Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. More here...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary


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The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

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Refined Sugar is White Death

The story of refined sugar is actually very interesting. It has a history of greed, evil and corruption behind it. For anyone interested (should be all of you) read a book called Sugar Blues by William Duffy. Refined sugar has only been around for a few hundred years and today we eat more of it than ever before in the history of the world. We were never meant to eat this amount of refined sugar. I honestly believe in a 100 years from now people will look back on us in horror at the fact we ate refined sugar at all. It will probably be a restricted substance. I like to hope so anyway. Let's clear something up to stop all the confusion. Refined sugar is Sucrose. It is not the same as fructose(fruit sugar) or galactose(milk sugar) or glucose (blood sugar) . All these sugars are easy for the body to digest and of course are provided with nutrients and enzymes as found in fruit and raw milk. Sucrose is empty calories.

Eating sugar will make you fat and sick

No Calcium gets drawn from the teeth and bones to help process the refined sugar you eat. They degenerate from the inside. Refined sugar is bad news, it will only harm you. So will play no role in the Spartan Diet. Do the best you can to completely eliminate it from your diet and any foods made with it.

Do Sugary Foods Cause Cavities in Teeth

It appears that perhaps the only direct cause-and-effect relationship between dietary sugar and disease is tooth decay. The warm and moist mouth is also exposed to the outside environment and is the entry point for food. Thus, the mouth becomes a natural home for bacteria. When sugary foods adhere to the teeth, bacteria can break down the sugar and produce acids that erode the outer layer of teeth, creating cavities. Brushing the teeth physically removes the sugar and much of the bacteria adhered to them. Furthermore, some toothpastes contain baking soda, which, as a base, may help neutralize the acid produced by bacteria.

Watch Your Sugar Intake

Too much sugar leads to very high blood sugar levels, causing your body to secrete insulin to bring it down to potentially dangerous low levels. Problem is, too much insulin is released, so you end up with less energy and stronger cravings for bad stuff. Today's American diet contains too much sugar, too much fat, and not enough quality protein - and too much inactivity. The results are horrendous collectively, we are fatter than ever, and it's turning into an epidemic, according to many health and medical experts.

Added Sugars What Foods

Do you eat a lot of these foods If so, you may need to cut back. They contribute more than 5 percent of the added sugars in the typical American diet, in descending order Percent* of Added Sugars Intake Milk, too, derives some of its pleasing flavor from lactose, its own naturally occurring sugar. Milk isn't perceived as a sweet beverage, however. Lactose is only one-sixth as sweet as sucrose. In one form or another sugars are added to many prepared foods for function, flavor, or both. See Added Sugars What Foods on this page. Soft drinks, candy, other sweet snacks, desserts, and sweet baked goods are obvious sources added sugars end up in many other processed and prepared foods. Check the ingredient lists on their labels to identify them. Naturally occurring sugars are not included in the ingredient list. One more source of added sugars potentially your own kitchen. In one form or another, you're likely adding sugar to food, too, with your food prep white and brown sugar, corn syrup,...

What Are Recommendations for the Level of Added Sugar in the Diet

As part of the DRIs it is recommended that the intake of added sugar not exceed 25 percent of calories. However, many nutritionists would like to see this recommendation lowered. That's because diets higher in added sugars are linked to excessive calorie consumption and thus obesity as well-being linked either directly or indirectly to heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis. Meanwhile the USDA recommends that an adult consuming 2,000-calorie daily, the amount that would approximate weight maintenance for an average woman not exceed 40 grams of added sugars. That level of added sugar (roughly 10 teaspoons) is the amount of sugar in a 12-ounce soft drink. Added sugars, which could be considered the most common food additive is found in a variety of foods in the form of sucrose, corn sweeteners, honey, maple syrup, and molasses. You will find it in some unlikely places, such as pizza, bread, hot dogs, boxed mixed rice, soup, crackers, spaghetti sauce, lunch meat, canned vegetables, fruit...

How Much Sugar Are We Consuming

In 2007, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the consumption of caloric sweeteners (added sugars) at just under 85 pounds per adult. In a sense, sugar is the number one food additive. It turns up in some unlikely places, such as pizza, bread, hot dogs, boxed mixed rice, soup, crackers, spaghetti sauce, lunch meat, canned vegetables, fruit drinks, flavored yogurt, ketchup, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and some peanut butter. Carbonated sodas provided more than a fifth (22 percent) of the added sugars in the 2000 American food supply, compared with 16 percent in 1970.

Substituting Sugar Substitutes

Coffee has no calories, but every teaspoon of sugar you stir into your cup has 15 big ones. Multiply that by four (1 teaspoon each in four cups of coffee), and your naturally no-cal beverage can add 60 calories a day to your diet. Sixty calories a day times seven days a week, and yipes, that's 420 calories That's about as much as you'd get from four or five medium slices of unbut-tered toast or five medium apples. So is this a good time to mention that one packet of sugar substitute has absolutely zero calories I thought so.

Do Sugary Foods Cause Acne

High-sugar foods do not seem to contribute to acne development. Acne appears to be more related to hormones circulating in the blood. In many situations, acne results from a clogging of pores that connect oil-releasing glands to the surface of our skin. When pores become clogged, they may eventually become infected, inflamed, and rise up. Many dermatologists recommend keeping the face clean without overwashing. Overwashing can irritate and dry the skin. Dry, tight skin from excessive washing may narrow or close pore openings, doing more harm than good.

Nutrition Insight Nutritional Consequences of Sucrose Polyester Fat Replacer

The low cost and purity of sucrose make it an appealing starting material for chemical modification into other useful products, such as the fat replacer sucrose polyester. Although the trivial name implies a polymer, olestra is only a modified disaccharide. Sucrose polyester (olestra, Olean) is a mixture of the hexa-, hepta-, and octa-esters of sucrose obtained by esterification with natural long-chain fatty acids. Esterification of at least six of the eight hydroxyls of sucrose renders it stable to iipase action, and therefore it is not digested and not absorbed. The water-insoluble hydrophobic character of olestra gives it oily laxative properties, a potential problem if it is consumed in excessive amounts. Olestra is excreted intact without any metabolism by the colonic microflora. rides carrying an a-D-galactopyranosyl and an unit, respectively attached to C-6 of the glucose unit of sucrose. They occur in relatively large amounts in soybeans, lentils, and other legume seeds....

To Added Sugars

Added sugars (Figure 3-3) include white sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and other sweeteners added to foods in processing, as well as sugars added to foods at the table. Added sugars are the major source of simple sugars in most diets. High-fructose corn syrup is corn syrup that has been treated with an enzyme to convert part of the glucose it contains to fructose. The reason for changing the glucose to fructose lies in the fact that fructose is twice as sweet as glucose. High-fructose corn syrup is therefore sweeter, ounce for ounce, than corn syrup, and so smaller amounts can be used (making it cheaper). It is used to sweeten almost all regular soft drinks and is frequently used in fruit drinks, sweetened teas, cookies, jams and jellies, syrups, and sweet pickles. EXAMPLES OF ADDED SUGARS White sugar A thick, sweet syrup made from cornstarch. Mostly glucose with some maltose. Only 75 percent as sweet as sucrose. Less expensive than sucrose. Used in baked goods and other foods....

Food Choices Control for PMS

Do you experience uncomfortable symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Women describe as many as two hundred symptoms physical, such as acne, backaches, bloating, tender breasts, and headaches food cravings and psychological, such as anxiety, irritability, and insomnia.

Special Nutrition Concerns

Food cravings during pregnancy are common and are not cause for concern, provided other nutrient needs are met and weight gain is in the target range. Pica the ingestion of nonfood substances of nutritional value is associated with anemia and can be a source of lead poisoning, bacterial infection, and dental problems. Pregnant women should be encouraged to avoid pica and discuss it with their medical provider.

Enhance Your Fat Burning Ability With Water

Drinking a minimum of eight, eight-ounce glasses of water a day is overwhelmingly the number one method of curbing food cravings and hunger. Drinking water throughout the day fills you up, and because it keeps your stomach full, it reduces your desire to eat. Drinking water like this on a daily basis is directly related to successful, LASTING weight loss.

Nutrition During Pregnancy

If you experience unusual cravings, such as for salt, fat, or red meat, it's possible that nature is telling you that those foods have nutrients you need. Food cravings, in moderation, tend to be harmless, so listen to your body and respond appropriately. Try to resolve your cravings for sweets with the most healthful choices, such as frozen yogurt instead of ice cream or raisins and dried fruits instead of candy. The reality of the situation may be that there's only one food that will do the trick the food you crave Eating a healthful prepregnancy diet ensures that you start off well nourished so your body can survive the strange cravings and morning sickness.

Dont beat yourself up

Regular exercisers report far fewer food cravings than their sedentary counterparts. Part of has to do with the feel-good endorphins released during physical activity. Plus, regular exercisers tend to feel more in control of their bodies, so they're less likely to binge. Think about it if you're exercising every day, feeling good about yourself with high energy, you wouldn't want to waste that on eating junk all the time, would you

Buckwheat pancakes with cinnamon apples maple syrup

JAN I tend to eat something for morning and afternoon tea because I find it helps prevent mid afternoon sugar cravings. I keep it pretty simple during the week - a small handful of our Tamari Nuts for morning tea and some fruit for afternoon tea, perhaps with a soy yoghurt depending on how energetic I've been during the day. On the weekend, I might enjoy a muesli ball or two, or one of our cookies with a cup of herbal tea or dandelion coffee.

Fitness Is A Priority

Control appetite, regulate body temperature, clean your system, and metabolize fat effectively with 8-10 glasses MINIMUM per day. Feel hungry Sometimes hunger is a sign of dehydration. Drink a big glass of water when you feel the urge to eat, and see if that works. If it doesn't, well, eat a balanced meal or snack.

Rationale For Including Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Metabolic Syndrome

This concept is supported by studies from the 50s in carefully performed studies in animals86 and humans.87 Meyers et al. observed that at significant physical activity levels, increases or decreases in physical activity were matched with increases or decreases in food intake. However, below certain minimal levels of physical activity, further decreases in physical activity were not met by further decreases in food intake, but rather by increases in food intake and consequent body weight. They interpreted the data to suggest that a minimal level of physical activity might be necessary for appropriate appetite control. Recent data from our group provides support for this theory. In our study,74 inactive controls gained weight over a six-month period, whereas two different low-dose exercise-training groups (equivalent to 12 miles wk of walking or jogging) lost weight and a higher dose (equivalent to 17 mile wk) lost even more body mass. The data suggest that below a certain level,...

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Using taste stimuli containing sucrose and fat mixtures, Drewnowski et al. (16) reported that obese individuals demonstrated a strong preference for high-fat samples. The optimal combination of stimulus ingredients was heavy cream ( 34 lipid) sweetened with less than 5 sucrose (weight for weight), whereas for normal weight subjects the optimal combination was 10 sucrose and 20 lipid. Since, on a weight basis, chocolate consists of around 30 fat and 5060 sugar, it does not closely match the preferences of either the obese or normal-weight subjects. Cravings for chocolate amongst obese binge eaters have been noted by Drewnowski et al. (33) however, a significant relationship between cravings for salty foods and a high BMI in women has also been noted (34). In order to explore mechanisms for such chocolate cravings, Drewnowski et al. (35) administered the opioid antagonist naloxone to female binge eaters and controls. These subjects were then asked to rate the sugar fat mixtures and to...

How Much Carbohydrate

. . . if honey or brown sugar is more nutritious than white sugar That's a common misperception. Honey is several sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and others), formed from nectar by bees. Ounce for ounce, the nutrients in honey and white (or table) sugar are nearly the same. Why a difference A teaspoon of honey weighs slightly more than a teaspoon of white sugar, so it has slightly more calories and carbohydrate a teaspoon of white sugar has about 15 calories and 4 grams of carbohydrate a teaspoon of honey, about 21 calories and 4.5 grams of carbs. Honey is sweeter than white sugar, so you need less to sweeten foods. Brown sugar is merely sugar crystals, flavored with molasses. Nutritionwise, it too has about 15 calories and 4 grams of carbohydrate per teaspoon-about the same amounts as white sugar. No sugars contain vitamins, minerals, or fiber. . . . what refined sugar is Refined sugar is most simply described as sugar, separated either from the stalk of sugarcane or from the...

Changes in Food Consumption

Power of the average family and the low prices of calorie dense foods, e.g, fast foods and processed snack foods, have contributed to the rise in the consumption of low-cost, high-fat foods and refined sugar. For instance, in Santiago (Chile), for the equivalent of 3, it is possible to buy a meal at a fast-food restaurant that provides more than half of the daily caloric needs of an adult woman 4 . This example underlines the increase in the availability of energy, as it is shown in Fig. 20.1, which shows calorie availability in several countries from Latin America at different stages of development. In practically all of them calorie availability has increased, even in those that still deal with a serious problem of undernutrition like Guatemala. In Brazil, a country with a wide range of population from the socioeconomic point of view, average calorie availability increased from 2,072 calories in 1980 to 3,146 calories in 2003, a 52 increase 6 . Fat availability in these countries...

Diabetes and Neurological Problems

Folic acid (folate), thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B12 all play prominent roles in nerve function, and many diabetics are deficient in these vitamins. Loss of these vitamins is directly tied to carbohydrate consumption, especially refined sugar. Diabetics typically have diets high in sugary foods before becoming diabetic, and as a result are very deficient in these vitamins when the disease finally manifests. Folate should never be given alone, since it may mask serious vitamin B12 deficiencies. The only form of vitamin B12 that should be taken is methylcobalamin, the form naturally found in the body.

What Are Monosaccharides and What Foods Have Them

Glucose and fructose can be found in foods either independently or as part of larger carbohydrates. Fructose is what makes honey and many fruits sweet and is used commercially as a sweetener either as fructose or high-fructose corn syrup. On the other hand, while some galactose is found in certain foods, it is mostly found as part of larger carbohydrates.

Fructose A Sweeter Message

Is fructose any more healthful than sucrose, or table sugar Surprisingly, the answer is no. All sugars nourish your body in the same way. Fructose and sucrose are just different sugars both are simple carbohydrates. In fact, your body eventually breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose. Fructose is found naturally in fruit. But it's also added to certain foods, either as crystalline fructose or as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Crystalline fructose is made from cornstarch, and looks and tastes much like sucrose. HFCS is a combination of fructose and dextrose, a sugar that comes from corn. Currently it's one of the most commonly consumed sweeteners in the United States. Like any sugar, crystalline fructose and HFCS supply 4 calories per gram. Where does high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) fit within the obesity epidemic It's a source of extra calories, often from beverages such as soft drinks. Despite recent theories, there is not enough scientific evidence to say that HFCS changes...

Did You Stop to Think

that with so many bottled drinks on the market today, you must be a label reader Serving sizes aren't always the same. A single bottle may have two or more label servings, for at least twice the calories. And many water beverages, teas, and coffee drinks are high in added sugars. All juice products contain water and sugar. Fruit juice contains naturally occurring fructose, or fruit sugar, whereas juice drinks have added sugars such as high-fructose corn syrup as well as some fructose. Scientific evidence shows that your body can't distinguish between naturally occurring and added sugars, so regardless of whether a juice or juice drink is naturally sweet or sweetened, its sugars are used by your body in the same way. See chapter 5, Carbs Simply Complex Depending on the amount of sugars added, there may be a difference in the amount of calories per label serving between fruit drinks and fruit juices.

Womens Health Premenstrual Syndrome PMS

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that generally appear 4 to 10 days before menstruation and end, often abruptly, as menstruation begins. The most common symptoms are irritability, nervous tension, depression, mood swings, craving for sugary foods, breast tenderness, water retention, and weight gain.1 The symptoms of PMS can be mild or severe about one in five women have severe symptoms that interfere with daily activities. In many women, an imbalance of too much estrogen and too little progesterone triggers the symptoms of PMS.

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes

Individuals that appear to make insulin, but whose muscle and fat cells appear to be less sensitive to its presence (type 2 diabetes). In most cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, one of the most significant underlying factors is an excessive body weight in the form of fat. So, if a person eats excessive amounts of sugary foods, which by simple excess of energy intake will lead to fat accumulation, obesity, and subsequent diabetes, then perhaps an argument can be made. However, sugar would then be an indirect factor, not a direct factor. On the other hand, high sugar foods such as soda, cookies, cakes, and pies can make it more difficult to manage diabetes because of their glycemic effect described above.

Menus for special occasions

JAN Unfortunately, I have a sweet tooth and it's when I find myself craving sugary foods on a daily basis that I decide to detox to bring my body back into balance. I enjoy our dessert recipes whether detoxing or not because they rely on the natural sweetness of fruit with very little additional sweetening.

Have You Ever Wondered

Keep your snack or drink small no more than 200 to 300 calories. Too much sugar may slow the time it takes water to leave your stomach, so your body won't replace fluids as quickly. Your best approach Enjoy a sports drink. You'll consume a little sugar to fuel your muscles-but not too much to impair rehydration.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans

In 1980, the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released by the USDA and HHS. The seven guidelines were (1) Eat a variety of foods (2) Maintain ideal weight (3) Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol (4) Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber (5) Avoid too much sugar (6) Avoid too much sodium and (7) If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. The second edition, released in 1985, made a few changes, but kept most of the guidelines intact. Two exceptions were the weight guideline, which was changed to Maintain desirable weight and the last guideline, in which alcohol was changed to alcoholic beverages.

Carbs Choose by the Company They Keep

Vegetables, fruits, legumes (dry beans), grain products, and milk all these nutrient-rich foods supply carbohydrates Get most of the carbs you need from these foods that also supply a host of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other phytonutrients. Refer to chapter 10 to learn how to fit these foods in. Go easy on energy-dense options, or those that deliver more calories (and added sugars) and fewer nutrients. Pick grain products with fewer fats and added sugars for example, bagels in place of donuts, crackers without trans fats rather than chips, baked potatoes rather than fries. That said, be mindful of the amount, especially of added sugars. The more foods with large amounts of added sugars consumed, the harder it is to get enough

Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

Concerned that fresh produce might take a bite out of your pocketbook Buy seasonal fruits and vegetables, when they typically cost less. And stock up on canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, and dried fruits, when they're specially priced. Canned and frozen fruits and vegetables offer convenience, especially for housebound adults. If you or someone you're caring for needs a special diet, talk to a registered dietitian about buying these foods. Use the Nutrition Facts on food labels, too. Some canned vegetables and frozen vegetables with sauces contain added salt and added sugars. Plain, frozen vegetables and no-salt-added canned vegetables may be better choices for a low-sodium diet. Canned fruit in natural juices and frozen fruit without added sugars may be better choices for carb -controlled eating.

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

The Pyramid includes symbols that represent the fats and added sugars found in foods. These are most concentrated at the tip of the Pyramid, but are also found in foods from the five major food groups. This reveals that some foods within the five food groups are high in fat and or sugar. People can limit their fat and sugar intake, as suggested by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, by selecting foods low in fat and added sugars most of the time.

Drinks With or without Caffeine

Chic coffee drinks Shots of caramel, chocolate, fruit syrups, or cream can load coffee bar beverages (lattes, mochas, cappuccinos, or other drinks) with plenty of added sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and calories. The larger the size, the more calories they rack up If you can customize your coffee drink, make it healthier. Ask for the smallest size. Request fat-free milk (no or less whipped cream) or soy beverage, and perhaps sugar-free syrup or a dusting of cocoa powder or cinnamon. Bottled coffee drinks may not have as much calcium as you think and perhaps more added sugars and calories read the Nutrition Facts.

Dietary Guidelines

Human Needs.6 The decades after World War II were marked by a progression of thinking among nutrition scientists and policymakers from problems of hunger and nutrient adequacy to the role of diet as a controllable risk factor in chronic degenerative conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer that are the leading causes of death in the U.S.7 The dietary goals report attributed these killer diseases to dietary and other life-style factors and established quantitative standards for what was considered to be a more optimum intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrate, added sugars, cholesterol, sodium, and protein. The report generated much controversy among nutritionists and scientists about the proposed standards and goals. Increase intake of starches and complex carbohydrates as breads, cereals and legumes. Increase of added sugars is not recommended Sugar. Although sugar intake has not been directly linked to risk of disease except for dental...

Strength of evidence

Strong evidence of the relationship between sugar availability and dental caries levels comes from worldwide ecological studies (26, 28). The limitations of these studies are that they use data on sugar availability and not actual intake, they do not measure frequency of sugars intake, and they assume that level of intake is equal throughout the population. Also, the values are for sucrose, yet many countries obtain a considerable amount of their total sugars from other sugars. These studies have only considered DMFT of 12-year-olds, not always from a representative sample of the population. Research has consistently shown that when annual sugar consumption exceeds 15 kg per person per year (or 40 g per person per day) dental caries increase with increasing sugar intake. When sugar consumption is below 10 kg per person per year (around 27 g per person per day), levels of dental caries are very low (26, 28, 29, 51, 151-158). Exposure to fluoride (i.e. where the proportion of fluoride...

Figure Websites With Reliable Nutrition Information

Simple Carbohydrates (Simple Sugars) Monosaccharides Disaccharides Added Sugars Health Issues Carbohydrates are separated into two categories simple and complex. Also called sugars, simple carbohydrates include sugars that occur naturally in foods, such as fructose in fruits and glucose in honey, as well as sugars that are added to foods, such as white sugar in a cookie. Identify foods high in natural sugars, added sugars, and fiber List the potential health risks of consuming too much added sugar

Figure Mypyramid By Kcalorie Level

2Explanation of discretionary calorie allowance The discretionary calorie allowance is the remaining amount of calories in each food pattern after selecting the specified number of nutrient-dense forms of foods in each food group. The number of discretionary calories assumes that food items in each food group are selected in nutrient-dense forms (that is, forms that are fat-free or low-fat and that contain no added sugars). Solid fat and sugar calories always need to be counted as discretionary calories, as in the following examples The sugars added to fruits and fruit juices with added sugars to fruits canned in syrup

Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat

In 1961--1963, a diet providing 20 of energy from fat was associated only with countries having at least a per capita gross national product of US 1475. By 1990, however, even poor countries having a gross national product of only US 750 per capita had access to a similar diet comprising 20 of energy from fat. (Both values of gross national product are given in 1993 US .) This change was mainly the result of an increase in the consumption of vegetable fats by poor countries, with smaller increases occurred in middle-income and high-income countries. By 1990, vegetable fats accounted for a greater proportion of dietary energy than animal fats for countries in the lowest per capita income category. Changes in edible vegetable oil supply, in prices and in consumption equally affected rich and poor countries, although the net impact was relatively much greater in low-income countries. An equally large and important shift in the proportion of energy from added sugars in the diets of...

Blood glucose level glycaemia

Quick sugars were simple sugars (such as glucose) and disaccharides, such as the sucrose found in refined sugars (both cane and beet), honey and fruit. The term quick sugar owed its existence to the belief that, because of the simple nature of the molecule, the body rapidly absorbed these sugars after ingestion. Disaccharides (white sugar, maltose in beer, lactose in milk) Polysaccharides (cereals, flours, potatoes, pulses) Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose found in fruit and honey)

Structure and function

Carbohydrates are defined as compounds that are composed of simple sugars (monosaccharides). They were initially named this because they contain both carbon (carbo) and H2O (water), as shown in Figure 2.1. Until recently, most medical textbooks focused primarily on the nutrient energy roles played by three simple sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose), three disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose), as well as the fiber energy roles of complex carbohydrates (cellulose, glycogen, and starch). Over 200 simple carbohydrates are now known to be produced by plants. Eight of these carbohydrates (galactose, glucose, mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, fructose 6, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and xylose) are now recognized as being essential for health, and new roles for carbohydrates are constantly being discovered (1).

What Are Disaccharides

Looking at Table 4.1 we see that glucose is one-half of the disaccharides lactose and sucrose and both halves of maltose. Maltose, or malt sugar, Sucrose may be part of our diet naturally in seeds or alcoholic beverages. Sucrose is derived from the sugar cane plant and the beet, and the sucrose-rich product is called sugar. Lactose is the primary carbohydrate found in milk and dairy products. Nutrition scientists often refer to monosacchar-ides and disaccharides as simple sugars because of their relatively small carbohydrate size and their sweet taste. Table 4.2 presents the relative sweetness of simple sugars and compares them with sugar alcohols and artificial sweeteners.

Eat carbs only when you deserve to

Well, not ALL carbs - eat fruits and veggies whenever you want. And if want to eat a carbohydrate that's not a fruit or a vegetable (this includes things like simple sugars, rice, pasta, potatoes, bread, etc), you can - but you'll need to save it until after you've exercised. Yes, these often heavily processed grains are dietary staples in North America, but heart disease, diabetes and cancer are medical staples - and there's a relationship between the two To stop heading down the heart disease highway, reward yourself for a good workout with a good carbohydrate meal right after (your body best tolerates these carbohydrates after exercise). For the rest of the day, eat your lean protein and a delicious selection of fruits and veggies.

What Are Noncalorie and Low Calorie Sweeteners and Are They Safe

Sweet and are referred to as natural sweeteners. However, since natural sweeteners come with an energy value, food manufacturers and people often try to substitute an alternative sweetener that does not carry the same energy content. This in turn lowers the calorie level of a food, thereby making it more attractive for weight loss and management. And because simple sugars in food can adhere to our teeth and promote the formation of dental caries, many candies and gums are manufactured with alternative sweeteners to reduce their potential to promote tooth decay. As a food additive, these substances must be approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who determines the safety. Saccharin Discovered in 1879, saccharin is three hundred times sweeter than sucrose. Saccharin has long been a controversial sweetener and the FDA proposed a ban in 1977. The reasoning behind this action was studies conducted in the 1970s that linked saccharin consumption to bladder cancer in rats....

Habit Eat veggies and fruits at any feeding other carbs mostly after exercise

Another way of saying this is eat non-fruit and vegetable carbohydrates (including simple sugars, sports drinks as well as starchy carbohydrates such as rice, pasta, potatoes, quinoa, etc) during and within the few hours after exercise only. Want to eat bread, pasta, rice, sugar, etc If so, you can. Any nutrition plan for athletes that excludes these foods is too hard to follow and, in some cases, can decrease performance. Just be sure you save them until after exercise.

Carbohydrates Short Form

In scientific language, sugars are either monosaccharides with one sugar unit or disaccharides with two sugar units. ( Mono- means one, di- means two, and -saccharide means sugar.) Monosaccharides are fructose, galactose, and glucose. When two join together chemically, they become disaccharides sucrose glucose + fructose lactose glucose + galactose maltose glucose + glucose Sucrose is just another name for table sugar this same sugar is found naturally in many fruits and some vegetables and grains, too. Lactose is the naturally occurring sugar in milk, while fructose is the sugar in fruit and in honey. And maltose is formed when starch breaks down to simple sugars.

Carbohydrate Is an Excellent Energy Source How Much Carbohydrate Do We

We are eating more calories today than in the past several decades and carbohydrates are making a greater contribution to those calories. In countries such as the United States and Canada, about half of the energy adults eat comes by way of carbohydrates. About half of this carbohydrate is in the form of starch and the other half in the form of simple sugars. Sucrose makes up about half of the simple sugars we eat. In other areas of the world, such as Africa and Asia, sucrose consumption makes a lesser contribution while grains (for example, wheat and rice), fruits, and vegetables make a greater contribution. The carbohydrate content of certain types of food is listed in Table 4.3. This includes easily digested carbohydrates such as sugars and starches, as well as carbohydrates that not easily digested such as oligosaccharides and fibers. Looking at this table we see that sweets such as candies and cakes are among those with the highest content of carbohydrate. Furthermore, nearly all...

Transition in the Nutritional Status on Pregnant Women

Summary In most developing countries, including Chile, an epidemiologic and nutrition transition has taken place, the former characterized by an increase of the population due to a reduced mortality, followed by a decrease in fertility and an increase in longevity. The nutrition transition has been characterized by an increase in the consumption of fats and simple sugars and a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake. This, together with a decrease in physical activity, has contributed to an increase in the prevalence of obesity in fertile women. Data collected from 36 developing countries showed that in 32 of them, overweight was more prevalent than underweight in urban areas, while in 53 (19 36) underweight was more prevalent in rural areas compared to urban settings. In all of those countries, the prevalence of overweight was significantly correlated with gross national income per capita. Different surveys in Chile have shown that 90 of homes have a television set, 60 of all families...

Other Things of Importance for Stroke Patients

Your diet must consist of at least seven servings of fruits and vegetables daily, especially vegetables. Concentrate on eating as many nutrient-dense vegetables as possible. If you do not have a yeast overgrowth, you can also eat less sweet fruits, such as apples, blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries. Avoid over-ripe bananas, since they contain mostly simple sugars. The injured brain does not tolerate excess sugar very well. Several studies of brain-trauma patients have shown that hyperglycemia can actually increase brain injury. In addition, high sugar intake depresses immunity and increases the formation of glycated cell components, which can increase free-radical injury.

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Inborn errors of metabolism often require diet changes, with the type and extent of the changes dependant on the specific metabolic disorder. The particular enzyme absence or inactivity for each inborn error of metabolism dictates which components are restricted and which are supplemented. Registered dietitians and physicians can help an individual assess the diet changes needed for each disease. The goals of nutrition therapy are to correct the metabolic imbalance and promote growth and development by providing adequate nutrition, while also restricting (or supplementing) one or more nutrients or dietary components. Additional goals in some disorders include reducing the risk of brain damage, other organ damage, episodes of metabolic crisis and coma, and even death. These restrictions and supplementations are specific for each disorder, and they may include the restriction of total fats, simple sugars, or total carbohydrates.

Making Insulin Receptors Work

Lowering levels of fats and simple sugars also improves insulin receptor function. N-6-type fats (omega-6) worsen diabetes, and N-3 fats (omega-3) improve diabetes. The N-6 fats include vegetable oils such as corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Fish and flaxseed oils comprise the N-3 fat group. A cautionary note about flaxseed oil in order to be converted to its healthy oil components, EPA and DHA, it must be converted by an enzyme called delta-desaturase. Some people lack a sufficient amount of this enzyme to make the conversion. High insulin levels also inhibit the enzyme. We know that a diet high in refined grains and sugars increases chromium depletion. In fact, with high sugar intake, chromium loss in the urine can be increased by as much as 300 percent. Strenuous exercise, aging, pregnancy, poor absorption, infection, chronic steroid use, and trauma can all increase chromium loss.

Nutritional Transition

Many Pacific Islanders have moved to a more Western diet consisting of fast foods and processed foods, and as a result the incidence of both obesity and diabetes have soared. Pacific Islanders now rely on imported foods that are highly processed, such as white flour, white sugar, canned meat and fish, margarine, mayonnaise, carbonated beverages, candies, cookies, and breakfast cereals. Many locals sell their fruits and vegetables and then in turn purchase imported foods. On many islands, 80 to 90 percent of the foods are now imported. Imported rice is becoming the staple food in some areas, instead of locally grown provisions, and the ability to purchase imported foods is now a status symbol. Agricultural production also plays a role in the dietary transition. Local fruits and vegetables are increasingly less available due to population growth, urbanization, exporting of produce, and selling produce to hotels for the tourism industry. Traditional methods of hunting and gathering wild...

Apple Blueberry Crumble

Spread sliced apples, blueberries and raisins in an oven-proof casserole coated with cooking spray. Mix oatmeal, brown sugar and nuts in a small bowl and spread the mixture over the top of the fruit. Preheat oven to 350 F (175 C) and bake for approximately 30 minutes, or until bubbly and the nuts are golden and the apples cooked. Serve with vanilla ice cream or frozen-tofu dessert. V4 c. brown sugar

Cooking with Intense Sweeteners

With their sugarlike flavor, intense sweeteners can be used in many recipes you already enjoy, perhaps to reduce calories. For example, sweetening an apple cobbler with saccharin rather than brown sugar might save 67 calories per serving (if a recipe to serve four calls for V2 cup of brown sugar). If you use intense sweeteners, be prepared to adjust your recipe or food preparation technique. Remember Their unique cooking qualities differ from sugar. And they have limitations in baked goods.

Pregnancy Nutrition Requirements

Recommendations regarding sugar intake for pregnant women depend on weight gain and maternal blood glucose levels. A high sugar intake would not be advisable for women gaining more than the recommended weight or for those women who are having difficulty controlling normal blood glucose levels, while a high sugar intake would be beneficial for women requiring increased weight gain. A high sugar intake for women who are experiencing excessive weight gain or having difficulty maintaining normal glucose levels could result in increased maternal risk for complications associated with too much weight gain, such as diabetes, hypertension, premature delivery, and a large for gestational age fetus.

Frank H Bloomfield and Jane E Harding

Fetal nutrients are derived largely from the mother, and fetal nutrition is thus closely related to maternal nutrition. However, it is important to appreciate that maternal nutrition is not the same as fetal nutrition. Firstly, the mother has her own nutrient demands which may be in conflict with those of the fetus. For example, pregnant adolescent sheep deliver smaller fetuses, especially when the ewes are very well nourished and therefore growing well, and the growth restriction appears to be predominantly secondary to reduced placental growth.1-3 Human adolescents also tend to give birth to lighter infants, and birth weight has been reported to be less in offspring of adolescents with a higher dietary sugar intake.4,5 Secondly, the fetus lies at the end of a long supply line which can be impaired at many points. Nutrients are used by the fetus predominantly for growth and metabolism, with little energy expenditure on other processes such as thermoregulation, movement and digestion....

Explaining the Case Studies

In addition to getting the amount of food intake all wrong, these athletes were getting the types of food all wrong. This also required a change and the dietary shifts we made with them included a) a reduction in sugar intake and a replacement of this sugar with low glycemic, micronutrient, and fiber rich carbohydrates, b) adding more protein to the diet, and c) balancing out their saturated fats with monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. These changes likely improved something called nutrient partitioning. By eating the right foods, the energy (calories) you take in are more likely to go toward building muscle vs. building fat. In other words, the nutrients are partitioned toward muscle cells, leaving the fat cells alone.

Where Do Fruits and Fruit Juices Fit In

There are some exceptions to the no sugar rule. For example, fruits and fruit juices contain fructose (a natural simple sugar) and provide several vitamins and minerals. Eating fresh fruit or drinking 100-percent fruit juice is far from pumping empty calories into your system. When you can, choose whole fruit over fruit juice ou get the same nutrients, as well as more complex carbohydrates and fiber. ou'll read more about this in Chapter 6. As you can see in the following table, juice and cola both contain simple sugars, but juice provides a lot more nutrition. As you can see in the following table, juice and cola both contain simple sugars, but juice provides a lot more nutrition.

Homemade evaporated milk formulas

2 dilution of evaporated whole milk to water plus added sugar to yield 67 kilocalories per 100 mL. The 1 to 2 dilution is required to bring the protein and sodium content down to appropriate levels for the infant up to 6 months of age. Sugar is added to adjust the carbohydrate and energy content. dilution of evaporated whole milk to water to yield 67 kilocalories per 100 mL. No sugar is added.

Sugar Alcohols in Foods

Besides adding sweetness to some sugar-free foods, sugar alcohols add texture and bulk to a wide range of foods baked goods, ice cream, fruit spreads, and candies. They also help foods stay moist, prevent browning when food is heated, and give a cooling effect to the taste of food. Baked foods made with sugar alcohols won't have a crisp brown surface unless the color comes from another ingredient. Sugar alcohols also are used in chewing gum, toothpaste, and mouthwash. you spot them on a food label The ingredient list may give the specific name, perhaps sorbitol. If a nutrition content claim is made, perhaps sugar free, the sugar alcohol content must appear with the Nutrition Facts separately, under carbohydrates, as grams of sugar alcohols or of the specific polyol. The label may also say that the food has fewer calories per gram than other similar foods with nutritive sweeteners.

Homemade Sports Drink

You can be creative when making your own sports drink. You can dilute many combinations of juices (such as cranberry and lemonade) to 50 calories per 8 ounces (250 ml) and then add a pinch of salt. More precisely, add 1 4 teaspoon salt per quart (liter) of liquid. Some people use flavorings such as sugar-free lemonade to enhance the flavor yet leave the calories in the 50 to 70 per 8-ounce range. The trick is to always test the recipe during training, not during an important event. You want to be sure it tastes good when you are hot and sweaty and settles well when you're working hard.

Protein recommendations

Protein is the most important macronutrient for the bariatric patient. For this reason, patients should be instructed to consume protein at the beginning of a meal to ensure adequate intake if the patient becomes sated prematurely. During pregnancy, protein needs are 1.1 g kg day. There are no published protein guidelines for bariatric patients during pregnancy. Therefore, protein recommendations may vary among institutions. Our program recommends 60-80 g day for the RYBG, 80-120 g day for the BPD-DS, and 0.8-1 g kg day of adjusted body weight for AGB in nonpregnant women. Each pregnant bariatric patient should be encouraged to meet the upper end of the protein range specified for her type of surgery. If needed, protein intake may be supplemented with sugar-free protein shakes.

To Artificially Sweeten or

People often have to use artificial sweeteners because of a medical condition. For example, sugar substitutes can be great for diabetics, who can't tolerate real sugar because their bodies can't produce the hormone insulin. Insulin delivers the sugar from our blood to our cells, where we utilize it as energy. When your body doesn't have enough insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and doesn't get into the cells. This condition is known as high blood-sugar and can be extremely dangerous for people with diabetes. Because sugar substitutes do not contain any glucose (and therefore do not require insulin), they can be effective sweeteners for people with diabetes.

Where Are the Whole Grains

Sugar Substitutes For the same reason that people have recently sought substitutes for fat, noncaloric sugar substitutes became popular in the 1960s as people began to try to control their weight. Sugar substitutes are of two basic types intense sweeteners and sugar alcohols. A fourth intense sweetener, sucralose (Splenda), was approved by the FDA in 1998 for sale and use in commercial food products. Sucralose is made by chemically modifying sucrose (table sugar) to a non-nutritive, non-caloric powder that is about 600 times sweeter than sugar. Before approving sucralose, the FDA reviewed more than 110 research studies conducted in both human and animal subjects. It concluded that the sweetener is safe for consumption by adults, children, and pregnant and breastfeeding women in amounts equivalent to the consumption of about 48 pounds of sugar annually (an Acceptable Daily Intake of 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight). People with diabetes may also safely consume the sweetener,...

Impact on key nutrients carbohydrates

Reducing sugars such as glucose and lactose participate in Maillard reactions, which will be discussed further in section 14.3. The shear forces during extrusion can also create reducing sugars from complex carbohydrates as well as from sucrose and other sugars. Sucrose losses of up to 20 were found in protein-enriched biscuits (Noguchi and Cheftel, 1983). While sucrose loss may affect product color and flavor, there is an opportunity to reduce the content of indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause flatulence. Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose decreased significantly in extruded pinto bean high-starch fractions (Borejszo and Khan, 1992). Corn-soy snacks had lower levels of both stachyose and raffinose compared to unextruded soy grits and flour, but values were not corrected for the 50-60 corn present (Omueti and Morton, 1996). Starch and stachyose were lower in extruded peas compared to raw peas (Alonso et al, 2000), but an increase in total free sugars did not fully account for...

Amino Acid Availability from Dietary Protein Sources

However, heat processing itself may damage amino acids. For example, heat treatment of protein in the presence of reducing sugars can promote reactions altering the lysine amino groups in the protein. This reaction, called the Maillard, or browning, reaction, can be seen in milk processing in which lactose reacts with lysine at high temperatures. Oxidative or alkaline processing conditions may alter other essential and nonessential amino acids, inducing loss of methionine or formation of amino acid products that have toxic properties. Likewise, storage conditions may affect the nutritional quality of the protein. Thus, processing or cooking the protein source as well as storage conditions and other factors must be considered in evaluating the quality of the protein.

Availablereactive lysine

Lysine in protein is highly susceptible to damage through heat treatment as it possesses a reactive e-amino group, especially if reducing sugars are present. The follow-up products of lysine created during Maillard reactions for example (Eichner et al., 1994) are no longer available for animal or human protein synthesis. In 1960 Carpenter introduced an in vitro test for available, better reactive lysine, in which the protein was reacted with fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) and the resulting

The Language of Labels Nutrient Content Claims

Imagine rolling your shopping cart through the supermarket. Your eyes dart from one food product to another. Some canned peaches say no added sugar. Certain breakfast cereals are high in fiber others are fortified. On packages of luncheon meat you see the term lean. The words high in calcium on a milk carton catch your eye. You can choose lite salad dressing. And a box of cookies says fewer calories. What does all this label language mean

Eating and Snacking Patterns

Eating meals and snacking away from home puts the responsibility for good food choices right in adolescents' hands. Snacks should be low in both fat and added sugar. Some healthful snack ideas include fresh fruit, sliced vegetables with low-fat dip, low-fat yogurt, low-fat string cheese, peanut butter and crackers, baked chips, granola bars, and graham crackers. Juices, fruit drinks, and sodas are usually very high in calories from natural or added sugar, so they should be consumed in moderation. The Food Guide Pyramid is an appropriate guide for adolescents' food choices, even when snacking.

Is Chocolate a Health Food

Because pure cocoa is bitter and unpalatable, it needs a lot of added sugar to transform it into a delicious candy bar. Labeling this sugar-coated cocoa a health food is a stretch of the imagination. Yet, if you are destined to eat chocolate, dark chocolate does contain more flavonoids than does milk chocolate.

The Bottom Line Optimizing Health

Nutrition experts agree that when you lower the total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar in your diet and increase the vitamins, minerals, and fiber by eating more fruits, vegetables, and grains, you can improve your quality of life and help prevent many of the diseases that are the leading causes of death. Now that you know the goals and guidelines for healthful eating, we will provide you with the nutrition and food selection knowledge you need to put those guidelines into practice.

Vegetables and Fruits

How nutritious are canned and frozen vegetables and fruits Most frozen produce is processed without cooking, so most of the micronutrient content is conserved. But canned vegetables and fruits undergo a heating process that destroys much of the vitamin C and B vitamins.8 Also, minerals leach out of canned food into the water, and unless the liquid in the can is used in food preparation, the minerals will be lost. Large amounts of sodium are added during the processing and canning of vegetables. Canned fruit is often conserved in heavily sugared water. A fresh peach has about 70 calories a canned peach, with the added sugar, contains about 180 calories. When available, fruit that is conserved in its own juice is preferable.

Alternative foods No Fake fats

Olestra Olean is a no-calorie compound made from sugar and vegetable oils. Olestra is indigestible, which means it adds no nutrients such as fat or cholesterol to food. Unfortunately, as it speeds through your intestinal tract, it's likely to pick up and swoosh along some fat-soluble nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E. In addition, eating excess amounts of food made with Olestra may cause diarrhea.

Alternative foods No Substitute sweeteners

1 Sucralose (Splenda) Sucralose, which was discovered in 1976, is a no-calorie sweetener made from sugar. But your body doesn't recognize it as a carbohydrate or a sugar, so it zips through your intestinal tract unchanged. More than 100 scientific studies conducted during a 20-year period attest to its safety, and the FDA has approved its use in a variety of foods, including baked goods, candies, substitute dairy products, and frozen desserts. Sugar (sucrose)

General Reactivity of Sugars

Aldoses are reducing agents, and their car-bonyl group is simultaneously oxidized to a carboxyl during the reduction. Ketoses are not good reducing agents because simultaneous oxidation of the carbonyl would require carbon chain cleavage. However, they isomerize to aldoses in an alkaline reducing test and therefore test positive. Formerly glucose in urine was analyzed by reducing sugar assay,

Distilled alcohol products

As with fermentation, yeasts are added to foods to make alcohol from sugars. But yeasts can't thrive in a place where the concentration of alcohol is higher than 20 percent. To concentrate the alcohol and separate it from the rest of the ingredients in the fermented liquid, distillers pour the fermented liquid into a still, a large vat with a wide column-like tube on top. The still is heated so that the alcohol, which boils at a lower temperature than everything else in the vat, turns to vapor, which rises through the column on top of the still, to be collected in containers where it condenses back into a liquid.

Carbohydrates and Health

The mean annual consumption of sucrose plus fructose in developed countries is about 25 of the caloric intake. Fructose is more lipogenic than glucose. This high intake of sucrose (approximately 50 kg year person) has been contentiously implicated in influencing the health of humans, apart from caries, because a high consumption of sucrose fructose in experimental animals (often rats) creates, among other things, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and diabetic-like tissue lesions (66). However, while a hyperlipidemic effect of sucrose and fructose has been demonstrated in a number of human studies, firm conclusions cannot be made because of great variations in the type of subjects, duration of intake, background diet, and study conditions ( 66). The general conclusion of an FDA-sponsored survey published in 1986 was that the present voluntary intake of sucrose and fructose is not harmful to humans ( 67). A more recent review, while accepting that the intake of sucrose...

Why Does Glycemic Index Vary Among Foods

Ripened fruits contain mostly fructose and glucose as well as some sucrose. For example, a medium apple contains about 8 grams of fructose and 3 grams of both glucose and sucrose. Meanwhile a medium banana contains between 5 to 6 grams of both fructose and glucose and 2 grams of sucrose. One tablespoon of honey contains 8 grams of fructose and 7 grams of glucose and less than 1 gram of sucrose, galactose, and maltose combined. So even though fruits and honey are very sweet, they will have a moderate glycemic index and load (see Table 4.4). sucrose (table sugar)

Factors Affecting Nutrition and Oral Health

Sugar, particularly the frequent ingestion of sweets (cakes, cookies, candy), is related to both dental caries and periodontal disease. For example, populations with a frequent exposure to sugar, such as agricultural workers in sugar-cane fields (who may chew on sugar cane while they work), have a greater number of decayed, missing, and restored teeth. Sugar (sucrose), has a unique relationship to oral health. Sucrose can supply both the substrate (building blocks) and the energy required for the creation of dental plaque (the mesh-like scaffold of molecules that harbor bacteria on tooth surfaces). Sucrose also releases glucose during digestion, and oral bacteria can metabolize the glucose to produce organic acids. However, oral bacteria can also produce organic acids from foods other than sugar.

Sports Drinks versus Water

The addition of sodium will also help continue to drive your thirst so that you continue to drink. We also recommend sports drinks that use a combination of glucose, maltodextrin (glucose polymers), sucrose, and fructose, generally with more of the glucose and sucrose and less of the fructose. Mounting research suggests that glucose, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrins are oxidized at higher rates than fructose, which is digested slowly by the small intestine and must be converted by the liver to glucose, then released back in the bloodstream before the muscle can use it as energy. A solution containing a combination of glucose and fructose, however, was shown to increase total carbohydrate oxidation rate by 20 to 40 percent or even more over the same beverage and caloric intake but sweetened with glucose only. In addition, studies have reported that consumption of energy drinks and products that provide some fructose may be better tolerated (possibly fewer GI complaints) than those...

Time to exhaustion at VO max min

FIGURE 13.7 Time to exhaustion during cycling at 75 to 80 VO2max. No significant effect on exercise performance is seen with drinks containing tryptophan (3 g l), a small dose of BCAAs (6 g l), or a large dose of BCAAs (18 g l) compared with the control drink. All drinks contained carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (60 g l). (From van Hall, G.J. et al., J. Physiol., 486, 789-794, 1995. With permission from Blackwell Publishing.)

Classification Structures And Nomenclature Of The Monosaccharides

Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic components in most fruits, vegetables, legumes, and cereal grains, and they provide texture and flavor in many processed foods. They are the major energy source for humans by digestion and absorption in the small intestine and, to a lesser extent, by microbial fermentation in the large intestine. Glucose is an essential energy source for humans some types of cells such as red blood cells are not able to use other fuels. Glucose for the body's use may be derived from dietary starch, sucrose, and lactose from glycogen stores in the body or from synthesis in vivo from gluconeogenic precursors such as amino acid carbon skeletons. Glucose also serves as a precursor for synthesis of all other carbohydrates that are found as covalently bound constituents of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans in the body These complex biomolecules are important components of body fluids, matrix tissues, membranes, and cell surfaces.

Why Do Beans and Other Vegetables Produce Gas in Our Digestive Tract

Legumes are plants that have a single row of seeds in their pods. What we commonly call legumes, such as peas, green beans, lima beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, garbanzo beans, lentils, and soybeans, are often the seeds of legume plants. Relatively short carbohydrate chains (oligosaccharides) such as stachyose, raffinose, and verbacose are found in legumes as well as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, asparagus, and other vegetables, as well as whole grains. These carbohydrates are unique because they contain the disaccharide sucrose linked to one or more galactose molecules.

What Is the Composition of Sport Drinks

Sport drinks provide fluid, energy, and electrolytes and possibly other nutrients such as protein, amino acids, calcium, magnesium, B-complex vitamins, and antioxidants. The energy in sport drinks is provided largely in the form of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, corn syrup, maltodextrins, and glucose polymers. Maltodextrins and glucose polymers are mostly cornstarch that is partially broken down. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, whereas corn syrup is derived from cornstarch, which has been partially broken down to short, branching chains of glucose. Maltodextrin is just a few glucose molecules linked together with a branching point. Glucose polymers may just be short chains of glucose. Carbohydrates usually make up about 6 to 8 percent of the sport drink. Recently protein and amino acids have been formulated into sports drinks with research suggesting better hydration, performance, and recovery. Time will tell whether these ingredients provide more benefit...

Prevention and nutrition

Research continues regarding possible nutritional interventions for preeclampsia. While larger studies that are more reliable are needed to confirm results, diets high in fiber and potassium may reduce the risk of preeclampsia 28 . Additionally, diets high in calories, sucrose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase the risk for preeclampsia 29 .

Nutrition During Exercise

Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise has been shown to improve exercise performance in events lasting 60 min or longer by maintaining high plasma glucose levels and high CHO oxidation rates. From numerous studies, it appears that most of the soluble carbohydrates are oxidized at similar rates (i.e. glucose, maltose, sucrose, glucose polymers and dispersable starch). The exceptions are fructose, galactose and insoluble starch, which are oxidized at slightly slower rates. Interestingly, however, is the finding from one particular study that when 50 g of fructose and 50 g of glucose were ingested together, during exercise, the cumulative amount of CHO oxidized was 21 greater compared with the ingestion of 100 g of glucose (409).

Have You Ever Wondered 101

. . . if fructose tablets during prolonged exercise are a good energy source Fructose isn't converted to energy as fast as glucose is fructose converts to liver glycogen first. You're better off with a drink that offers glucose or sucrose. Fructose also can cause gastrointestinal distress (bloating, cramping, or diarrhea). . . . if a complete nutrition supplement, perhaps an energy bar or drink, or a power gel, aids performance Not complete nutrition, energy bars and drinks may be an energy source, but not a meal replacement, for physical activity. Power gels supply carbs, too, but usually few vitamins or minerals. A quick check of the Nutrition Facts reveals their calorie and nutrient contribution. Although energy bars, drinks, or gels may be convenient during an endurance event, eat fruit or a starchy snack such as a bagel afterward instead. . . . where to get nutrition advice for athletic performance-or to find out if your food choices help or hinder your training Talk to a sports...

Carbohydrates and energy A biochemical love story

Eating simple carbohydrates such as sucrose (table sugar) provokes higher insulin secretion than eating complex carbohydrates such as starch. If you have a metabolic disorder such as diabetes that keeps you from producing enough insulin, you must be careful not to take in more carbs than you can digest. Unmetabolized sugars circulating through your blood can make you dizzy and maybe even trip you into a diabetic coma.

Categories of Fat Substitutes

The last category of fat substitutes includes those that are fat-based. Because they are made from fat, they often come closest to providing fat's taste and cooking properties. Most Americans have heard of olestra, which is a fat-based fat substitute made from sucrose (table sugar) and fatty acids from vegetable oils. However, unlike sugar and vegetable oils, the body does not absorb olestra because the human digestive enzymes cannot break down such a large molecule. Olestra has the potential to inhibit absorption of some fat-soluble nutrients in the digestive tract, and, to offset any possible effects, products made with olestra have appropriate amounts of vitamins A, D, E, and K added.

How Are Dietary Carbohydrates Digested

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates picks up again in the small intestine as the pancreas delivers pancreatic amylase along with a battery of other digestive enzymes. Pancreatic amylase resumes the assault upon starch molecules, breaking them into smaller links of glucose. The cells that line the small intestine will play the final role in carbohydrate digestion as they produce enzymes that digest the smaller carbohydrates, such as disaccharides and the remaining branch points on what was once starch. The enzymes that split sucrose, maltose, and lactose into monosaccharides are called sucrase, maltase, and lactase, respectively.

Tocopherols Tocotrienols And Ubiquinones

A wide array of nonphenolic phytochemicals are present in oilseeds (Table 10.2). These include phospholipids, phytosterols, phytic acid, carotenoids, saponins, enzyme inhibitors, lectins and haemagglutinins, glucosinolates, oligosaccharides of sucrose, and cyanogenic glycosides, among others. The following sections provide a cursory account of these phytochemicals in oilseeds.

Relative glycaemic potency and glycaemicglucose equivalents

Sugar type is another reason that 'sugar' content does not indicate glycaemic effect. Sucrose ('cane sugar') for instance has a GI of 61 because it is a disac-charide containing a fructose (GI 23) and a glucose (GI 100) unit.55 While dietary sugars include sucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose, and other mono- and disaccharides, 'blood sugar' is blood glucose.

Whey vs Casein with Exercise

Elliot et al.51 examined the effects of different milk compositions on the response of net muscle protein balance after resistance training. There were three groups who consumed either 237 g of fat-free milk, 237 g of whole milk, or 393 g of fat-free milk, which was isocaloric to the whole milk. The milk was ingested 1 h after the resistance training bout. All three milk compositions resulted in increased phenyl-alanine and threonine uptake, which is acutely indicative of increased protein synthesis. The group consuming the whole milk had the greatest threonine uptake, indicating increased protein synthesis compared to the other milk groups. It is of interest to note that whole-body leucine balance has been shown to be greater with the addition of carbohydrates and fat to a protein meal than protein alone in resting subjects.52 Furthermore, the addition of fat and sucrose to milk proteins results in

Your Health Empty Calories

Sometimes foods are described as having empty calories. This means that the item is made mostly of sugar, probably sucrose, and not much of anything else. When carbohydrates are ingested along with proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, they form part of a balanced diet that fills our nutritional needs.

Five FDAApproved GRAS Artificial Sweeteners

Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame-K) was discovered in 1967 and approved for use in the United States in 1988. Its trade name is Sunette. Two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, this sweetener is stable when heated, making it suitable for cooking. However, when used in large amounts it has a bitter aftertaste. It is not broken down by the body, and it does not provide any calories. Over ninety scientific studies have been conducted by the FDA, and the World Health Organization's Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also endorsed Acesulfame K's safety.

Foundations for practical nutritional information

A food company that had not kept abreast of nutritional knowledge recently formulated a new 'diabetic muesli bar', replacing all sucrose sources with dextrins, in the belief that 'sugar' replacement would improve blood glucose control. However, such wisdom was obsolete, because sucrose, being half fructose, induces a much lower blood glucose response than dextrins, which are rapidly digested glucose polymers. The new 'diabetic' bar had a greater glycaemic impact than the unmodified version.

Mechanisms of copper absorption

An association has also been observed between very high intake of fructose or sucrose and a worsening of the effects of copper deficiency in rats,94,95 but not in pigs.96 In humans, similar experiments97 have produced changes including cardiac arrhythmia and reduction of erythrocyte SOD activity with apparently increased copper balance, suggesting that high fructose intake acts systemically to raise body copper requirements. Experimental evidence implicating high fat

Gastrointestinal function and disease

Bowel habit is defined by the amount of stool passed, frequency of defecation and consistency of stool. It varies very widely throughout the world with daily stool weights in the range 100-400 g d and stool frequency of three times per day to three times per week. In European countries and North America, daily stool weight is of the order of 100-150 g d (Cummings et al. 1992). Bowel habit is controlled principally by two factors, first diet, and second gut motor activity (transit time). The foods that affect bowel habit are those which reach the large intestine, i.e. are non-digestible. The dietary components falling into this category are lactose (in lactase-deficient individuals), sugar alcohols, non-digestible oligosaccharides, resistant starch and NSP. Dietary fat and protein have little effect on bowel habit unless they are rendered non-absorbable by some technique (e.g. sucrose polyester).

Hidden Sugar in Common Foods

Try to eat high-sugar foods less frequently or in smaller amounts. Check labels and compare similar foods choose those that are lower in sugar content. Go easy on adding sugar to food. The increase in sugar consumption also has been attributed to the increasing availability of low-fat versions of such dessert and snack foods as cookies, cakes, and frozen desserts. Often, the sugar content of these foods is high because sugar is used to replace the flavor lost when the fat is decreased. Sugar promotes tooth decay, when consumed in forms that allow it to remain in contact with the teeth for extended periods (see sidebar Hidden Sugar in Common Foods, this page). Starch is the form of carbohydrate that is found in grains, some fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It provides energy for newly sprouting plants. Fiber is the tougher material that forms the coat of a seed and other structural components of the plant (see illustration on page 20). Starches are digested by our...

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