Kills, told of a group of food additives, such as MSG and aspartame, that in my opinion, and based on numerous scientific studies, pose a serious danger to our neurological health. One of the driving forces that compelled me to write the book was my anger at what the food-processing industry had done to, and continues to do to all of us but especially to our children. At the time I had two young children of my own. Fortunately, I discovered the serious danger imposed by such food additives in time to save my children from a life of misery. I felt I owed the same to other parents and their children. Christ told us to protect the children from evil. This was one form of that evil.


Ical and toxicological studies, safety for target species, workers, users and consumers, residue studies and effect on the environment. In the USA, under Section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, substances added to food, including substances intended for use in animal food (such as amino acids), are 'food additives' regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The general safety provisions of the Act requires the FDA to determine whether each food additive proposed for use in food-producing animals is safe for intended animals and whether the edible products derived from treated animals are safe. The manufacturer is required to furnish to the FDA with the scientific data necessary for demonstrating that the residues of the sponsored compound in the edible products of treated animals are safe. In addition to safety concerns, the FDA may require data on the stability of the additive and the origin of the strain, toxicity and residues, if the additive is...

Previous page

Public concern with the safety and health-related effects of the methylxanthines has grown over the last 2030 years. Much of the public concern originated in the early 1970s as a result of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) directive to re-examine the safety of food additives that were generally recognized as safe (GRAS), including caffeine. In 1978, the Select Committee on GRAS Substances issued its report in which the world's scientific literature on the health aspects of caffeine was reviewed (81). Although the attention focused on the safety of dietary caffeine, questions were also raised concerning the safety of theobromine due to its structural similarity to caffeine.

Diet Allergies

Food sensitivity can develop at any age but is particularly common in infants and young children. About 7-10 of children exhibit food allergies during their growing years.1 Colic in babies may be caused by sensitivity to a food -a common allergen is the protein in cow's milk. Adults can also develop sensitivity reactions, particularly when the immune system is knocked off-balance by stress, illness, food additives, and poor nutrition.


All food labels must contain the name of the product the net contents or net weight the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor a list of ingredients using common names in order of predominance by weight and nutrition information (Figure 2-21). 2. Daily Values are nutrient standards used on food labels to allow nutrient comparisons among foods. 3. Any nutrient claim on food labels must comply with Food and Drug Administration regulations and definitions as outlined in this chapter.

Whats on the Label

Wrapped around almost every packaged food in the supermarket you'll find nutrition information. Today's food labels carry many types of nutrition and health information, to help you make choices and fit foods you like into your meals and snacks. Read on for more about . . . The Nutrition Facts give specifics about the calories and nutrients, such as fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, and vitamins and minerals, in a single label serving of the food. This information must appear on virtually all food labels. Food labels let you make nutrition-related decisions as you shop and at home

Get All the Facts

Nutrition Facts differ from nutrient content claims. Nutrition Facts specifically state the amount of nutrients and calories in one label serving of a food, while terms such as low in fat or more fiber are quick-to-read descriptions. Read the Nutrition Facts on food labels For fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron, try to consume a variety of foods with more of these nutrients. Be aware that 100 DV may or may not be the optimal amount recommended for you. Daily Values are not based on the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). For example, on food labels, the DV for calcium is 1,000 milligrams and the DRI for adults to

Savvy Shopping

With about fifty thousand items available in today's supermarkets, it's no wonder you have so many decisions to make From food labels, to brochures and food TV, to in-store consumer affairs professionals, computer kiosks, and Web sites, you have more food facts at your fingertips than ever before. That's good for informed shoppers. With facts and plenty of choices available, you can shop for taste, nutrition, safety, price, and convenience, all at the same time. Food labels with Nutrition Facts appear on virtually all food products, and claims about nutrients and health, as well as food safety tips, appear on many.

No Surprises

Additives in food are no secret to consumers. Just by reading the ingredient lists on food labels, you can identify specific additives in any food. Note the contains statement for food allergen labeling. Flavor enhancers don't add flavor of their own. Instead, they heighten natural flavors already present in food. A well-known flavor enhancer is monosodium glutamate (MSG). MSG comes from a common amino acid, which is a protein called glutamic acid. MSG comes mostly from vegetable proteins. For more about MSG, see MSG Another Flavor Enhancer in chapter 7. Flavor enhancers in canned vegetables, gravy, processed meats, sauce mixes, and soups, among others.

On the Label

Without looking, do you know which vitamins and minerals appear on food labels The four required on the Nutrition Facts need your special attention vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron. Consume enough of these nutrients to reduce your risk for some common health problems. Other nutrients may appear on the label some voluntarily, others required if these nutrients are added. Note The 2001 RDAs measure vitamin A in Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAEs), reflecting retinol and carotenoid units. You might see vitamin A expressed in other ways International Units (IU) used for food labels and dietary supplements, or as Retinol Equivalents (RE) used in the 1989 RDAs and many nutrient databases.

Fiber Myths

Pennington, 2004, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 18th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins). Data from food labels and J. Pennington, 2004, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 18th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins).

Know Your Numbers

Nutrient data from food labels, McDonald's Corporation (www.mcdonalds.com) and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott). Nutrient data from food labels, McDonald's Corporation (www.mcdonalds.com) and J. Pennington, 1998, Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. (Philadelphia Lippincott).

Food Guide Pyramid

A Pattern for Daily Food Choices replaced the Basic Four food guide which was the centerpiece of nutrition education in the United States for over twenty years. The new food guide was not widely used in nutrition education until the USDA released The Food Guide Pyramid in 1992. Since that time, nutrition educators, dietitians, and teachers have used the Pyramid and accompanying educational materials to teach people how to select foods to build healthful diets. The Pyramid is also a familiar feature on food labels, where it is used by food manufacturers to show where foods fit into the food groups that make up the Pyramid.

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