Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Slow Release Fertilizers

Slow release fertilizers are characterized by a gradual release of nutrients. They usually consist of fertilizer granules coated by a synthetic film or in some cases by a sulphur covering. Among this type of fertilizers singular as well compound types are current. The nutrients of this type of fertilizers are gradually released during a Fig. 2.1 Release of N in of the total N from some modern slow release fertilizers in an incubation experiment with peat in comparison with a mineral compound fertilizer. After Prasad et al. (2004). Modified by permission of the International Society Horticultural Science proposed period. The aim is that such happens in relation to the demand of the plant. However, this is not always achieved, because the release is not always in agreement with the proposal and depends much on the climatic conditions and the crops grown (Oertly, 1980). Moreover, the demand of the crop is not always predictable. The nutrient release kinetics of the fertilizers always...

Worldwide Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption in the Year

Nitrogen Fertilizer Straight N Fertilizer Total straight Mixed N Fertilizer NPK-N Nitrogen Fertilizer Usage (Metric Tons) Ammonium phosphate Other NP-N NK-N Total mixed Total N fertilizer Source Compiled from http www.fertilizer.org ifa Calcium nitrate urea (calurea, 34 N, 10 Ca) is a double-compound fertilizer of calcium nitrate and urea to supply calcium and nitrogen (152). Several derivatives of urea are marketed as slow-release fertilizers (175,176). Urea formaldehyde (ureaform, 38 N) is a slow-release fertilizer manufactured from urea and formaldehyde and is used for fertilization of lawns, turf, container-grown plants, and field crops (177-180). Urea formaldehyde is also a glue and is used for the manufacture of plywood and particle board (181,182). Dicyandiamide (cyanoguanidine) (66 N) is a nitrogen fertilizer but is used most commonly as an additive (2 of the total N fertilizer) as a nitrification inhibitor with urea (153,183-185). Sulfur-coated urea (186,187) is a...

Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers N

Although naturally occurring, sodium nitrate may not be recognized as an organic fertilizer. Most organic fertilizers are derived from plant and animal sources and are proteinaceous Representative Nitrogen Concentrations and Mineralization of Some Organic Fertilizers Representative Nitrogen Concentrations and Mineralization of Some Organic Fertilizers Fertilizer materials. The fertilizer industry started with meat and other food processors, who wanted to dispose of and find a use for wastes and by-products (152,194). Around 1900, about 90 of nitrogen fertilizer was derived from proteinaceous wastes and by-products, but today usage has declined to less than 1 . Organic materials range from less than 1 to about 15 N compared with the chemical sources described above, which range upward to over 80 N. Costs of handling, shipping, and spreading of the bulky, low-analysis organic materials have led to their decline in usage with time. Also, many of the proteinaceous by-products of food...

Nitrogen Fertilizers

Soils have little capacity to retain oxidized forms of nitrogen, and ammonium accumulation in soils is small consequently, most of the soil nitrogen is associated with organic matter. Release of nitrogen from organic matter is slow and unpredictable. If soil organic matter is depleted, as occurs in cultivated soils, nitrogen for plant growth is limited. Nitrogen is usually the most deficient nutrient in cultivated soils of the world, and fertilization of these soils with nitrogen is required. To maintain or increase productivity of soils, worldwide consumption of nitrogen fertilizers continues to increase with time (Figure 2.3). However, the consumption of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers has leveled. Anhydrous ammonia (NH3 gas) is the starting product for manufacture of most nitrogen fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is manufactured from hydrogen and nitrogen gases by the Haber process (Haber-Bosch process). The reaction is performed at high temperature (400 to 500oC) and high...

P fertilizers

The P fertilizers used in greenhouses primarily consist of orthophosphates. The cheapest and most widely used forms are the Ca salts, from which only the mono form has a high solubility. The low concentrated fertilizers of this form contain a lot of gypsum and therefore, are seldom used in greenhouses. Calcium orthophosphates are never used for fertigation and substrate cultures, because these fertilizers mostly contain too much insoluble components. For greenhouse industry suitable P fertilizers are listed in Table 2.2. Most P fertilizers contain F, which is toxic to some mono-cotyledon plants, especially many bulb and tuber crops, from which freesia is the most well known greenhouse crop (Roorda van Eysinga, 1974). For crops sensitive to F toxicity P fertilizers with a low content of F are on the market. Di-calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) prepared for cattle feed is such a fertilizer, however, solely suitable for broadcasting. Some other P fertilizers are also produced with a low F...


K fertilizers are listed in Table 2.3. For broadcasting with base dressings mostly the SO4 salt is used. KCl is never used for soil grown crops in greenhouses. It is only used for special applications in substrate cultures, as a replacement for NO3 when Cl is required in the nutrient solution and the concentration in the primary water is very low. To this purpose a very pure form is desired, because the Na content must be very low. Table 2.3 K fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Table 2.3 K fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Fertilizer

Ca fertilizers

Many of the Ca fertilizers has a double function when used in soil growing, because these fertilizers are used as pH control in the soil. This is the case for CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2. They are also used for growing media to enhance the pH of acid substrate constituents, like peat and bark. Ca(OH)2 is better soluble than CaCO3, and thus sometimes used when a quick pH raise is wanted. CaCO3 is the common form used for pH control. Many carbonates contain besides CaCO3 also MgCO3. The ratio between both components varies and depends on the requirements of the soil on Mg, a suitable form can be chosen. In Table 2.5 different Ca fertilizers are presented. Table 2.5 Ca fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Table 2.5 Ca fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Fertilizer

Mg fertilizers

Mg fertilizers used in greenhouse industry are listed in Table 2.4. Kieserite is the cheapest form of magnesium sulphate, but it is slowly soluble in cold water. Therefore, this fertilizer is solely used for broadcasting applications. Epsom salt is used when prompt dissolution is required, like for example with fertigation and the Fertilizer

Si fertilizers

Presence or the availability can be insufficient. Under these conditions Si is supplied as a fertilizer to substrates for crops with a beneficial reaction on this element. The application of Si during cultivation with the regular nutrient solution is complicated, since precipitation of Si compounds will occur and quickly block the nozzles of drip irrigation systems. Si is not soluble in water, but some colloidal forms can survive as a stable gel, mainly in combination with Li and Na. These accompanying elements must be available in high concentrations to keep the compound stable, which made them toxic to plants. Thus, these compounds are not suitable as a fertilizer. Therefore, suitable Si compounds are stabilized with concentrated KOH. The mixture in which K and Si occur at a ratio 2 1 is best (Voogt and Sonneveld, 2001). This mixture is strongly basic and with the addition to nutrient solutions the basic reaction as well the K should be incorporated with the calculations of nutrient...


In this section a review will be given of the fertilizers commonly used in greenhouse horticulture. The choice of the fertilizer types used in greenhouse industry sometimes differs from those for field crops, because of the fact that the choice for field crops is strongly determined by the price of the fertilizer. This scarcely is a factor in the greenhouse industry, because fertilizer costs represent only a minor fraction of the total costs of greenhouse industry. The characteristics on which the choice of fertilizers is based are high solubility and low residual salt contents. Furthermore, many fertilizers in the greenhouse industry are used for fertigation of soil grown crops and substrate cultures and therefore, must be free from insoluble material. Such residues are not harmful to crops, but enhance the clogging of drip irrigation systems used for fertigation. For fertigation with sprinkler systems, the blocking of the nozzles is less a problem, but insoluble residues easily...

Organic Fertilizers

Organic fertilizers are produced from animal or plant material and are for that reason popular in the organic horticulture. They are sometimes used for traditional soil grown crops and to some extent as an amendment in organic substrates. There is a broad variety of source, some of these fertilizers are prepared from single mineral fertilizer -g protein-like materials such as blood and slaughterhouse wastes, while others are prepared from animal manures or industrial biomass wastes. Some fertilizers are formulated with specific nutrient ratios from various sources and put into the market as organic fertilizer compounds. All these fertilizers have in common that the majority of the N and partly also P is present in organic form and is released gradually through decomposition by microbial activity of the soil. The rate of this so called mineralization process differs strongly among different products. As is clear from the data presented in Fig. 2.2, where the release of N is shown for...

N fertilizers

N fertilizers used in greenhouse cultivation contain N as NO3, NH4 or urea. For growing in soil all forms are used, while for substrate growing mainly NO3 is applied and NH4 also in small quantities. Urea is not used in substrate cultivation, because in substrate solutions urea will survive rather long and can be toxic to plants. Sometimes urea is used for pH stabilisation in the water used with drip Fertilizer irrigation of potted plant cultures. In substrate growing NH4 especially is added to nutrient solutions to control the pH, see Section 13.4. On calcareous soils the use of urea as well NH4 is also effective for adjustment of the pH which is discussed in Section 15.7. In Table 2.1 a review is given of the N fertilizers commonly used in greenhouse industry.

Compound Fertilizers

The fertilizer industry produces a lot of different compound fertilizers for soil grown crops, mostly containing guaranteed contents of N, P and K being the elements most widely applied in greenhouse industry. They can be separated in those meant for broadcasting and those suitable for fertigation. Last types often contain beside the elements mentioned, also Mg and micro nutrients. Besides the elements mentioned compound fertilizers mostly contain significant quantities SO4 as a residue. The numbers with which compound fertilizers are characterized are Table 2.7 Composition of specific compound fertilizers used for the fertilization with the preparation of substrates. The elements are expressed as mass in brackets the P2O5, K2O and MgO PG-mix fertilizers Table 2.7 Composition of specific compound fertilizers used for the fertilization with the preparation of substrates. The elements are expressed as mass in brackets the P2O5, K2O and MgO PG-mix fertilizers the percentage N P2O5 K2O...

Perspective Organically Produced Foods

With organic farming, manure, compost, and other organic wastes fertilize crops there are some allowed synthetic fertilizers. The soil is also managed with crop rotation, tillage, and cover crops. Organic fertilizers are effective, yet plants can't distinguish them from synthetic fertilizers. Both types of fertilizer break down in the soil to nurture growing plants. Despite common perception, no conclusive scientific evidence shows that organically produced foods are healthier or safer. Both approaches organic and conventional farming supply nutritionally comparable foods. Climate and soil conditions, genetic differences, maturity at harvest, and the way food is handled not the type of fertilizer affect the nutrient content of raw foods.

Ammonium Phosphates N

Ammonium phosphates are important phosphorus-containing fertilizers because of their high concentrations of phosphorus and water solubility. Diammonium phosphate (commonly 18 N, 46 P2O5) is a dry granular or crystalline material. It is a soil-acidifying fertilizer and is useful on calcareous soils. It should be incorporated into the soil. It is a common starter fertilizer and is a common component of greenhouse and household fertilizers. Monoammonium phosphate (commonly 11 N, 48 P2O5) has uses similar to those of diammonium phosphate. Ammonium polyphosphate (10 N, 34 P2O5) is marketed as a solution. Its use is similar to that of monoammonium phosphate and diammo-nium phosphate. Ammonium phosphates are made by reaction of ammonia with orthophosphoric acid (mono- and diammonium salts) or with superphosphoric (pyrophosphoric) acid (152).

Approaches In Research

Research is conducted, and will continue to be conducted, to ensure that soil tests correlate with use of nutrients by plants and that fertilizer recommendations are calibrated for crops (89). These correlations must be developed for individual crops and different land areas. Some research is directed toward development of systems for evaluation of soil and crop conditions through methods other than traditional soil and plant analysis. Much of the past and current research addresses chemical, physical, and biological properties of soils (90,91). Some researchers have studied the interaction of these quantitative aspects to determine soil quality and to develop a soil quality index that correlates with crop productivity and environmental and health goals (92). Soil quality has been defined to include productivity, sustainability, environmental quality, and effects on human nutrition (93). To quantify soil quality, specific soil indicators are measured and integrated to form a soil...

Determination Of Essentiality

The concept that nitrogen was acquired from the air or from soil organic matter was dismissed in the mid-1800s, as it was shown that crop yields rose as a result of fertilization of soil. Using laboratory methods of de Saussure, Boussingault (1), in field research of 1838, developed balances of carbon, dry matter, and mineral matter in crops. Boussingault established a special position for legumes in nitrogen nutrition, a position that Liebig did not support (1). Other research also showed that different nitrogen fertilizers varied in their effectiveness for supporting crop production, with potassium nitrate often being a better fertilizer than ammonium salts (1). Microbial transformations of nitrogen in the soil made it doubtful as to which source was actually the best and which form of nitrogen entered into plants. Studies made with sterile media and in water culture demonstrated that plants may utilize nitrate or ammonium and that one or the other might be superior depending on the...

Determination of Inorganic Nitrogen

Nitrate is a soluble form of nitrogen that is subject to downward movement in soils in humid temperate climates (105). Sometimes, soil tests for nitrate in the top 15 or 30 cm of soils have not been well correlated with crop yields because of depletion of nitrate in these zones by leaching in humid regions (113). Good correlations between soil nitrate tests and crop yields have been noted with soil samples taken from 120- to 180-cm depth in the profile. Roth and Fox (125) reported nitrate concentrations that ranged from 36 to 295 kg N ha in the 120-cm profile following the harvest of corn. Soils fertilized with nitrogen applied at economiclly optimum amounts had nitrate concentrations ranging from 41 to 138 kg N ha. Soils with more than 169 kg nitrate-N ha in the 120-cm profile did not show an increase in corn yields in response to nitrogen fertilization. Jokela and Randall (124) reported that nitrate concentrations in a 150-cm profile ranged from 150 to 500 kg N ha over a range of...

Free Range Versus Organic

We hear the terms all the time, organic and free range. Here's exactly what they mean. Organic is a labeling term that means the product meets the requirements of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. To be certified as organic, the poultry and or meat must be fed certified organic feed since birth. Organic feed means grains and soybeans grown in soil that has been free of pesticides and chemical fertilizers for

Why Are Sustainable Food Systems Important

Globally, crop production is a highly intensive operation in both inputs and energy consumption. Of the 10 to 20 percent of the fossil-fuel energy that is used by agricultural operations, 40 percent is indirect energy used in the development of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. There is thus a need to work with natural processes to conserve all resources, minimize waste, and lessen the impact on the environment. In theory, this usually means limited use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. Instead, it means more reliance on methods such as crop rotations, animal manures, legumes, mechanical cultivation, mineral-bearing rocks to maintain soil fertility and productivity and on natural, cultural, and biological controls to manage insects, weeds, and other pests. The emphasis is on prevention of problems and the use of curative interventions, such as pesticides, as last resorts.

Nonbiogenic Toxic Substances Metals

Several concentrations detected in the algal samples can be seen to exceed the recommended limit. The main causes for these high levels are environmental pollutants, owing to unfavorable locations of algal plants as well as to contamination introduced through water and fertilizers. Moreover, under alkaline conditions and in the presence of phosphate and sulfate ions from fertilizers, dissolved cadmium and lead ions in the medium produce slightly soluble compounds that precipitate or can

Sustainable Food Systems

Misuse and overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contributed heavily to the degradation of many farms and waterways throughout the United States, Canada, and other developing countries. Out of this farm crisis came national and international institutions and organizations of concerned citizens, producers, community organizations, and environmental groups. They agitated for the creation of policies and laws that supported new environmentally safe approaches to producing food and fiber and that would ensure the livelihood of farmers and vibrant rural communities. Thus, a sustainable food system is a system that sustains people as well as the land.

Heavy Metal Contamination

As in other agricultural products, lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic are potential contaminants in algal products since they are components of industrial pollution and occur in trace amounts in certain agricultural fertilizers. It is known that certain microalgae are effective accumulators of heavy metals.37 The production of high-quality Spirulina therefore requires the use of high-grade nutrients and a meticulous and routine analysis of heavy metals in the culture medium and the product. This is particularly important in situations where food-grade Spirulina is to be produced from earthen ponds or natural lakes. The soil in certain regions may have a high content of heavy metals that can easily be accumulated by the algae.

FOOD facts Food Basics

Organic foods are foods that have been grown without most conventional pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, antibiotics, or hormones and without genetic engineering or irradiation. Organic farmers use, for example, animal and plant manures to increase soil fertility and crop rotation to decrease pest problems. The goal of organic farming is to preserve the natural fertility and productivity of the land. This chapter's Hot Topic goes into more depth about organic foods.

Inorganic Nitrogen in Soil

Soil inorganic nitrogen is commonly less than 2 of the total nitrogen of surface soils and undergoes rapid changes in composition and quantity. Inorganic nitrogen varies widely among soils, with climate, and with weather. In humid, temperate zones, soil inorganic nitrogen in surface soil is expected to be low in winter, to increase in spring and summer, and to decrease with fall rains, which move the soluble nitrogen into the depths of the soil (105). Despite being small in magnitude, the inorganic fraction is the source of nitrogen nutrition for plants. Unless supplied by fertilizers, inorganic nitrogen in soil is derived from the soil organic matter, which serves as a reserve of nitrogen for plant nutrition. Plant-available nitrogen is released from organic matter by mineralization and is transformed back into organic matter (microbial cells) by immobilization. Absorption by plants is the chief means of removal of inorganic nitrogen from soils, although nitrate leaching and...

Definition Of Dietary Environmentalism

The first step consists in questioning the way we eat, pinpointing possible errors and proposing solutions. What is the state of our knowledge in the domain of dietary environmentalism Are there real problems and what solutions can we devise How can we deal with all the questions relating to the nature of essential foods, the identification of unsuitable and polluted foodstuffs, the ways in which we can balance our diet, the proportions to respect between the different classes of food products, the importance of food quality (we must be wary of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, for example, but also all other synthetic substances and processing systems), the usefulness or, on the contrary, the dangers of various food combinations, etc. RAISE YOUR CONSCIOUSNESS AS CONCERNS WHAT FOODS ARE TO BE CONSIDERED EDIBLE OR NOT. Learn that heat and fire are one of the main processing systems that dramatically affect the chemical structure of our foods. Learn that insects are edible. and many...

Fractions of Nitrogen in Soil Organic Matter Following Acid Hydrolysis

Cultivation reduces the total amount of organic matter in soils but has little effect on the relative distribution of the organic fractions in soils, suggesting that the results of acid hydrolysis are of little value as soil tests for available nitrogen or for predicting crop yields (94). Humic substances contain about the same forms of nitrogen that are obtained from the acid hydrolysis of soils but perhaps in different distribution patterns (94). Agricultural systems that depend on soil reserves do not remain productive without the input of fertilizer nitrogen.

Table Hectares of corn land required for manure disposal from layersyr

Table 4.49 shows the land base required for 10,000 layers per year assuming that the land is used to grow corn and fertilizer rate is 140 kg N hectare and 40 kg P hectare. As CP level of the diet decreases from 20 to 14 , the land base required to adequately use the manure is reduced by 25 . With phosphorus there is potential reduction of 50 in land based relative to diet P levels used in formulation.

Concentrations of Nitrogen in Plants

Many attempts have been made to relate yields of crops to nutrient supply in media and to accumulation in plants. Deficiency of nitrogen or another nutrient is associated with suboptimum development of a plant, as reflected by the appearance of symptoms of deficiency, the suppression of yields, or to the response of plants after the accumulation of the deficient nutrient following its application as a fertilizer. Plant analysis (tissue testing) is used in the diagnosis of nutritional deficiency, sufficiency, or excess. Generally, the concentrations of nitrogen in plants reflect the supply of nitrogen in the root medium, and yields increase as internal concentration of nitrogen in plants increases. The use of information on internal concentrations of nitrogen in plants should not be directed toward forecasting of yields as much as it should be used in assessing how yields can be improved by fertilization.

Preface to First Edition

Mineral nutrients are essential for plant growth and development. Mineral nutrition of plants is thus an area of fundamental importance for both basic and applied science. Impressive progress has been made during the last decades in our understanding of the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and their functions in plant metabolism at the same time, there have also been advances in increasing crop yields by the supply of mineral nutrients through fertilizer application. It is the main aim of this textbook to present the principles of the mineral nutrition of plants, based on our current knowledge. Although emphasis is placed on crop plants, examples are also presented from noncultivated plants including lower plants in cases where these examples are considered more suitable for demonstrating certain principles of mineral nutrition, either at a cellular level or as particular mechanisms of adaptation to adverse chemical soil conditions.

Proteins as a Source of Nitrogen

The term proteins is derived from the Greek proteno, which means I take first place. Berzelius and Mulder, who coined this term during the first half of the nineteenth century, meant proteins to be nitrogen-containing compounds in foods, without which life is impossible. In fact, proteins are the sole source of usable nitrogen (N) for humans. Plants obtain N from nitrogenous organic or inorganic soil compounds (A). When plants are harvested, that N is lost to the soil. It therefore needs to be replenished regularly from exogenous sources such as fertilizer, composted plants, and animal waste. Bacteria associated with legumes that are able to fix atmospheric N and release it into the soil (when they are decomposed) import N into this otherwise closed circuit. Plants use N to synthesize amino acids from which they make their species-specific proteins.

Expression of True Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities

In conclusion, the rather larger within than between variation in different feedstuffs indicates that methodological rather than other factors such as inherent factors (e.g. fibre level, antinutritional compounds, fertilizer application) may be responsible for a large proportion of this variation (Sauer and Ozimek, 1986 Gatel, 1992 Sauer et al., 2000). Therefore, a major part of the variation in apparent ileal digestibility values of protein and amino acids within the same feedstuff may be simply a reflection of experimental error, and this variation may misrepresent the real variation among samples of the same feedstuff. In fact, Fan et al. (1994) identified differences in the protein and amino acid content of the assay diets as the largest single contributor to the variation of apparent ileal protein and amino acid digestibility values within the same feedstuff. Feeding maize-starch-based diets with graded levels of crude protein from soybean meal (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ) to...

Diagnostic Criteria Visual Diagnosis

Calcium Deficiency Symptoms Cucumber

Time for remedial action to take place. Generally, however, if symptoms have appeared, irreparable damage has occurred, with quantity or quality of yields being suppressed or diminished with annual crops or with slowing or damaging of growth and development of perennial crops. Also, symptoms that resemble nutrient deficiency can develop on plants as a result of conditions that are not related to nutrient deficiencies, for example, drought, wet soils, cold soils, insect or disease infestations, herbicide damage, wind, mechanical damage, salinity, or elemental toxicities. Deficiency symptoms are only one of several diagnostic criteria that can be used to assess the nutritional status of plants. Plant analysis, biological tests, soil analysis, and application of fertilizers containing the nutrient in question are additional tools used in diagnosis of the status of plant nutrition.

Uptake and Release of Gases and Other Volatile Compounds through Stomata

Silicon Deposition Epidermis Cuticle

Not only uptake of these gases by the leaves can be considerable but also losses by emission. This holds true for NH3, H2S and other volatile sulfur compounds. In rice, losses of volatile nitrogen compounds (mainly NH3) through the stomata have been calculated to be as much as 15 kg N ha-1 over a 100-day period (Silva and Stutte, 1981). Wheat plants seem to lose NH3 at a fairly constant rate of 60-120 ng NH3-N m 2 s-1 before the milk ripe stage, but the rate increases to 100-200 ng NH3-N m-2 s_1 during senescence, leading to cumulative nitrogen losses of between 2.8 and 4.4 kg ha-1 (Parton et al., 1988). For a wheat crop losses of NH3 by the leaves during senescence can reach about 7 kg N ha-1, an equivalent of 21 of the fertilizer nitrogen applied to the soil (Harper et al., 1987). In pea plants during seed filling losses of nitrogen can reach up to 30 of the total plant nitrogen, and a large proportion of this loss may be attributed to volatilization of NH3 from aerial plant parts...

Fertilization in Greenhouse Industry

In contrary of many other agricultural activities the costs of fertilization in the greenhouse industry are relatively low and amount to only a few percentages of the total costs. Thus, from economic view points were no arguments for a precise and careful application of plant nutrients. In the past an abundant use of fertilizers in the greenhouse industry was common practice and there was no interest by the growers to limitations in the use of fertilizers to prevent in this way the leaching of nutrients to the environment. However, in the last decades of the 20 th century environmental pollution became a subject of permanent attention by the governments of North-West European countries and was quickly followed by regulations from the European Community. Measurements by the Dutch greenhouse cultivation learned that substantial quantities of nutrients can be transported to the deep ground water or surrounding surface water like ditches, canals and rivers. In Table 1.1 some data is...

Introduction Definition and Classification of Mineral Nutrients

The beneficial effect of adding mineral elements (e.g., plant ash or lime) to soils to improve plant growth has been known in agriculture for more than 2000 years. Nevertheless, even 150 years ago it was still a matter of scientific controversy as to whether mineral elements function as nutrients for plant growth. It was mainly to the credit of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) that the scattered information concerning the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was compiled and summarized and that the mineral nutrition of plants was established as a scientific discipline. These achievements led to a rapid increase in the use of mineral fertilizers. By the end of the nineteenth century, especially in Europe, large amounts of potash, superphosphate, and, later, inorganic nitrogen were used in agriculture and horticulture to improve plant growth.

Other parasites Hymenolepiasis

The treatment of choice is praziquantel 25 mg kg three times daily for 1 day. The prognosis is generally excellent, except for heavy infection in children with intestinal obstruction of edematous malnutrition. The infection can be prevented by cooking aquatic vegetation or immersing plants or nuts in boiling water. The use of human feces as fertilizer in aquaculture is a major cause of human infection.

Exchange Adsorption and Resorption

Oxalic Acid Vacuole

Effect of Sodium Fertilizer on the Sodium Content of Roots and Shoots of Pasture Without Na fertilizer With Na fertilizer Effect of Sodium Fertilizer on the Sodium Content of Roots and Shoots of Pasture Without Na fertilizer With Na fertilizer shoots, whereas in Phleumpratense and Trifolium hybridum this translocation is rather restricted. It is evident that in order to increase the sodium content of forage selection of suitable plant species is more important than the application of sodium fertilizers. Besides these specific aspects of nitrogen translocation, the release or secretion of mineral nutrients from the xylem parenchyma (and stem tissue in general) is of major importance for the maintenance of a continuous nutrient supply to the growing parts of the shoots. In periods of ample supply to the roots, mineral nutrients are resorbed from the xylem sap, whereas in periods of insufficient root supply they are released into the xylem sap. Changes in the potassium and nitrate...

Fertilization Programmes

In the past fertilization and irrigation in greenhouses was based on the experiences of growers. The addition of farm yard manure and other natural organic products was common practice, supplemented with fertilizers used for field crops. Often these fertilizers contained high NaCl contents. Formerly, this was mostly not a problem for field crops, because of the surplus of the precipitation in winter, by which the salt residues were leached from the root zone. However, since the natural precipitation was excluded by the greenhouse constructions salts could easily accumulate in the greenhouse soils to levels that reduced the growth of many crops. The salts accumulated during cultivation, especially in the top layers in the greenhouse soils, like shown in Table 1.3 (Van den Ende, 1952). The high salt content in the top layer at the end of the cropping period was a major hindrance for the start of a new crop. Therefore, such soils must be flooded before a new crop could be started. The...

Changes in the Chemical Composition

Week 8, the concentrations gradually decreased and the top dressing by fertigation started around week 14. Until the end of the cropping period at week 32, by ferti-gation 300 kg K and 35 kg Mg per ha was supplied. In the greenhouse concerned, water and fertilizers were supplied by sprinkler irrigation and the soil was sampled over a depth of 25 cm. The Na concentration is relatively high during the whole growing period, as a result of the high concentration of this ion in the irrigation water used. In substrate cultivation the control of salt and nutrient concentrations in the root environment has special effects in comparison with the control of these parameters in the soil solution. On the one hand the concentration can be adjusted much easier, because of the small rooting volume. On the other hand for the same reason, mistakes by errors and mismanagement are also more obvious. This directly follows from the quantity of water available in the rooting volume. For soil grown crops a...

Deficiencies of essential elements disrupt plant growth and development

Mineral Deficient Leaves Tree

Obtaining some of the essential elements is not a problem for plants. For example, carbon dioxide is always present in the air, and water is usually abundant enough to support at least minimal growth. As a result, deficiencies of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen rarely occur in plants. Plants also require large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium low levels of these elements in soils almost always limit plant growth, and, as a result, these are the elements most likely to be deficient in soil. Thus, plant growth and development largely depend on a plant's ability to absorb these minerals. Overcoming deficiencies of these elements in crop fields and gardens often requires adding large amounts of fertilizer.

Diagnosis Of Nitrogen Status In Plants Symptoms of Deficiency and Excess

A shortage of nitrogen restricts the growth of all plant organs, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits (including seeds). A nitrogen-deficient plant appears stunted because of the restricted growth of the vegetative organs. Nitrogen-deficient foliage is a pale color of light green or yellow (Figure 2.1). Loss of green color is uniform across the leaf blade. If a plant has been deficient throughout its life cycle, the entire plant is pale and stunted or spindly. If the deficiency develops during the growth cycle, the nitrogen will be mobilized from the lower leaves and translocated to young leaves causing the lower leaves to become pale colored and, in the case of severe deficiency, to become brown (firing) and abscise. Until the 1940s crops received little nitrogen fertilizer (a typical application of N was 2 or 3 kg ha), and when the light green color and firing appeared, farmers assumed that the soil was droughty (47). Sometimes under conditions of sufficiency of nitrogen,...

Fluoride and Genetic Damage

In another study, researchers looked for chromosomal aberrations in the white blood cells of workers in a phosphate fertilizer factory, and reported a significant elevation of such DNA damage that was both dose- and time-dependent,128 meaning that the amount of damage depended on how long workers were exposed and how concentrated the fluoride was. Remember that fluoridating water means a lifetime of exposure, and the dose is accumulative, since 50 percent is retained in the tissues of the body with each dose. There is even evidence of a connection between total fluoride exposure the sum from water, food, and other beverages, and airborne fluorides and Down's syndrome.129

HOT topic Organic Foods

Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides, petroleum-based fertilizers or sewage sludge-based fertilizers, bioengineering (also called biotechnology), or ionizing radiation (also called irradiation). Before a product can be labeled organic, a government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards. Organic farmland has been expanding, and over 12,000 farms were certified organic as of 2005, which is a little under 1 percent of all farms.

Safety and Nutritional Value of Organic Foods

Organic foods are produced with ecologically based practices, such as biological pest management and composting. To be labeled organic, foods must have been produced on certified organic farms and conform to established labeling requirements. From a scientific viewpoint, organic foods are no safer or nutritious than conventionally produced foods. Most major health organizations maintain that the health benefits of consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains significantly outweigh any health risk from residual pesticide, herbicide, or fertilizer consumption. According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, there is no convincing evidence that eating foods containing trace amounts of chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and drugs used on farm animals increases the risk for cancer. Organic agriculture provides consumers with an additional choice when purchasing food, however, and also provides some assurance of where a food was produced and how...

Anhydrous Ammonia N

Anhydrous ammonia is the most-used nitrogen-containing fertilizer for direct application to land in the United States (152). Worldwide, consumption of anhydrous ammonia is ranked fourth or fifth among nitrogen fertilizers (Table 2.7). In agriculture, anhydrous gaseous ammonia is compressed into a liquid and is applied under high pressure with a special implement by injection at least 15 cm deep into a moist soil. The ammonia gas reacts with water to form ammonium ions, which can be held to clay or organic matter. If the ammonia is not injected deeply enough or soil is too wet or dry, ammonia can be lost by volatilization. Anhydrous ammonia is usually the cheapest source of nitrogen, but equipment and power requirements of the methods of application are specific and high.

Soil Tests

A basic principle of soil testing is that an area can be sampled so that chemical analysis of the samples will assess the nutrient status of the entire sampled area. Methods of sampling may differ with the variability of the area being sampled and with the nutrients being tested. A larger number of samples may need to be taken from a nonuniform area than from a uniform area. Movement of nutrients into the soil, as with nitrate leaching downward, may cause the need for sampling of soil to be at a greater depth than with nutrients that do not move far from the site of application. Wide differences in test results across a field bring into question whether a single recommendation for fertilization can be made for the entire field (74,75). Fertilization of fields can increase the variability of nutrients of a field, and the assessment of the fertility level with respect to nutrients will become more difficult. Variations in patterns of applications of fertilizers, such as placement of...

Other Elements

Other elements mentioned to be essential or beneficial for plant development are Ni, Na, Cl and Co (Marschner, 1995). With Ni and Co insufficient or not any research is carried out in greenhouse industry. It will be expected that at least for soil grown crops Ni and Co are naturally available from soil or from the impurities of fertilizers and soil improvers added. For substrate culture the addition of these elements will be considered, because of the continuous improvements of the purification of the fertilizers used for this growing method and the often total absence of minerals in some of the growing media used. Before application a further study to the necessity of these elements and the concentrations required should be carried out. Na and Cl are abundant available in the biosphere and the essential quantities necessary are on micro nutrient level. In greenhouse horticulture, quantities of Cl higher than those essentially required are recommended (Voogt and Sonneveld, 2004). This...

Nitrogen Solutions N

These fertilizers are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and urea dissolved in water. In the solutions, half of the nitrogen is supplied as urea, and half is supplied as ammonium nitrate. Because of the difficulties in handling, urea and ammonium nitrate should not be mixed together in dry form. The

Soil Improvers

Base dressing, because this element is exclusively added as such. However, often the P required as base dressing is less than the quantity applied by some soil improvers, like animal manures and composts. Thus, applications of soil improvers can lead to accumulation of P in greenhouse soils, when the limits set are crossed. The addition of K with the soil improver directly affects the base dressing, but can work on the top dressing as well. Many soil improvers contain limited readily available N and thus, additional base dressing with N fertilizer is mostly required. Not available N is released during the decomposition process and possibly will be taken into account with the top dressings. The organic N and P compounds in manures become available to plants with the decomposition of the organic matter in it by the micro biological activity in the soil. The rate of decomposition of the organic matter and henceforth the availability of N and P from the manures depends much on the...

F Water quality

Such contamination is usually an indication of run-off from animal wastes or fertilizers leaching into the water system. Although the standard for human water supply is 10 to 20 ppm of nitrate nitrogen, higher levels can usually be tolerated by animals. Levels beyond 50 ppm need to be present before water is suspected as a factor in the poor performance of poultry. As nitrites are 10 times more toxic than nitrates, and because bacteria in the intestinal tract and in the water supply can convert nitrates to nitrites, levels of these two contaminants in the water supply must be kept to a minimum. Superchlorination of the water will quickly oxidize nitrites to nitrates thereby reducing their toxicity. Before initiating a super-chlorination program, check with a local pathologist to ensure a proper level of chlorination in order not to interfere with the performance or efficiency of vaccines or other drugs.

Is Organic Better

To start, organic refers to the way farmers grow and process fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Only foods that are grown and processed according to USDA organic standards can be labeled organic. (Note The food-label terms natural, hormone free, and free range do not necessarily mean organic.) Organic farmers do not use chemical fertilizers, insecticides, or weed killers on crops.

The Green Revolution

The Green Revolution (GR) refers to the use of high-yield variety (HYV) seeds, which were invented by the crop geneticist Norman Borlaugh. HYVs are normally used as a part of a technological package that also includes biochemical inputs such as water, fertilizers, and pesticides, and often mechanical inputs. The GR, which started in the 1960s, is the last of the four agricultural revolutions in the world. It has been used in more than one hundred poor countries and has made possible a revolutionary increase in food production. The origin of the Green Revolution can be traced to the early twentieth century and the Malthusian fear that world food production would eventually fail to feed the growing population. This would result in a red revolution by the hungry. The implications of the GR for agrarian change, and especially for smaller farmers and laborers, have been widely debated.

Iodide I

The iodide content of foods is mostly related to the soil content in which plants were grown and or the iodide content of any fertilizers used to cultivate the soil. Furthermore, the iodide content in drinking water usually reflects the iodide content of the rocks and soils through which the water runs or is maintained. Seafood is typically a better source of iodide than freshwater fish (Table 10.14). Dairy foods may be a fair source of iodide, but the iodide content of cows' milk reflects either the iodide content of the cows' feed and or the soil content of their grazing region. Iodide deficiency for the most part has been eradicated from many regions of the world including the United States, where iodide is added to salt. Check your salt label for iodized salt.


The best fertilizer for trees and plants is crushed rock. When rock is pulverized, exponentially more of its surface area is exposed and more minerals are available to the micro-organisms in the soil. In one pound (0.45 kg) of finely ground gravel you have about 10 acres (4 hectares) of surface area for the microorganisms to feed on.

Natural Resources

Fishing and hunting directly exploit natural resources. Several natural resources are used in agricultural production, the most vital being land and water. Energy resources, such as mineral oil, a number of metal ores, phosphate rock, and natural gas (which is used in fertilizer production), are also important. A matter for discussion is whether these resources are used optimally, and what, if any, effect current use will have on their future availability. Energy resources for agriculture are largely taken from the stock of fossil carbon compounds, which is virtually non-renewable.2,19 Recently, the use of fossil carbon compounds for agricultural purposes has tended to grow faster than the overall energy use of economies.20 By now, the use of fossil carbon compounds for the supply of food in industrial countries is very substantial. Mechanization, refrigeration, and the energy involved in providing inputs such as fodder, fertilizers, and pesticides substantially contribute to the...

Dr Sidney Baker

Both magnesium and yeast problems probably have their roots around 1950. The magnesium problem probably has its roots in the widespread use in agriculture of fertilizers containing potassium. The yeast problem probably arose because of the widespread use of antibiotics in the population, which began around 1950.


If human feces are used as fertilizer for growing vegetables, they need to be stored at 30 C for 40 days to ensure destruction of ova. A number of reports have examined environmental risk factors for ascariasis. A Brazilian study, for example, gave the following relative risks with 95 CI for ascariasis intensity over crowding 2.2 (1.0-4.5), poor household water availability 2.4 (1.1-5.0), poor hygiene 2.4 (1.0-5.6), less than 4 years' schooling 5.9 (2.6-14.3) and no recent anthelminthic treatment 2.0 (1.0-4.0).58 A Kenyan study found that household overcrowding and the absence of latrines increased the risk of hookworm infection, Measures to prevent hookworm include ceasing the use of human feces as fertilizer, use of toilets, wearing shoes and generally improving living standards. Mass treatment programs with albenda-zole have a transient effect, but need to be combined with improved sanitation and health education to prevent high reinfection rates.64 Iron supplementation has no...

Micro Nutrients

Micro nutrient fertilizers used in greenhouse cultures are listed in Table 2.6. In this table for many elements the SO4 form is mentioned and best available in trade. However, the Cl as well the NO3 forms of these are suitable too. The accompanying anion is mostly not important, because the quantities added are insignificant compared to the quantities of these ions available in the soil. However, for Fe the accompanying ion is a striking issue. Fe is supplied by so called artificial produced chelates, which are widely used in substrate cultivation as well for soil grown crops. The type of chelate used will be determined by the pH of the soil and the growing medium in which the plant is grown. See also Section 13.4 for more information about Fe chelates. Table 2.6 Micro nutrients fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Table 2.6 Micro nutrients fertilizers used in greenhouse industry Fertilizer

Lesson Hybrid Food

Most of the vegetation people eat is not found growing wildly in Nature. The fields in which they grow are protected from natural forces. The natural insects are poisoned with pesticides, the soil microbes are poisoned with fertilizers. Crops grown chemically are artificial -their cultivation is unnatural.


As already discussed, results of tissue test in greenhouse horticulture are mainly used as a confirmation of nutrient disorders in plants. Incidentally it also is used as a quick test to determine the plant nutrient status to control fertilizer application. However, interpretations of tissue tests are fairly complicated, because they are not unequivocal. Great differences occur between the requirements for optimum production, and for deficient and toxic levels of plant nutrients of different crops, but even for different cultivars of the same crop. Furthermore, the growing conditions of the crop, the growth stage and the plant part sampled will be of great influence on the results of the analytical results and thus, on the interpretation.

Plant Analysis

Plant analysis was one of the means used by scientists in the 1800s to determine the essentiality of chemical elements as plant nutrients (22). Further refinements and applications of plant analysis led to studies of the relationship between crop growth or yield and nutrient concentrations in plants (23-26). Elemental analysis of leaves is commonly used as a basis for crop fertilizer recommendations (27,28).

Cadmium Toxicity

Cadmium is found naturally in the environment, though never in its elemental state, usually in association with zinc. Some of the most common sources of cadmium in our environment are as a byproduct of zinc smelting and burning of fossil fuels. It is also associated with mining operations, battery production, incineration of municipal waste, and with sludge-based and phosphate fertilizers. Approximately thirty-six hundred tons were used in 1985 alone for metal-plating processes, in paint pigments, plastic stabilizers, and in Ni-Cad (nickel cadmium) batteries. As a component of many disposable consumer goods, cadmium eventually ends up in landfills, much of which is burned, releasing this toxic substance into the atmosphere. The primary source of exposure for most individuals who do not work in a cadmium-based industry is from food sources. The average daily uptake has risen to approximately 10-30 ug. Many leafy plants absorb cadmium from the soil, especially when sludge-type...